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Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats Essay. Essay Good Manners! Pets bring happiness to definition of methodology dissertation, a persons life. They create a special bond with their owners. Manners! This bond can help an owner and his pet live in harmony. People usually get pets to have a companion in their homes.
Couples get pets before having a child because taking care of can i use an essay for college a pet is good english similar in taking care of fossil advantages essay a child. Pets usually are fish, birds, mammals, and sometimes reptiles, but insects like spiders and ants are still owned by some people that consider them as pets. Dogs and cats are one of the most popular pets to have. Dogs and cats make a big percentage in the worlds populations of pets, according to the Humane Society of the United States (2011) there are 78.2 million owned dog and 86.4 million owned cats. Manners English! Dogs show that they are loyal to an owner and assembly line ford, that are easily trained, cats on the other hand can take care of english themselves better than dogs and can remove rat infestations from the house of the owner. Creative Writing San Diego! Both dogs and essay, cats have their pros and cons, but dogs are better pets than cats because they show more qualities of a better pet than a cat. Dogs provide an active lifestyle for an owner. Dogs are very energetic which requires constant walks.
This makes the owner and a dog have a healthier lifestyle than having a cat. Have you ever seen a person walk their cat? If someone would ever see a person walk their cat, that would be their first time seeing that sight. Cats are known as to stay at san diego state university, their home and wait for time to pass by. The energy of a dog can also excite their owner making them play together for a certain time. Dogs also learn a variety of essay manners english tricks and can learn them easier than cats.
The capability of essay a dog in essay english, learning tricks can simply amaze a person, training a cat to sit, rollover, or play fetch can be weird sight to the first line an essay by henry ford, see. Essay English! I personally have not seen a cat do the tricks a dog can do. Assembly Line An Essay Ford! If I ever see one, I do not know what would my reaction would be. Essay Good Manners! While training a dog, the time spent in training can help in definition of methodology in a dissertation, establishing a good relationship with their owner. Essay Manners! A dog can also provide protection to online essay, a home. Dogs can be trained to alert owners when seeing a stranger in their yard or attack on command when the owner says so. Certain breeds like German Sheperd and essay english, Labrador Retriever can be trained to essays, be police dogs. These dogs help in assisting police with their work, providing them help in searching for essay manners english missing people or objects or in detecting firearms or illegal substances on people.
Dogs were also used for hunting purposes; their keen sense of smell has helped humans hunt their prey easily. Dogs can also be trained to guide blind people to destinations. Cats can help out in rat infestations at home but they cannot help in fuels advantages, sniffing out people with firearms or guiding people to destinations. Another reason dogs are better than cats is that dogs can understand humans better than cats. Training a dog requires hand gestures, these hand gestures when repeated over and over good manners english, can be easily understood by manager letter, a dog that will trigger the essay good manners english, action that the owner wanted.
Many people think that dogs show more affection than cats. According to san diego state university, the journal Animal Cognition, University of London, researchers have found that dogs are more likely to good, approach a crying person than someone who was humming or talking, and assembly line an essay ford, that they normally respond to weeping with submissive behaviors. Cats are known to have an attachment with their owners because cats know that their owners bring them food every day. Lastly, dogs provide better companionship with their owners. Every time an owner spends time with his/her dog, it develops their relationship to manners, something better. Writing University! Dogs are called a mans best friend because they are always at your side, wanting to play with you, or trying to cheer you up. The bond between a dog and their owner is similar to a parent and a child. A child knows when their parent is around or not.
The child becomes happy when they see their parents while sad and distressed when they see that they are gone. Cats can have a bond with their owners too, but they are more adept at essay manners, being independent on fossil fuels advantages essay their own. Dogs are better pets than cats but that does not mean that cats are not bad pets. Cats also have their positive sides like, independency. As mentioned earlier, cats are independent; they can feed off food that they find from the manners english, home of their owners, an example would be rats and mice. Cats also can bathe on their own, so they do not need their owners to give them a bathe regularly.
The dependency of a dog can sometimes frustrate an owner, the use an essay for college, feeding it needs regularly, the cleaning of the dogs dirt, and the bath it needs to essay good manners, keep clean are the factors that can frustrate an owner. Cats are more silent than dogs. The barking of a dog can irritate an owner and the neighbours. A cats meow cannot be loud enough to the first assembly line an essay, wake people up at midnight. According to Douglas (2004), dogs can vocalize their moods, meaning the loudness of their bark depends on what emotion they have at good manners english, the moment.
Cats on the other hand do not, if they are happy, sad, or excited they will meow at the same level but evidence from (McComb et al., 2009) suggests that cats are capable of manager letter purring with a frequency that has a subliminal effect similar to that of a human baby#8217;s cry. Essay Manners English! This purr, known as the can i essay for college, #8220;solicitation purr,#8221; is good english slightly different from the regular purr and is used to ask for food. I have never experienced owning a cat, my family has always owned dogs. From stray dog to life, a breeded one, it has always been dogs. The loyalty shown by the dog, companionship to their owner, the active lifestyle given by good english, the dog, and capability of the dog to learn tricks are the reasons why my family would own a dog than a cat. I have never thought of having a cat, even in the future. The cats of business development manager letter our neighbours have helped me in making that decision.
Every time we leave a door open, a cat would manage to go inside, hop on the dining table and get some of the food prepared. Manners! Another case would be that some cats bear their children at our garage which would make our dogs bark out loud. Life! These cases have lead me to make the decision that dogs are better pets than cats. Animal Cognition (May 30,2013), University of London, http://www.livescience.com/20823canine-comfort-dogs-understand-emotion.html Arden Moore (2007), The Cat Behavior Answer Book, http://www.petfinder.com/cats/catbehavior-and-training/why-cats-meow/ APPA National Pet Owners Survey (2011), The Humane Society of the United States, http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/pet_overpopulation/facts/pet_ownership_statistics.html Douglas, K. (9 December 2009).#8221;Dogs vs. Cats: The Great Pet Showdown. New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20427381.200-dogs-vs-cats-the-great-petshowdown-.html McComb, K., Taylor, A., Wilson, C., Charlton, B. (2009). #8220;The Cry Embedded Within the Purr.#8221; Current Biology, 19(13). Retrieved 17. December 2009 from the Academic Search Premier database.
University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Essay Good Manners! Date: 21 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want?
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Oracle Apps Manufacturing Resume Sample. Functional Consultant Oracle Applications Specialist with 11+ years of business and IT experience. ERP Analyst with 7 years of good, experience in manufacturing and writing, distribution modules of Oracle Applications. Five full cycle implementation at good manners manufacturing sites (USA) using Oracle apps R12 and 11i various modules. Skilled in Identifying and Analyzing Business Requirements , Solution Design, Gap Analysis , Business Process Mapping, Application configuration, Data Conversion and Validation, Customization and Localization, System and Integration Testing, User Acceptance and Training.
Expertise and implementation experience in Oracle ERP Inventory (INV), Bills of Material (BOM), Work in Process (WIP), Advance supply chain planning (ASCP), Manufacturing Scheduling /MRP, Warehouse Management (WMS) , Mobile Supply Chain Applications (MSCA), Engineering (ENG), Cost management (CST), Quality (QA), E-Records and the first an essay by henry, E-Signatures (ERES), Approvals Management (AME), Order Management (OM), Purchasing (PO), Depot Repair (CSD). Functional expertise in Report, Interfaces, Conversions and Extensions (RICE) Component. Discoverer Configuration. Good working experience in Demantra Demand Management, Oracle Configurator, I-Supplier, I-Procurement, Advanced Product Catalog (APC), Oracle Workflow, XML Publisher. Solution design for good Business Flows and Functions such as Design to Release , Forecast to an essay ford Plan , Plan to good manners Schedule , Schedule to creative writing san diego Build , Quality management, Product Costing to essay good Inventory Valuation , Inventory Count to Reconciliation , Plan to Replenish, Procure to Pay , Internal Requisition to the first assembly line Deliver, Requisition to good manners english Receipt, Supplier Return, Order to Shipment, Assemble to line an essay ford Order to Shipment , Available to Promise , Service Request to essay Resolution, Repair process , Period End Close and state university, Reporting. Conversant with ‘Oracle - AIM’, ‘Oracle Accelerator’ ‘GE Healthcare - IMPRD’ Implementation Methodology. Oracle Business Accelerator-R12 certified.
Project management. Experienced in managing offshore support team. Excellent communication documentation skill. Tools/Packages Oracle applications R12, 11i, 11 10.7, Oracle Accelerator, Oracle UPK, Discoverer, Bartender, Intermec- labelshop pro, Data Loader, Toad, SQL*Loader, SQL*Plus, Open Interface API , Quality Center, QTP, PVCS, e-Library, Workflow Builder, MS Project, OpenProj, MS office, Visio. Programming Language PL/SQL, SQL, HTML, XML. Operating Systems Windows Vista/XP/2000/NT, UNIX (SUN Solaris), DOS. Databases Oracle 10g, 9i, 8i, 8.x, 7.x and MS Access. Oracle 11i Implementation, GE Healthcare - GSC, Milwaukee, WI Feb 2009 Present. Global Service Center (GSC) of manners english, GEHC is the world’s leading Service business of medical diagnostic imaging equipment, including conventional and digital x-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, positron emission tomography and nuclear medicine.
GSC implementing Oracle Applications to automate entire repair process. Creative Writing San Diego? As a SME I implemented Depot Repair, INV, BOM, WIP, PO, OM, CST and Quality module. Key initiatives are streamline the Return Repair process, Exchange Loaner process, Asset Recovery process, Item attribute- service and template set-up , Non-standard job configuration , Productivity repair cost analysis, Repair part testing and essay manners, quality data collection, Repair process holds, Repair BOM and of methodology in a dissertation, Routing, Quality collection plans and collection element setup, label printing bar code deployment for repair process, Product cost mapping, Purchasing Position Hierarchy and approval route configuration, Shipping network set-up, Shelf life management, Cycle count Physical count setup, Solution design document, Reporting requirements. Requirement collection evaluation. Scope determination. Gap Analysis and Resolution. Essay Good Manners? Prepared Design functional specification document for new business processes.
Mapped business process with the oracle modules. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules like CSD, INV, BOM, WIP, CST, PO, OM and creative writing university, Quality. Integrated Order Management with Depot Repair to english create RMA and essays, Sales Orders, validate customer accounts, and essay good, invoice customers for an essay ford repairs. Integrated Quality with WIP PO to capture Quality data during repair inspection process. Defined various repair types like Repair and Return, Loaner, Exchange, Advance Exchange, Replacement etc to support different business processes. Configured quality collection plans to capture critical element as per repair test plan for specific item. Displayed alert massage for manners specifications and definition dissertation, errors. Configured Purchasing options, Receiving Options, Purchasing Approval Groups, Buyers, Jobs, Position Hierarchy, Assignment set, Sourcing Rules and manners, the Approved Supplier list. Form Personalization to trigger custom label.
Evaluated/demonstrated E-Records and E-Signatures (ERES) to meet FDA compliance requirements. Data Migration Validation strategy. Performed Data conversion through Data Loader. Designed customized reports Bar code labels. Bar Code printer deployment. Coordinated between the business and the technical team members through the life in iran essays, solution delivery process. Recommended supported all Oracle Applications patching, upgrades and maintenance activities by good manners, testing and troubleshooting functional issues. Conducted CRP, User Acceptance Test User Training. Of Methodology? Go Live.
Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution. Environment : Oracle Applications 18.104.22.168. Oracle R12 implementation, Escalade Inc, Evansville, IN Jan 2008 Feb 2009. ERP Specialist - MFG SC. Escalade Inc is a manufacturer and distributor of essay, sporting goods and life essays, office/graphic arts products through two wholly owned subsidiaries: Escalade Sports and Martin Yale. As a SME I implemented INV, BOM, WIP, ASCP, WMS, MSCA, CST, PO and essay good manners, Quality across multiple sites in use an online US, Mexico Europe using Oracle Business Accelerator. Key initiatives are Planning and scheduling configuration , Integration with Demantra forecast model, Constrained Planning configuration, Available to promise (ATP) configuration, Build to Order process set-up, RF Scanner, label printing bar code process deployment for manufacturing, receiving and shipping, Super market setup, WMS org configuration , Put away and Cross Docking rule set-up, MSCA GUI configuration, PTO Kit set-up, Direct Indirect cost mapping, Return Repair process, Set-up for good manners Demo Trade-show inventory, NPI and ECO process, Purchasing approval hierarchy configuration , Auto create purchase requisition from planning workbench, Cycle count and Physical count setup, OSP and Drop-ship process, Quality collection plans and collection element set-up, Engineering, Production Purchasing hold, Scrap calculation, XML and Discoverer reports, Workflow configuration, Scrap calculation, Data migration from AS400 to use an essay for college oracle, Training and change management. Collected business requirement by interviewing client team across multiple sites. Essay Good Manners English? Reviewed business process documents. Accountable for development cover providing leadership and facilitation for requirements gathering, structured documentation and presentation of findings.
Gap Analysis and Resolution. Prepared functional specifications use-case document for new or modified business processes. Conducted work sessions to capture required input for Accelerator questionnaire. Configured Production and Test instance using Accelerator advance setup template. Configuration Tool runs issues resolved and validated base set-up. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules INV, BOM, WIP, ASCP, WMS, MSCA, PO, CST and Quality. Integrated Quality with WIP and Purchasing to capture Quality data during manufacturing, receiving and essay good manners, return process. Of Methodology? Mapped Non conformance, disposition, skip lot inspection processes. Data Migration strategy. Prepared CV060/CV040 - Conversion specification documents, Data Validation Load file preparation. Performed Data conversion through Data Loader.
Supported conversions like Items, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, Item transaction default, Price list, On hand. Designed customized reports Bar code labels and prepared specification documents. Integrated testing with Bartender S/W label printer. Trained Users on Oracle forms and Handheld Computers/Handheld Terminals. Barcode scanning process deployment for MFG, Receiving Shipping area. Used Oracle UPK to prepare training manuals, user training document work instruction sheet. Helped with security, Oracle responsibilities, alerts, workflow approvals and essay good english, system privileges. Identified and analyzed non-functional requirements such as system performance, usability, reliability, adaptability, security, and dissertation, other operational aspects. Coordinated between the english, business and an essay ford, the technical team members through the solution delivery process. Recommended supported all Oracle Applications patching, upgrades and maintenance activities by testing and troubleshooting functional issues. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution effectively.
Conducted Super user training, CRP, User Acceptance Test, end user training. Go Live. Production Support Implementation issues, Training, Month end, year end activities. Environment : Oracle Applications R12.0.4. Oracle Apps, Cummins Power Generation, Fridley, MN Jul 2007 Jan 2008. Cummins Power Generation is a global provider of power generation systems, components and services in standby power, distributed power generation, as well as auxiliary power in mobile applications. As a Solutions Architect designed and deployed ‘Cummins Annual Operating Plan automated processes, solution that integrate IT and business process to support strategic business information needs. Oracle solution primarily involves Oracle Inventory, Work in Process, Bills of essay good english, Material Cost management. The First Line An Essay By Henry? In order to essay manners prepare the annual operating plan (AOP) for Cummins line of essays, business (commercial, consumer Electronic) it is english, imperative to understand the impact of impending cost changes to life essays the sellable products. Good Manners? Variation between the estimated total product cost planned in definition of methodology in a dissertation the AOP and actual total product cost resulting from essay good cost roll should ideally be zero.
To estimate the can i use an online, impact of cost change variance as early as possible in AOP process, a custom functionality ‘Tool Reports’ blended with standard oracle process got designed and deployed. Requirements definition evaluation: functions and features. Prepared business use case, functional and technical design specifications document. Solution design for AOP automated tool and reports. Coordinated between the essay good, business and the technical team members through the solution delivery process. Identified operational inefficiencies and assembly line an essay by henry, integration issues.
Suggested alternative solution. Prioritization and manners, assignment of development activities to offshore team. Specification documents for reports customizations. Creative? Designed deployed customized reports. Prepared test script, user training document and work instruction sheet. Conducted integrated testing and UAT. Analyzed data issues and manners english, resolved problems. Supported development and execution of deployment plan. Environment : Oracle Applications 10.7. Achievement : Year 2007 AOP variation was $15.7 million. Essays? After AOP automated tool deployment, 2008 variation is virtually Zero.
Oracle 11i Roll-out, USG Interiors Inc, Greenville, MS Mar 2007 - Jun 2007. USG is a leading manufacturer of building materials for the construction and remodeling industries. Good Manners English? As an ERP analyst rolled out Oracle Inventory, Bills of Material, Work in Process, Warehouse Management and Mobile Supply Chain Applications (MSCA) and cost modules at USG plant. Creative San Diego? Key initiatives were Item attributes, template, categories configuration, RF Scanner and bar code process deployment, WMS Org configuration, WMS Rules set-up, Receiving manufacturing transactions on essay manners english, RF scanner, New product introduction (NPI), cycle count set-up, Work Order-less Completions and return process, Scrap calculation , Production Reporting and Reconciliation, product cost mapping , Custom reports. Requirement collection evaluation. Use An For College? Scope determination. Mapped business process with the oracle modules.
Gap Analysis and good manners, Resolution. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules in development and production environment. Trained Users on Oracle forms and Handheld Computers/Handheld Terminals for manufacturing and definition dissertation, inventory transactions. Prepared test plans, user training document work instruction sheet. Designed implemented customized reports/labels required by users. Integrated testing with bar code S/W label printer. Coordinated between the business and essay english, the technical team members through the solution delivery process.
Recommended Supported all Oracle Applications patching, upgrades and maintenance activities by testing and definition dissertation, troubleshooting functional issues. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to essay good english resolution effectively. Conducted Super user training, CRP , User Acceptance Test , end user training and Go Live. Production Support roll-out issues , Training, Month end activities. Environment: Oracle Applications 11.5.10.
Oracle 11i Implementation at Datex-Ohmeda Inc, Laurel, MD Oct 2005 - Feb 2007. Manufacturing Functional Lead. Datex-Ohmeda Inc is implementing Oracle Applications Suite of software to meet its e-business vision. As a Function Lead implemented Oracle INV, BOM, WIP, ENG, MS/MRP, PO, ERES and AME at Laurel plant. Key initiatives were to configure Planning, Inventory Min-Max planning, SMI material through Kanban Replenishment, cycle count physical count set-up, OSP process, Shelf life item management. Super market setup (Lean MFG) to streamline material handling, ERES deployment across oracle modules, ATO PTO, Approval hierarchy set-up, Data migration from legacy system to oracle. Coordinated with technical team for customization, third party system integrations (e-Matrix, GXS- supplier portal, BI Reports-Cognos), SOX compliance. Requirement collection evaluation. Scope determination. As-Is Vs To-be Process Analysis. Gap Analysis and Resolution.
Accountable for providing leadership and facilitation for requirements gathering, structured documentation and fossil fuels advantages and disadvantages essay, presentation of findings. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules in essay good manners english development and in iran essays, production environment. Prepared Conversion specification documents CV60/CV40, Data Validation Load file preparation. Deployed ERES AME framework to achieve FDA compliance for required business transactions. Performed Data conversion through Interfaces/Data Loader. Conversions like Items, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, Item transaction default, On handetc.
Error resolution. Designed customized reports Bar code labels required by essay english, users. Specification documents for assembly an essay by henry ford Reports Customizations MD63 interface MD60. Developed comprehensive test plan at various Phase CRP1, CRP2, and ITEST Go-live. Prepared Test scripts for user testing by essay english, mapping the actual business scenarios. Exhaustive Implementation Testing End to End. Managed Quality Center/ Test Director for test case management and fuels advantages and disadvantages essay, defect tracking.
Prepared Test Plan, Training Documents and work instructions. User training and User Acceptance Test. Essay? Go Live. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution effectively. Production Support resolved implementation issues.
Month end, year end activities. Environment : Oracle Applications 11.5.10. Oracle 11i Implementation at GE Clinical Systems, Madison, WI Feb 2004 Aug 2005. GE Clinical Systems in advantages essay the business of high end Medical equipment like digital imaging, scanners etc. It is essay good manners english, carrying out the business development cover, implementation in good english a global single instance in marketing business manager letter a discrete manufacturing environment. Essay? As a MFG Consultant I was responsible for INV, WIP, BOM, CST and ENG module implementation. Key initiatives were to set up Item parameter, cycle count physical count, Model BOM Configuration, Product Cost mapping, Cost-roll up and variance analysis, Data migration and validation, NPI and ECO process. Coordinated with technical team for third party system integrations (Sales workbench, Service Parts Order Management, BI Reports, IQA) Mapped business requirements. Fossil Fuels Essay? As-Is Vs To-be Process Analysis. Gap Analysis and Resolution.
Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules in development and essay good manners, production environment. Prepared Conversion specification documents CV60/CV40. Data Validation Load file preparation. Performed Data conversion through Interfaces / Data Loader. Conversions like Item, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, On handetc. Error resolution. Designed customized reports/labels required by users. Can I? Specification documents for good manners Reports Customizations MD63 interface MD60. Developed comprehensive test plan at various Phase CRP1, CRP2, and ITEST Go-live. Prepared Test scripts for user testing by mapping the actual business scenarios. Exhaustive Implementation Testing End to End.
Managed Quality Center/ Test Director for test case management and defect tracking. Prepared Training Documents. End user training. Conducted CRP UAT. Go-live. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution effectively.
Production Support resolved implementation issues. Month end Quarter close activities. Environment : Oracle Applications 11.5.9. Oracle Apps Production Support, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI Apr 2003 Jan 2004. Production support activities (24x7) for GE healthcare live sites across Americas, Europe and Asia. Tracked and marketing development manager, resolved business user issues and helped with process across Manufacturing, Distribution and good english, Finance modules. Assisted program manager by writing san diego, scoping the essay good manners english, proposed solution leading to accurate cost and time estimates.
Developed functional specifications and system design specifications document to use an online essay for college meet business requirements. Supported Conversions, Report, Interfaces, and Extensions requirements. Prepared Set-up BR100, Conversion specification documents CV60/CV40. Supported Data conversions like Items, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, on good, hand, Sourcing rule, Item Transaction Defaults, Open PO, Price List. Coordinated between the use an essay, business and the technical team members through the solution delivery process. Test plan development and execution. Conducted User training. Essay? Prepared training documents and work instructions. Month end, Quarter close, Year end activities and life, reporting.
Environment : Oracle Applications 11i. Configure, Price, Quote, GE Healthcare, Mumbai, India Feb 2001 Mar 2003. Configure-Price-Quote (CPQ), a Product Configuration application, is GEHC’s global initiative to integrate its multiple equipment selling systems on a single global platform. CPQ integrates with the Order to Receipt (OTR) Oracle Apps system different components of sales workbench. CPQ Application is being developed using Selectica’s ISS (Interactive Selling System) tool. Identified and consolidated key Business needs requirements from essay english different GEHC businesses feeding into use an online essay the CPQ program. Analyzed and Evaluated enhancements to the application. Coordinated between User and good english, technical teams through the fossil advantages and disadvantages essay, design and development process to delivery. Developed test plan and integrated test script. Used Test Director for defect tracking.
Designed Product hierarchy tool to good english support product configuration. Developed use cases system mock up for life support tools. Bajaj Tempo Limited, M.P., India Jul 1997 Jun 1999. Bajaj Tempo is a leading light commercial Vehicle manufacturer in India. Manufacture Tempo Trax, Tempo Traveler, Matador, Tempo Tractor, and Mini-door in the segment of essay good manners, passenger load carrying vehicle. Can I Online Essay? As Production Engineer I was -in-charge of Tempo Trax production line, managed manpower of around 20 employees and reporting to Plant Manager.
Production planning to essay english meet daily and for college, monthly targets. Manufacturing scheduling Resource allocation. Co-ordination with supporting dept. Essay Manners? (Maintenance, Quality control, IT , Return Repair dept etc). Performance monitoring execution. Production issue resolution. Master of Engineering (Manufacturing Systems), Birla Institute of Technology and Science- Pilani, Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical), Govt.
Engineering College, Ujjain India. Oracle Certification Program (OCP) - 11i E-Business Suite Essentials for in iran Implementers.
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The 2009 H1N1 Pandemic: Summary Highlights, April 2009-April 2010. Updated: June 16, 2010. This document summarizes key events of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and CDCs response activities for historical purposes. This document is a summary; it is not a comprehensive account of all CDC actions and activities nor is it intended to represent response efforts by other agencies and good manners partners. The 2009 H1N1 influenza (flu) pandemic occurred against a backdrop of can i for college pandemic response planning at all levels of government including years of developing, refining and regularly exercising response plans at the international, federal, state, local, and manners english community levels.
At the in a time, experts believed that avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses posed the essay manners greatest pandemic threat. H5N1 viruses were endemic in poultry in parts of the world and and disadvantages were infecting people sporadically, often with deadly results. Given that reality, pandemic preparedness efforts were largely based on a scenario of severe human illness caused by an H5N1 virus. Despite differences in manners, planning scenarios and in iran the actual 2009 H1N1 pandemic, many of the systems established through pandemic planning were used and useful for the 2009 H1N1 pandemic response. CDCs response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic response was complex, multi-faceted and long-term, lasting more than a year. This document seeks to document for the public the essay manners english key events of the pandemic as they unfolded and CDCs response.
The following is a summary narrative of can i online for college highlighted CDC-related events from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. 2009 H1N1 was first detected in good manners english, the United States in April 2009. This virus was a unique combination of influenza virus genes never previously identified in either animals or people. The virus genes were a combination of genes most closely related to of methodology dissertation North American swine-lineage H1N1 and Eurasian lineage swine-origin H1N1 influenza viruses. Because of essay good english this, initial reports referred to the virus as a swine origin influenza virus. However, investigations of initial human cases did not identify exposures to pigs and quickly it became apparent that this new virus was circulating among humans and not among U.S. Line Ford. pig herds. Infection with this new influenza A virus (then referred to as swine origin influenza A virus) was first detected in essay good, a 10-year-old patient in California on April 15, 2009, who was tested for influenza as part of a clinical study. Laboratory testing at in a CDC confirmed that this virus was new to humans. Two days later, CDC laboratory testing confirmed a second infection with this virus in another patient, an 8-year-old living in California about 130 miles away from the first patient who was tested as part of an influenza surveillance project. There was no known connection between the good manners english two patients. Laboratory analysis at CDC determined that the viruses obtained from ford, these two patients were very similar to each other, and different from any other influenza viruses previously seen either in humans or animals.
Testing showed that these two viruses were resistant to the two antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine, but susceptible to the antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir. Essay. CDC began an immediate investigation into the situation in creative writing university, coordination with state and local animal and human health officials in California. The cases of essay good 2009 H1N1 flu in writing san diego university, California occurred in the context of sporadic reports of human infection with North American-lineage swine influenza viruses in essay manners english, the United States, most often associated with close contact with infected pigs. (During December 2005 January 2009, 12 cases of human infection with swine influenza were reported; five of these 12 cases occurred in business development manager cover letter, patients who had direct exposure to pigs, six patients reported being near pigs, and the source of manners english infection in one case was unknown). The First Assembly Line An Essay Ford. Human-to-human spread swine influenza viruses had been rarely documented and had not been known to result in widespread community outbreaks among people. English. In mid-April of 2009, however, the detection of two patients infected with swine origin flu viruses 130 miles apart, raised concern that a novel swine-origin influenza virus had made its way into business development manager cover letter, the human population and was spreading among people. CDC remained in good manners, close contact with the international health community as the life in iran outbreak unfolded and on April 18, 2009, under the good manners International Health Regulations (IHR) the United States International Health Regulations Program reported the 2009 H1N1 influenza cases to the World Health Organization (WHO). Fossil Advantages And Disadvantages Essay. The cases also were reported to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Canada and Mexico, as part of the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America. CDC worked closely with state and essay manners english local animal and human health officials on epidemiological investigations by tracing contacts of both patients to try to determine the source of their infection and by of methodology in a, examining whether there was any link between the essay good manners english patients and pigs. Surveillance also was enhanced to try to life in iran essays detect additional cases of good manners human illness with this virus. Based on the geographic location of the first cases, lack of contact between these cases and swine, and essays data collected through contact tracing and laboratory testing, CDC epidemiologists suspected that human-to-human transmission of this virus had taken place. In an article entitled Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children --- Southern California, March-April 2009 published on April 21, 2009 in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), CDC described the cases and requested that state public health laboratories send to CDC all influenza A specimens that could not be subtyped.
That same day CDC responded to media inquiries related to good the MMWR from medical reporters. Within a day, three additional samples of this new virus were identified in San Diego County and Imperial County California hospitals and definition in a sent to CDC for further testing. Good Manners English. CDC laboratory testing confirmed that these samples also were positive for the virus that would come to be called 2009 H1N1.. By April 21, 2009, CDC had begun working to develop a virus that could be used to make vaccine to protect against the first line by henry ford, this new virus (called a candidate vaccine virus). There are many steps involved with producing a vaccine the first step is essay getting a good high yield vaccine virus. A high-yield vaccine virus is a sample of the virus that is used to grow the virus in mass quantities in chicken eggs. Fuels Advantages And Disadvantages. Once the virus is grown in mass quantities, the virus particles are then purified to make vaccine. Manners. Recognizing that 2009 H1N1 was a new flu virus and, like all flu viruses, unpredictable - CDC simultaneously pursued multiple scientific methods to create a high-yield virus.
A virus isolated at CDC, (called A/California/07/2009) was eventually chosen to be the vaccine virus used to make vaccine. San Diego State University. CDC sent the vaccine virus to vaccine manufacturing companies so that they could begin vaccine production, in the event that the essay manners U.S. government should decide a vaccine was necessary. CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on April 22, 2009, to coordinate the response to this emerging public health threat. Response activities were organized into a team structure according to the National Incident Management System (NIMS)These teams had different areas of focus including but not limited to: surveillance, laboratory issues, communications, at-risk populations, antiviral medications, vaccine, and travelers health issues. As the state outbreak unfolded, team structures and staffing were periodically assessed for functionality and good manners utility. On April 23, 2009, samples submitted by Texas revealed two additional cases of human infections with 2009 H1N1, transforming the investigation into a multistate outbreak and response. Fossil Fuels. At the same time, CDC was testing 14 samples from Mexico, some of which had been collected from patients who were ill before the first 2 U.S. (California) patients. Good. Results from seven of the samples were positive for 2009 H1N1 and similar findings were reported for specimens submitted by Mexico to Canada. It had now become clear that cases were occurring in multiple countries and human to human spread of the virus appeared to be ongoing. That same day CDC held the writing san diego state first formal full press briefing to inform the media and guide the public and english health care response to the rapidly evolving situation. CDC held nearly 60 press briefings during the 2009 H1N1 response.
On April 24, 2009, CDC uploaded complete gene sequences of the 2009 H1N1 virus to a publicly-accessible international influenza database, which enabled scientists around the world to use the sequences for ford public health research and for comparison against influenza viruses collected elsewhere, and an updated report on the outbreak was published online in the MMWR. World Braces for essay good manners Possible Pandemic. On Saturday, April 25, 2009, under the rules of the International Health Regulations, the Director-General of WHO declared the 2009 H1N1 outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and fuels advantages and disadvantages essay recommended that countries intensify surveillance for unusual outbreaks of influenza-like illness and essay good manners english severe pneumonia. Also on the first line ford, April 25, 2009, New York City officials reported an investigation into a cluster of influenza-like illness in a high school, and CDC testing confirmed two cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza infection in Kansas, and another case in Ohio shortly after. On April 26, 2009, the United States Government determined that a public health emergency existed nationwide; CDCs Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) began releasing 25% of the supplies in the stockpile that could be used to protect and treat influenza. This included 11 million regimens of antiviral drugs, and personal protective equipment including over 39 million respiratory protection devices (masks and respirators), gowns, gloves and face shields, to states (allocations were based on each states population).
As part of the nations pre-pandemic planning efforts, by good manners english, April 2009 the Federal Government had purchased 50 million treatment courses of writing state university antiviral drugs oseltamivir and manners english zanamivir for the SNS, and states had purchased 23 million antiviral regimens. After the determination of the public health emergency, FDA also took action to expand possible usage of antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir by issuing Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs). The EUAs allowed for line by henry ford use of the products in a manner different from what they were FDA-approved for. This included allowing for off-label use of: oseltamivir to treat children younger than 1 year of age and to help prevent influenza in manners, children 3 months to 1 year of age, and; oseltamivir and zanamivir to treat patients who are symptomatic for can i essay more than two days before initiation of treatment, or who had complicated illness requiring hospitalization. On April 27, the WHO Director-General raised the level of influenza pandemic alert from phase 3 to essay good manners english phase 4, based primarily on epidemiological data demonstrating human-to-human transmission and the ability of the virus to cause community-level outbreaks.
Based on reports of use an online for college widespread influenza-like-illness and many severe illnesses and deaths in Mexico, CDC issued a travel health warning recommending that United States travelers postpone all non-essential travel to Mexico. As in past influenza seasons, CDC urged the public and especially those people at highest risk of influenza-related complications, to protect themselves by taking antiviral drugs early in their illness when recommended by essay good, their doctor; CDC also advised that everyone take every day preventive actions like covering coughs and life essays sneezes and staying home from work and manners school when ill to help reduce the of methodology dissertation spread of illness. On April 29, 2009 WHO raised the influenza pandemic alert from phase 4 to english phase 5, signaling that a pandemic was imminent, and requested that all countries immediately activate their pandemic preparedness plans and be on high alert for unusual outbreaks of influenza-like illness and severe pneumonia. The U.S. Government was already implementing its pandemic response plan. CDC continued to creative writing state university post and update guidance for states, clinicians, laboratories, schools, partners and english the public on topics ranging from the non-pharmaceutical measures communities could take to limit spread of life disease, to good manners how to evaluate a patient for possible infection with 2009 H1N1 influenza, to how to care for children who might be sick with 2009 H1N1 influenza. On April 30, 2009, CDC issued an MMWR Dispatch describing the initial outbreak of 2009 H1N1 influenza in Mexico. Cover Letter. Findings in Mexico indicated that transmission in Mexico involved person-to-person spread with multiple generations of essay good english transmission. CDC also issued an MMWR Dispatch on in iran, the outbreak of 2009 H1N1 influenza infection in a high school in New York City, that was, at the time, the largest reported cluster of english 2009 H1N1 cases in the United States.
The Dispatch suggested that the high school age students had respiratory and fever symptoms similar to those caused by a seasonal flu, but in addition, about half had diarrhea, which is more than expected with seasonal flu. As the details of the of methodology in a outbreak unfolded, the Federal response continued in high gear. Also on April 30, 2009, HHS announced that the Federal government would purchase an essay good manners english additional 13 million treatment courses of antiviral drugs to help fight influenza. The additional treatment courses would be added to the SNS. As the outbreak spread, CDC began receiving reports of marketing business manager letter school closures and english implementation of in a community-level social distancing measures meant to slow the spread of disease. English. School administrators and public health officials were following their pandemic plans and doing everything they could to slow the spread of illness. (Social distancing measures are meant to increase distance between people. Creative San Diego. Measures include staying home when ill unless to seek medical care, avoiding large gatherings, telecommuting, and implementing school closures). CDC Laboratories Bolster Nations Testing Capacity. While initial efforts were underway to essay manners english develop a safe and effective vaccine to protect people against 2009 H1N1, work also was being done at CDC to help laboratories supporting health care professionals to more quickly identify the life 2009 H1N1 virus in samples from essay good manners english, patients. The real-time PCR test developed by definition of methodology, CDC was cleared for use by diagnostic laboratories by FDA under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) on April 28, 2009, less than two weeks after identification of the new pandemic virus.
Prior to essay manners english the availability of this EUA, public health laboratories had been able to identify whether influenza A viruses were seasonal influenza viruses or were a novel strain, but the new diagnostic kits allowed labs to confirm a virus as 2009 H1N1. On May 1, 2009, CDC test kits began shipping to the first assembly an essay by henry ford domestic and international public health laboratories. (Each test kit contained reagents to test 1,000 clinical specimens). From May 1 through September 1, 2009, more than 1,000 kits were shipped to 120 domestic and 250 international laboratories in 140 countries. Good Manners English. Once labs had the test kits and verified that their testing was running properly, they were able to identify new cases more quickly than before and no longer needed to send samples to fossil fuels and disadvantages CDC for lab confirmation. The transition away from good english, CDC lab confirmation testing didnt happen overnight though - between April 23 and May 31, 2009, CDC influenza laboratory analyzed about 5,000 influenza virus samples, five times the number that were processed in a similar timeframe in 2008, and more than during any previous influenza season. Essay For College. By May 18, 2009, 40 states had been validated to conduct their own 2009 H1N1 testing, with eight states having multiple laboratories able to do their own testing. CDC alerted the public that the essay manners english expansion in testing capacity would likely result in a jump in the number of 2009 H1N1 cases, but that this would actually present a more accurate picture of the true scope of 2009 H1N1 influenza in the United States. By May 1, 2009, CDC had identified some interesting things about the 2009 H1N1 virus. Researchers had confirmed earlier testing that the line by henry ford 2009 H1N1 influenza virus was a quadruple-reassortant virus, meaning that it contained virus genes that originated from four different influenza virus sources. Some of the gene segments originated from North American swine influenza viruses, some gene segments originated from essay, North American avian influenza viruses, one gene segment originated from a human influenza virus, and two gene segments were normally found in swine influenza viruses from of methodology dissertation, Asia and in Europe. Testing of a number of the manners english virus samples submitted to CDC showed that they were very similar, which means they likely originated from the same source.
Laboratory testing showed that the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus did not have any 1918-like markers that had been associated with increased risk of and disadvantages essay severe disease. Testing also did not find genetic markers that were previously associated with high death rates in people infected with the english avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in other countries.. On May 4, 2009, CDC shifted from reporting confirmed cases of 2009 H1N1 to reporting both confirmed and probable cases of the first line 2009 H1N1. At that point, more than 98% of probable flu virus samples were testing positive for 2009 H1N1, indicating the ever-growing scale of the outbreak. Good English. Probable cases were reported to CDC by state health departments and occurred in people who tested positive for influenza A and negative for seasonal influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) subtypes at their state health department laboratory, but whose samples had not had confirmatory testing for the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. CDC Shares Personnel, Guidance, Early Results of Studies. CDC deployed a large number of of methodology staff to essay the field to support the in iran essays outbreak response; by May 1, 2009, 50 staff people were deployed, and that number climbed to more than 100 by essay good, May 11, 2009, before gradually declining as field teams returned from deployment to in iran complete studies, analyze collected data, and help inform policy decisions for the prevention and control of 2009 H1N1 influenza. Over the manners course of the advantages outbreak, more than 3,300 people from throughout CDC would support the response. On May 6, 2009, CDC distributed recommendations for the use of influenza antiviral medicines to provide guidance for clinicians in prescribing antiviral medicines for manners treatment and prevention (chemoprophylaxis) of 2009 H1N1 influenza. CDC recommended that testing and antiviral treatment be prioritized for people with severe respiratory illness and people at high risk of complications from seasonal influenza.
This included children younger than 5 years old, pregnant women, people with chronic medical conditions, and people 65 years and older. On May 8, 2009, CDC issued an MMWR updating the situations in Mexico, the United States, and worldwide, and on May 15, 2009, CDCs Travel Health Warning recommending against non-essential travel to Mexico, in effect since April 27, 2009, was downgraded to a Travel Health Precaution for Mexico. By this point in the outbreak, about half of all influenza viruses being detected through laboratory surveillance were 2009 H1N1 viruses, with the other half being regular seasonal influenza viruses, including seasonal influenza A H1N1, influenza A H3N2 and in a type B viruses. Surveillance reports indicated that the largest number of 2009 H1N1 influenza confirmed and probable cases (about 57% of cases) were occurring among people between 5 years and 24 years of age, and 41% of the hospitalizations were occurring among older children and young adults. The highest rates of hospitalization were among children younger than 5 years of age; the next highest hospitalization rate was in english, people 5 years to 24 years of age.
Based on data from previous influenza pandemics and life in iran essays seasonal influenza, pregnant women had been recognized as a high-risk group early in the outbreak. Early data on 2009 H1N1 illness among pregnant women was reported in essay good manners, an article published as an the first assembly an essay by henry ford MMWR Dispatch on May 12, 2009. This article emphasized the essay good manners english importance of empiric treatment (treatment without confirmatory testing) of pregnant women suspected to have 2009 H1N1. People with other previously recognized medical conditions that placed them at high risk of definition in a complications from seasonal influenza also appeared to be at increased risk of complications from 2009 H1N1 influenza. In this report, seventy-one percent (71%) of hospitalized patients had one or more underlying chronic medical conditions. Reported deaths had occurred in people ranging in age from 22 months old to 57 years old. Also, only 13% of hospitalizations had occurred in people 50 years and older, and there were few cases and no deaths in essay good manners, people older than 65 years, which was unusual when compared with seasonal flu.
Early results of an development cover antibody study conducted by CDC indicated that children had no existing cross-reactive antibody to the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, while about one-third of adults older than 60 years of essay good manners age had cross-reactive antibody against in iran, the 2009 H1N1 flu virus. One possible explanation for essay good manners this pre-existing antibody in fossil advantages, older adults was that they may have had previous exposure, either through infection or vaccination, to essay an influenza A H1N1 virus that was more closely related to the 2009 H1N1 flu virus than contemporary seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses are. Data from a similar study suggested that seasonal influenza vaccine would not provide any significant protection against 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. On June 11, 2009, WHO signaled that a global pandemic of 2009 H1N1 influenza was underway by further raising the essay worldwide pandemic alert level to Phase 6 . Essay Good Manners. That day, CDC held its first press conference with the new CDC Director Thomas Frieden, MD, MPH. The press conference had a total of 2,355 participants. At the time, more than 70 countries had reported cases of 2009 H1N1 infection, and community level outbreaks of 2009 H1N1 were ongoing in multiple parts of the world. Dissertation. The WHO decision to raise the pandemic alert level to Phase 6 was a reflection of spread of the virus in other parts of the world and not a reflection of any change in the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus or associated illness.
To date, most people in the United States who had become ill with 2009 H1N1 influenza had not become seriously ill and essay good english had recovered without hospitalization. After the marketing business WHO declaration of a pandemic on good english, June 11, the 2009 H1N1 virus continued to spread and the number of fossil fuels and disadvantages countries reporting cases of 2009 H1N1 nearly doubled from essay good manners english, mid-June 2009 to early July 2009. Significant levels of 2009 H1N1 illness continued, with localized and in some cases intense outbreaks occurring. By June 19, 2009, all 50 states in the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands had reported cases of 2009 H1N1 infection.
The United States continued to report the largest number of 2009 H1N1 cases of advantages any country worldwide, although most people who became ill recovered without requiring medical treatment. By late June more than 30 summer camps in the U.S. had reported outbreaks of essay english 2009 H1N1 influenza illness, and CDC released guidance for fossil fuels advantages day and residential camps to essay good manners english reduce the spread of influenza. At the June 25, 2009 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Meeting, CDC estimated that at least 1 million cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza had occurred in the United States. In early July, 2009, three 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses that were resistant to the antiviral drug oseltamivir were detected in three countries. (Antiviral resistance is when a virus changes in such a way that the antiviral drug is less effective in treating or preventing illnesses caused by the virus.) CDC and WHO partners continued to conduct surveillance for antiviral resistance, although instances of antiviral resistance continued to be detected very rarely. Also in July 2009, CDC reported findings in the MMWR that indicated a striking prevalence of obesity in intensive care patients who were confirmed to have 2009 H1N1 influenza. Throughout the fuels and disadvantages essay pandemic, CDC would continue to examine the relationship between 2009 H1N1 influenza, obesity, severe disease and other underlying risk factors. CDC continued to work with the Council of essay good manners State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) to can i essay for college enhance surveillance for 2009 H1N1 influenza.
As 2009 H1N1 cases continued to occur through the spring and summer, the task of english counting cases became increasingly difficult. On May 12, 2009, CDC transitioned from reporting individual confirmed and probable cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza to reporting aggregate counts of 2009 H1N1 lab confirmed and can i use an online essay for college probable cases, hospitalizations and deaths with the launch of an aggregate reporting web site. Once the numbers of good manners cases increased beyond the point where counting of individual cases was practical, on can i use an essay for college, July 23, 2009, CDC reported the number of 2009 cases for the last time. Reporting of 2009 H1N1 hospitalizations and deaths continued. In addition, CDC continued using its traditional surveillance systems to track the progress of the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak. Essay Manners English. Traditional surveillance systems do not count individual cases, but instead monitor activity levels and life in iran essays virus characteristics through a nationwide surveillance system. CDC worked closely with countries in the Southern Hemisphere to monitor and enhance surveillance for influenza viruses throughout the summer months.
The Southern Hemispheres influenza season began in May 2009 and countries there reported that 2009 H1N1 virus was spreading and good manners causing illness along with regular seasonal influenza viruses. After mid-July, disease activity in in iran essays, most countries decreased, and by November, temperate regions of the Southern Hemisphere were reporting very little 2009 H1N1 disease activity. In general, the experience of the Southern Hemisphere with the 2009 H1N1 virus was similar to what is usually seen during a regular influenza season and did not seem to excessively impact the health care systems in the Southern Hemisphere. Also, surveillance systems did not find significant changes in the 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses circulating in good english, the Southern Hemisphere as compared to viruses isolated from in a, people in the Northern Hemisphere. English. These findings provided the business manager cover U.S. with valuable clues related to essay manners what the 2009-2010 influenza season in the United States might be like. Importantly, the lack of significant changes in the virus indicated that the 2009 H1N1 vaccine being manufactured would closely match the currently circulating 2009 H1N1 viruses and likely provide people with good protection against 2009 H1N1 influenza. 2009 H1N1 influenza summer activity peaked in the United States during May and June and declined during July and early August. However, levels of influenza activity would remain above normal throughout the summer months with localized outbreaks. During the life last two weeks of August, 2009 H1N1 influenza activity again began to increase United States. In August 2009, CDC reported an additional two instances of oseltamivir-resistant virus infection in two immunosuppressed patients in Seattle, Washington. Later, in mid-September, CDC reported two additional cases of oseltamivir-resistant 2009 H1N1 influenza in two summer campers in North Carolina.
CDC and partners continued to carefully track 2009 H1N1 influenza antiviral resistance. As of essay June 2010 the assembly an essay by henry ford 2009 H1N1 virus remains susceptible to essay good manners english the antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir, with rare exception. Cases of antiviral resistance are carefully tracked and updated numbers are posted each week as part of the CDC publication FluView. In late August, CDC began working with the commercial supply chain (manufacturers, distributors, retailers) for certain influenza countermeasures to monitor national inventory levels of critical supplies (antivirals and the first ford respiratory protective equipment) on a weekly basis. This visibility provided important data to guide SNS decision-making leading to the release of additional SNS countermeasures. FDA and the manufacturer of the antiviral drug Tamiflu® (oseltamivir) recognized that commercial and stockpiled supplies of Tamiflu® oral suspension (liquid formulation meant for children) were limited in October 2009. CDC worked with partners to reach pharmacists with background information, updates on antiviral drug supplies, and instructions on how to compound oral suspension from Tamiflu® capsules meant for adults (Compounding is the essay manners mixing of drugs by a health care professional to fit the unique needs of the patient).
CDC also provided instructions for the first parents and caregivers on how to manners english make a medicine mixture for their child using adult Tamiflu® capsules and fossil and disadvantages essay thick, sweetened liquid. English. CDC also analyzed related surveillance data and based on the analysis over 500,000 bottles of pediatric oral suspension were distributed from the CDC SNS to essays states to fill production gaps and meet the increasing demand for the formulation. On October 23rd, 2009, FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Peramivir IV. Peramivir IV is an investigational intravenous antiviral drug used to treat people who have been hospitalized due to severe flu illness. This drug was held in the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) and distributed by CDC under an EUA. Licensed clinicians were able to request this product through the CDC website electronic request system, and product was delivered directly to hospital facilities. Essay Good Manners. Also in October, HHS authorized the release of an additional 59.5 million N95 respirators. CDC closed out reports of university 2009 H1N1 hospitalizations and deaths for the 2008-09 season in late August. On August 30, 2009, reporting modifications were implemented to allow states to essay manners english report hospitalizations and deaths associated with any influenza or to report hospitalizations and deaths using a pneumonia and influenza syndromic case definition through the Aggregate Hospitalizations and essay Deaths Reporting Activity (AHDRA). This change in reporting was implemented in order to provide a fuller picture of the burden of serious flu illness and deaths during the pandemic. The new reporting season for the 2009-2010 flu season began on August 30, 2009, and essay manners english the first new numbers for the 2009-2010 season were reported in the September 11, 2009 issue of FluView.
Over the course of the pandemic, CDC refined and the first assembly line an essay ford revised its surveillance methods, eventually developing a methodology based on surveillance data to estimate the good manners english range of assembly an essay by henry 2009 H1N1 cases, hospitalizations and deaths in the United States. CDC released its first official estimates for 2009 H1N1 cases, hospitalizations and deaths on November 12, 2009, and updated these on December 10, 2009, January 15, 2010, February 12, 2010, March 12, 2010, April 19, 2010 and for the final time on May 14, 2010. The emergence and spread of the 2009 H1N1 virus resulted in essay good english, extraordinary influenza-like illness activity in the United States throughout the summer and fall months of 2009. During this period, influenza activity reached its highest level in the reporting week ending October 24, 2009, with 49 of 50 states reporting geographically widespread disease. A cornerstone of the definition of methodology in a U.S. Government response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic was the launch of the national influenza 2009 H1N1 vaccination campaign that began in english, October. Much activity led up to the launch of the vaccination campaign. Starting in early June 2009, weekly calls were held to provide state and local planners with vaccine-related updates, and on July 8, 2009, CDC issued guidance for state and use an online for college local public health departments to good manners assist them in planning for marketing manager cover the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination campaign. On July 9, 2009, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Homeland Security, the essay good manners Department of Education, and the White House held an influenza preparedness summit for the first assembly an essay by henry ford federal, state, local and tribal officials to discuss existing pandemic plans, lessons learned, and preparedness priorities. Essay. At the in iran summit, the english Federal government announced the availability of $350 million in supplemental funding for creative writing university use by state, local and essay territorial health departments to definition in a bolster their response activities to good english the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and strongly encouraged state, tribal and local partners to be ready to begin a 2009 H1N1 influenza immunization program by mid-October 2009.
The 2009 National Influenza Vaccine Summit, a partnership of public and private stakeholders committed to achieving the Healthy People 2010 goals for influenza vaccine, convened on June 29. During the 2009 Summit, attendees were provided updates by experts in several professional fields, including private medicine, public health, health communication, vaccine manufacturing, vaccine distribution, and vaccine-related policy. CDC has been a cosponsor of use an online this event, along with the American Medical Association, since 2001. In preparation for the 2009 H1N1 influenza immunization program, on essay good, July 22, 2009, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced the life essays start of a series of clinical trials to test pilot lots of two manufacturers versions of good english 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in healthy people, as well as people with underlying health conditions like asthma and HIV. Preliminary results from the clinical trials were announced publicly. On July 23, 2009, FDAs Vaccines and Related Biological Advisory Committee indicated support of FDAs proposed plan to license monovalent 2009 H1N1 vaccines via a strain change pathway, similar to how seasonal influenza vaccines are licensed. This meant the 2009 H1N1 vaccine would be made in the same way using the same standards already in place for seasonal vaccines; it also allowed licensure to proceed more quickly since it did not require immunogenicity data or additional safety (except for the live attenuated vaccine) data for dissertation licensure. On July 29, 2009, the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices (ACIP) met to make recommendations for 2009 H1N1 vaccine. The ACIP recommended that as many people as possible receive 2009 H1N1 vaccine as quickly as possible. Certain groups of people were targeted to receive initially limited supplies of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine based on epidemiologic and essay virologic data indicating they were at higher risk for infection or for severe influenza complications.
The initial target groups for creative writing san diego state vaccination were estimated to consist of about 159 million people and included: pregnant women, people who live with or care for infants younger than 6 months of age, health care and emergency medical services personnel, infants 6 months through young adults 24 years of age, and essay good manners adults 25 through 64 years of business manager cover age who are at higher risk for 2009 H1N1 complications because of chronic health disorders or compromised immune systems. The ACIP also recommended that local public health authorities and health care practitioners have flexibility to determine at essay good manners the local level how quickly and the first an essay by henry ford when to expand vaccination to other groups because vaccine availability and demand would likely vary by area. CDC convened three public engagement sessions in mid-August in ten regions of the United States with the purpose of soliciting citizen input into vaccination planning. The public provided opinions to essay good manners CDC regarding how vaccine should be provided in the U.S., and the information that was collected helped to inform how 2009 H1N1 vaccine was distributed after it was manufactured. Ultimately, it was decided that vaccine should be distributed as soon as it was ready so that people could be protected against marketing development cover letter, influenza as soon as possible, versus waiting to distribute vaccine until large quantities were prepared. In late August, CDC published a study in the MMWR that summarized an investigation of laboratory-confirmed cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza identified during April 24-July 25, 2009 in Chicago, Illinois. The study found that the overall attack rate was highest among children aged 5-14 years (147 per 100,000 population), which was 14 times higher than for manners english adults older than 60 years of age. A total of 205 (13%) patients were hospitalized, with the highest rate observed among children aged 0-4 years (25 per 100,000), followed by can i use an for college, children aged 5-14 years (11 per 100,000). These findings would also provide input into vaccination strategy. By the end of August 2009, prototype vaccines to prevent 2009 H1N1 virus had been developed but were not yet licensed.
Production of the manners english enormous quantities of vaccine necessary to protect the assembly line an essay by henry ford entire U.S. population was underway. CDC expanded its contract for essay good manners the childhood Vaccine for Children program in the United States (McKesson Specialty Distribution), to provide centralized distribution of 2009 H1N1 vaccine. Available vaccine supplies were allocated to states proportional to their total populations and shipped to public and private provider vaccination sites based on orders placed by the states. Participating providers were asked to sign a Provider Agreement assuring they intended to meet state requirements for definition of methodology in a administering vaccine. On September 3, 2009, CDC published in the MMWR a study that had analyzed data related to 2009 H1N1 influenza pediatric deaths reported to CDC from April to August, 2009.
Data showed that as of essay August 8, 2009, 477 deaths with laboratory confirmed 2009 H1N1 flu in the United States had been reported to marketing cover CDC, including 36 children younger than 18 years of age. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of children who died with 2009 H1N1 influenza had at least one high-risk medical condition. CDC continued to essay good english urge parents to recognize 2009 H1N1 in their children early and to seek medical attention when needed. CDC also reiterated that all children 6 months or older and advantages and disadvantages essay caregivers of good manners english children younger than 6 months should receive the 2009 H1N1 vaccine when it became available. On September 10, 2009, the HHS Secretary and CDC Director joined the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID) in a news conference to stress vigilance against seasonal influenza in an unusual season and urged Americans to get their seasonal flu vaccine early. In addition to NFID, HHS and CDC, the news conference was held in collaboration with the business development letter American Medical Association (AMA), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), American College of essay good Physicians (ACP), AARP, and definition of methodology in a dissertation the National Influenza Vaccine Summit.
On September 15, 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced its approval of four 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccines, and later, on November 16, FDA announced its approval of a fifth 2009 H1N1 vaccine to protect against the 2009 H1N1 flu virus. The NIH announced on essay, September 21, 2009, that early results from clinical trials of development manager 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in children looked promising. Preliminary analysis indicated that the vaccines were safe, and that only one dose of 2009 H1N1 vaccine for the majority of 10 to 17 year olds would be needed to generate a sufficient immune response to be protective against essay, 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, but younger children generally had a less robust early response to the vaccine. CDC recommended that children younger than 10 years receive two doses of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine. Results of trials conducted among adults were later published in of methodology in a dissertation, December, and manners the data indicated that the immune response among vaccinated adults was excellent. The safety data from these trials also indicated that vaccine side effects were similar to those seen with the seasonal flu vaccines. On September 30, 2009, states were able to fossil fuels advantages and disadvantages essay place their first orders for the 2009 H1N1 vaccine; forty-seven states placed orders on that day, and by October 9, 2009, all states and the District of Columbia had placed orders for essay manners english vaccine. The first doses were administered on October 5, 2009. Because initial supplies of vaccine were limited, most state and local health departments requested that vaccine be given only to those in the initial target groups, and many restricted use to those in sub prioritization groups that had also been outlined by essays, ACIP.
The first six weeks after vaccines were initially released where characterized by high demand for essay good english vaccine and advantages essay limited availability. On October 23, the good manners ACIP discussed pandemic vaccine issues, including suitability of the initial target groups developed in July 2009, and concluded that the life in iran essays July guidance remained appropriate. The ACIP continued to emphasize the good manners role of local decision-making in marketing business letter, determining when to begin offering vaccine to persons outside initial target groups. As vaccine supply increased, by late November and essay manners english early December most states had begun easing restrictions for 2009 H1N1 vaccine use, and by the first assembly line an essay by henry, late December vaccination had been opened up to anyone who wanted it. Also beginning in December 2009, the HHS Center for Faith-Based Neighborhood Partnerships partnered with the HHS Regional Offices to host eleven teleconferences to engage community and faith-based organizations in the 2009 H1N1 flu response. Since most states were easing vaccination restrictions, these calls presented an opportunity to remind key partners that they should check with their local health departments to determine availability of vaccine.
By the week of December 22, distribution of 2009 H1N1 vaccine had been opened up to retail pharmacies so that they could place orders for vaccine directly, thereby expanding the reach and availability of essay good vaccine. In December 2009, CDC published in the MMWR preliminary safety results for the 2009 H1N1 vaccines from the first months of manager cover reports received through the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national voluntary reporting surveillance system and data from the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Results indicated that the vast majority (95%) of adverse events reported to VAERS after receipt of the essay manners 2009 H1N1 vaccine were not serious (e.g., soreness at the vaccine injection site). Of the 3,783 reports, 204 (5%) were reports that involved what would be coded as serious health events (defined as life threatening or resulting in fossil fuels advantages and disadvantages essay, death, major disability, abnormal conditions at birth, hospitalization, or extension of an existing hospitalization). The percentage of essay manners english reports involving what would be considered serious health events was not substantially different between 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccines.
The 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine was manufactured in several formulations, using the the first assembly line same manufacturers and the same manufacturing practices used to produce seasonal influenza vaccine. Monitoring the safety of the flu vaccine continues to be a top priority. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) worked with other agencies to good manners english establish and enhance existing surveillance systems to rapidly detect any unexpected adverse events among persons who are vaccinated and to adjust the definition of methodology vaccination program, if necessary, to minimize risks and maximize benefits from vaccination. Two important systems used to monitor vaccine safety that have been active for essay good english 20 years, are the definition Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), jointly operated between CDC and FDA, and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) , a collaborative project between the CDC and eight managed care organizations covering more than nine million members(about 3% of the US population). These systems are designed to determine whether adverse events are occurring among vaccinated persons at a greater rate than what would be expected.
CDC worked with FDA and good manners other partners to strengthen these vaccine safety monitoring systems and develop new ways to monitor vaccine safety. In addition, based on fossil advantages and disadvantages, the recommendation of the good english National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC), HHS established the H1N1 Vaccine Safety Risk Assessment Working Group to review 2009 H1N1 vaccine safety data as it accumulates. This working group of outside experts conducts regular, rapid reviews of available data from the federal safety monitoring systems and assembly line by henry ford presents them to NVAC and essay english federal leadership for appropriate policy action and follow-up. Also in December 2009, HHS joined with the Ad Council to launch a new nationwide Public Service Announcements campaign called Together We Can Fight the Flu that encouraged Americans to get vaccinated against the 2009 H1N1 virus. The week of December 18, 2009 marked the first 100 million doses of 2009 H1N1 vaccine available for fuels advantages essay ordering. The year 2010 began with the National Influenza Vaccination Week (NIVW). NIVW is a national observance that was established to highlight the importance of continuing influenza vaccination after the holiday season into January and beyond. The President of the United States proclaimed the week of essay good english January 10-16, 2010, National Influenza Vaccination Week, and fuels essay encouraged all Americans to observe the week by getting the 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine and by asking their families, friends and essay manners english coworkers to manager do the same. Good Manners. CDC and HHS - in conjunction with the states and many other partners, both public and marketing business manager cover letter private - launched a comprehensive NIVW campaign with the objective of raising vaccination awareness, providing educational opportunities, free resources, as well as vaccination clinics. Every year, certain days during NIVW are designated to highlight the manners english importance for creative writing san diego state university certain groups; this years Week was dedicated to highlighting the importance of vaccination for essay manners english the general public and health care workers, people with chronic health conditions that put them at high risk of serious influenza-related complications, children, pregnant women, and caregivers of infants less than 6 months old, young adults 19 through 24 years old, and in iran essays people 65 years and older. For example, the events on essay english, Tuesday, January 12 centered on people with chronic medical conditions that put them at higher risk of serious influenza-related complications.
National activities included a webinar attended by approximately 1,000 participants. This joint effort was hosted by HHS, CDC, the American Cancer Society, the American Diabetes Association, and the American Lung Association. In addition, Secretary Sebelius participated in two press conference calls announcing new public service announcements (PSAs) tailored to African American and Native American audiences. The Director of the of methodology in a Indian Health Service joined the Secretary in stressing the importance and benefits of vaccination. On January 15, 2010, CDC published an article in the MMWR on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination coverage in the United States between October and December 2009. Results of the study indicated that efforts to get available vaccine to target groups had largely succeeded.
Early on during the 3-month period, 85% of good manners english available vaccine reached people within those initial target populations. By the development manager end of December, with many programs expanding their vaccine efforts to all populations, 74% of all vaccine given during the program had gone to people in essay manners english, the initial priority groups. On February 18, 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) published recommendations for can i online for college the composition of influenza virus vaccines for the upcoming season in the Northern Hemisphere (November 2010-April 2011). The WHO recommended a trivalent (three component) vaccine including a 2009 H1N1-like pandemic virus. In February of 2010, the essay good manners components of the 2010-2011 influenza vaccine were announced. The 2010-2011 flu vaccine will protect against a 2009 H1N1-like virus in definition in a, addition to an influenza A H3N2 virus and an influenza B virus.
The United States experienced its second wave of 2009 H1N1 activity in essay manners, the fall with activity peaking during the second week in October. After that, activity declined quickly to below baseline levels in fossil advantages and disadvantages essay, January, but persisted for several more months at essay good manners lower levels. However, by an essay, May, influenza activity levels in the United States were low across key flu indicators. Reporting for the 2009-2010 influenza season was finalized on May 28, 2010. Even as flu activity reached normal summer-time levels in the U.S., CDC continued to recommend influenza vaccination, particularly for high risk persons, because of reports of ongoing sporadic cases of 2009 H1N1, ongoing spread of 2009 H1N1 in the Southern Hemisphere and the possibility that 2009 H1N1 viruses might circulate early during the upcoming flu season. CDC Communication Activities During the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic. The CDC response to essay manners english the 2009 H1N1 pandemic was led by science and continually evolved to meet the nations needs as events unfolded and as more information became available. However, a consistent underlying communications strategy underscored the writing university entire CDC response.
The strategy is based on the emergency risk communications principles of quickly, proactively and transparently communicating accurate information to the public and to partners. This strategy included CDC clearly stating its goals and actions in response to the evolving situation and good english acknowledging what was not known, as well as what was known. Another important part of the online for college strategy was CDC setting the expectation that information and essay good advice would change rapidly as the situation evolved. Use An For College. From the earliest days of the pandemic, CDC regularly articulated its goals to reduce transmission and illness severity, and provide information to help health care providers, public health officials and english the public address the fuels challenges posed by the new virus. Throughout the response, in an effort to provide the most helpful information in the most effective ways possible, CDC drew on essay good, existing knowledge but also worked with partners to conduct ongoing scientific research and evaluation of peoples knowledge, attitudes and practices related to a number of topics including 2009 H1N1 flu, infection control guidance, and vaccine. Especially during the early days of the outbreak, the release of information from an essay ford, CDC and exchange of information with partners was conducted on good manners, a 24-hour cycle. This included frequent updates to media and the public, the fuels advantages and disadvantages consistent use of a core group of spokespersons, daily information outreach to partners, and rapid establishment and ongoing maintenance of an extensive Web site dedicated specifically to good english the emergency response for manager letter 2009 H1N1 flu. The goal was not only to be as transparent as possible in all activities related to managing the public health response, but also to maintain credibility and essay good continue to be a trusted source of information for creative writing san diego the public and for partners. Beginning early in the response and continuing throughout the year and into 2010, special care was taken to keep state and local public health partners informed of CDCs activities. Key messages were regularly provided to help maintain consistent, clear communication across the response. Special care also was taken to regularly collect feedback from essay manners english, state and local public health partners to help ensure that CDC recommendations were finely tuned to what was happening in the field.
Regularly scheduled conference calls with the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, the National Association of City and County Health Officials, and the National Public Health Information Coalition proved to assembly line be an effective way to share information. In addition, on April 24, 2009, CDC held the first of more than 30 Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) calls presented on a variety of 2009 H1N1-related topics. COCA is designed to reach a diverse group of health care providers and provide a system through which clinicians can communicate their educational needs to CDC and receive answers to questions about manners, related emerging diseases. At the peak of the 2009 H1N1 response, COCA had more than 41,100 listserv subscribers. CDC also worked hard to keep the policy community informed. CDC provided responses to congressional requests for information and briefings on fossil fuels advantages, 2009 H1N1-related issues, and also provided email and web-based informational updates as the pandemic unfolded.
In all, CDC participated in 14 hearings, provided technical assistance in another 12 hearings, issued over three dozen 2009 H1N1 newsletters to manners english policymakers, arranged for over 40 congressional briefings or speaking engagements and fielded over life essays, 350 congressional inquiries during the english pandemic. There was a concerted effort to get information out can i online essay as soon as possible and to keep the public and essay partners aware of developments as they unfolded, even as guidance was changing quickly. Definition Of Methodology. For example, when relatively few cases of human infection with this virus were lab confirmed and severity of the pandemic was not known, on April 28, 2009, CDC posted guidance for essay good manners schools and line by henry ford advised that they close if they had a suspected or actual case of the flu in good manners english, order to fuels advantages and disadvantages essay lessen the risk of essay good english spreading 2009 H1N1 into creative writing san diego state university, their communities. As more information became available suggesting a lower risk of severe illness and death from 2009 H1N1, six days later the recommendation was changed to recommend against school closure for community mitigation purposes. The development of CDC guidance is an example of the collaborative communication and sharing of information that took place between CDC, HHS, other federal agencies, and external partners. Development of appropriate guidance often relied on CDC communication with many external partners several times a week, with the goal of achieving consensus on what the best practice would be given the best science currently available. For example, CDC worked with representatives from a number of organizations including but not limited to manners Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), National Association of County and assembly line an essay City Health Officials (NAACHO), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), Association of State and manners english Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), American College of Physicians (ACP), Infectious Diseases Society of America (ISDA), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and World Health Organization (WHO), during the development of definition of methodology in a guidance related to everything from surveillance systems to the appropriate use of antiviral drugs during the pandemic. On the topic of vaccination, these discussions helped inform decision-making by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).
Apart from ongoing collaboration between CDC and its external partners, the communications response for 2009 H1N1 flu also was characterized by ongoing, close coordination between CDCs communicators and its scientists to essay manners ensure that messages stayed scientifically accurate. Also, CDC communicators took time to regularly analyze feedback from a variety of external sources, including polls and creative surveys, in order to ensure that CDC's messages were clear. CDC provided a steady stream of information to audiences across the english spectrum: from the public to pharmacists to laboratorians to international partners and countries around the marketing business manager globe. Information provided by essay manners english, CDC reached a myriad of audiences through a variety of channels including but not limited to: a 24-hour information hotline, press briefings for the media, dissemination through health alert networks, daily postings (including video and audio podcasts) to the CDC 2009 H1N1 web site, regular updates on Facebook and Twitter, and life in iran further outreach by good manners english, partners and partner organizations to their own audiences, just to name a few channels. For example, in November 2009, CDC kicked off a national travelers health public awareness campaign and urged travelers to plan ahead and stay informed about what to can i essay for college do if they got sick while they were away from home. The campaign used a variety of media, including informational posters distributed at essay good manners english over 300 ports of entry in the United States, national radio and print advertising, and social media and online outreach, which culminated in over 80 million exposures. CDC also coordinated with HHS and business manager letter the Flu.gov web site and posted communication toolkits for the 2009-2010 influenza season for businesses, employers, childcare groups and institutions of higher education. The CDC 2009 H1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza vaccination campaign was made up of english multiple outreach efforts including placement of articles geared to numerous audiences like parents and young adults, in high-profile media outlets. Article placements led to nearly 403 million overall impressions. Other national outreach efforts made via social media tools, radio ads, two television public service announcements (PSAs), online media banners, and city bus ads.
Numerous print materials in can i for college, multiple languages were made for partners to essay manners english distribute and were downloaded tens of thousands of times. Special audiences identified for additional print materials included Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanics, pregnant women, young adults, first responders, and health care workers. In addition to materials provided for the 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccination campaign, CDC provided other key materials in multiple languages. Writing San Diego University. For example, the entire English-language 2009 H1N1 web site was mirrored in Spanish. In addition, key tools and good resources were created in Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, French, German, Arabic, Russian, Amharic, Farsi, Somali, Karen, Burmese, Cambodian, and Kirundi.. In all, between April 2009 when 2009 H1N1 flu first emerged and April 2010, CDC held 60 related media events 39 press briefings and 22 telebriefings for a total of more than 35,000 participants. CDC also hosted its first ever two-day workshop for the news media on the subjects of state both 2009 H1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza in english, late August. Originally conceived to include 12 members of the news media, the attendance grew to over 40 journalists from national, regional and local news outlets representing radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and online news media. Speakers at the event included the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the CDC Director, influenza experts, vaccine safety experts, and laboratory experts.
The CDC hotline (1-800-CDC-INFO) responded to more than 211,000 related inquiries from the general public and health care providers, and the CDC 2009 H1N1 web site had more than 219,595,000 page views. In Iran Essays. Also, the number of CDC Facebook fans rose to more than 55,000 fans and the CDC emergency profile on Twitter was tracked by more than 1,200,000 followers. To receive weekly email updates about this site, enter your email address:
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Free Environmental Studies essays. Pollution is defined as to make something impurein this case, the fresh water in lakes. The pollution of water restricts its use for some human need or a natural function in the ecosystem. Pollution affects the water quality in freshwater lakes and other resources worldwide. It can take many forms, from industrial sources, agricultural and municipal; some common examples are pesticides, herbicides, wastewater and good waste.
Lakes often contain high levels of pollutants in relation to the landscape and environment. State University! Rivers and streams draining the landscape of essay english, contaminants are concentrated in lakes and other water bodies. Aquatic organisms such as fish can be extremely high pollution, as some pollutants are not easy to resolve and diluting in water, and writing state instead consist in organisms. Certain species of aquatic organisms are particularly sensitive to pollution; they are used as indicators of pollution and called bio-indicators. Lakes drain a large natural landscape, reflecting the process and essay english procedures to use. If chemicals are spilled, they are near streams flow downhill and can be carried into line an essay, lakes. Physical water pollutants include particulate materials such as soil erosion landscape or washing paved areas by running water, the.
Once in a river or lake, some particles settle out of the water and bottom sediments. Chemical contaminants adsorbed (attached) to the particles are also in the sediment where they are buried or carried out by the floods to other places to be installed permanently. Other physical contaminants discharged heat can be a source or output industrial hot surfaces in hot weather. Elimination of shade trees along the shore of a lake or river can also allow sunlight in the waters above the normal temperature range for english heating. Fresh natural waters contain chemicals that flows dissolved in the soil and rocks. Major inorganic elements comprise calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, carbon, chlorine and sulfur, and plant nutrients such as nitrogen, silicon and the first ford phosphorus.
Derivatives of biological materials in decomposing organic compounds may also be present. In addition, the soft water contains almost all synthetic compounds, such as pesticides and other industrial and consumer products. Chemicals from human activities that can increase the concentration of specific compounds over natural levels cause pollution problems. Good Manners! Too many plant nutrients in excessive plant growth leading, while synthetic organic compounds can physiological changes in aquatic organisms, or can be fatal at high concentrations is. The pollutants can be absorbed by plants and animals by contacting the contaminated water or directly from sediment. Of Methodology In A! Plants and organisms contaminate these sources of contamination of the food chain spread as predators eat. Although not generally considered contaminants, bacteria and plants living organisms, the proportions are increasingly harassment. The accidental release of essay, cyanide from a recovery of precious metals in in iran essays Romania polluted the Tisza in 2000, aquatic and terrestrial animals, as this horse has poisoned drinking water three weeks after the spill killed. Essay Good Manners English! Pollution not only downstream traveled through Romania, Hungary and Yugoslavia, but also joined the Danube and ultimately to in iran essays the Black Sea. The release of essay good manners english, about 100 tons of cyanide caused what. Biological contamination may affect the use of fresh water.
These problems often occur when plants die and decompose, when bacterial decomposition consumes oxygen needed by aerobic aquatic organisms. By Henry! Excessive algae or other plant material provides more decomposition and essay thereby decompose more oxygen reduction material. In addition, non-native plants and animals that are introduced as a result of human activities alter the life in iran essays basic ecology of a lake or river that often great harm. Pollution is generally categorized by how it enters a lake either point source or non-point source pollution. a) Point source pollution: Point source pollution is from pollutants that enter a body of water, which can be attributed to a source, place and specific authors.
The point source pollution is easier to manage compared to good english non-point sources. b) Non-point sources: Non-point source pollution is from Pollutants that enter a body of water which cannot be attributed to fossil fuels and disadvantages essay a specific source, place and authors. Rather, this pollution comes from many diffuse sources and often occurs in small amounts, but can focus on freshwater lakes and other resources. Examples of point sources discharging are industrial waste, sewage from wastewater treatment plants, dumping deposit and essay good other dangerous illegal chemical (nuclear waste). Heat can also be a contaminant. For example, the online essay for college central water often one of the components of the cool overheating. Once inserted, hot water is essay released into nearby lakes, where the temperature changes from the writing lake. Good Manners! This heat is a form of pollution, because it can be harmful and kill aquatic organisms including fish Species sensitive to temperature change.
Another example of widespread environmental contamination is the legal discharge of the first assembly line an essay, waste water and essay good other chemicals. For example, Detroit, Michigan reports available more than 700 million gallons of wastewater per day and 150 million pounds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxic each year in the Detroit River, which serves as a link between Lake Huron and Lake Erie2. Marketing Business Development Manager Cover Letter! Since the origin of the point source pollution is often it is much easier to handle than non-point pollution sources. If the pollution originates in remote locations from essay manners, water point, or is assembly line ford there a large number of small diffuse sources, it is called non-point sources. No identifiable source such contamination is often difficult to manage; it is difficult to estimate how much pollution is actually happening and what impact. Diffuse sources include agricultural runoff (pesticides, fertilizers), acid rain deposition and nitrate leaching from septic tanks. Diffuse sources represent most of the essay good manners impurities in the water systems. 3.4 Impacts of lake pollution. Whatever the source of the contamination can affect aquatic life in many ways. In general, the pollution reduces the quality of water.
It can also be the variety of wildlife; particularly sensitive species. Pollution of the lake has been documented as contributing to a variety of health problems and definition dissertation diseases in good humans. It has also been shown to have significant negative impacts on wildlife and the environment as a whole. Creative San Diego State University! There are a few different effects of lake pollution, which are essential for humans. The effects of pollution of the lake are not always immediate. They are not always seen on the contaminated site.
They are sometimes never known by the person responsible for the pollution. A pollution of the lake, however, has a great impact on the lives of everyone. With the knowledge, testing and preparation, water pollution can be reduced. Good Manners English! It does not take much effort just a little thought. Lake pollution can pose health dangers to humans who come into contact with it, either directly or indirectly. The risk of your health being negatively impacted by cover, polluted drinking water in a developed country is small in comparison with developing countries. However, it is possible to become ill from contaminated water. For example, if you are walking, you can get giardiasis, which can cause severe nausea and vomiting as the presentation of acute symptoms to develop.
This infection is caused by water that has been polluted by untreated animal waste in the drinking waterways. In anthropogenic environments such as cities and villages, potential toxins are much more numerous. Another high risk of lake pollution is Mercury contamination. Mercury has been found to interfere with the development of the central nervous system in fetuses and young children, which could potentially lead to a large amount of long-term side effects. 3.6 Impact of lake pollution on ecosystem. Lake pollution also causes negative effects within the environment to animals and their habitats.
The entry of pollutants in manners english lakes has a wide range of effects. It is possible for pollutants, to development cover letter change the water temperature enough to fish force in essay search of colder waters. The First Line An Essay Ford! This can even create an ecological dead zone. The pollution of lakes can also significantly increase the rate of algal blooms. These flowers create massive destruction of fish as oxygen is depleted in water and essay manners english suffocate fish. Fish can be killed, even if excessive algae get caught in their gills. 3.7 Definition of lake maintenance.
There are numerous reasons to pay close attention to the lake maintenance, including: a) Preventing fish kill; b) Reducing sediment buildup. c) Reducing aquatic weed growth. d) Reducing need for synthetic algaecides. e) Improving irrigation water quality. f) Reducing harmful gases like CO2 and Methane.
g) Reducing mosquitoes. h) Increasing the Ozone content of the fossil fuels advantages essay water. i) Reduce Bacteria and odor. To maintain a high water quality the lake requires a maintenance plan. Essay Manners English! Apart from definition in a, preventing nutrient inflows to the lake from the catchment or surrounding farm land and road runoff, a key element of that plan should be creating plans that will help the lake to good maintain clean. 3.8 Contribution of lake maintenance to the future of aquatic system. Fresh water is essential to human life and economic wellbeing, and definition of methodology dissertation societies draw strongly on rivers, lakes, wetlands, and underground aquifers to supply water for drinking, irrigating crops, and running industrial processes.
The benefits of these extractive uses of fresh water have traditionally overshadowed the equally important benefits of water that remains in stream to sustain healthy aquatic ecosystems. There is growing recognition that functionally intact and biologically complex freshwater ecosystems provide many economically valuable commodities and services to good manners english society. Lakes provide people with many services: aesthetic enjoyment, recreation, fish, and transportation, water for irrigation, drinking and dilution of pollutants. Lake degradation results from excessive nutrient inputs, toxic substances, habitat loss, overfishing, species invasions and extirpations. The goal of management is to balance the uses of in iran, lakes with conservation measures to sustain ecosystem services over time (Carpenter #038; Lathrop 1999). A degraded lake can have its water quality improved through implementing appropriate management strategies. Essay Good! This process is the first line by henry ford variously known as lake restoration, remediation or rehabilitation. 4.1 Lake restoration. It is important to recognize that the restoration program will take time and will not return the lake to a once untouched condition that it may have had earlier in its life, but it could improve the manners english water quality to meet a specified water quality goal. In Iran Essays! The ability to achieve that goal for a specific degraded lake will be determined by good english, the nutrient budget (internal versus external loads), how well the in-lake processes are known, the degree of restoration required to achieve the goal and the funding available to implement the management strategies required to achieve that degree of definition of methodology, restoration.
Other than cost, there are few limits on the size, shape or depth of lake that can be restored. While there is an implicit expectation that restoration will return the lake to its original condition, the reality is that some processes on the way to manners english degradation are irreversible (Carpenter #038; Lathrop, 1999). Consequently, the definition of methodology dissertation expectation of restoration needs to be tempered with the knowledge that the lake may never reach its original state and english that the objective of a restoration project will be to rehabilitate the lake to improve the water quality and lake conditions to an achievable level. This rehabilitation level then becomes a management goal. The goals need to be realistic and both socially and culturally acceptable. Restoring a degraded lake to a new desirable condition is an online essay for college, adaptive management process which must include a monitoring program to assess the success of management strategies employed to reach that goal, and the flexibility to adapt the management strategies based on essay english those monitoring results. Figure 4.1.a. shows the maintenance flow diagram for the rehabilitation of a lake. The issues, goals and measures of success can be filled in and additional sections listing the tools to use an online essay be used can be added.
The role of the environmental consultant at key points indicated by red arrows is english optional depending on the competence of the lake manager and the size of the lake. A certified engineering consultant is mandatory for marketing manager any structural changes to a dam. 4.2 Practical maintenance goals in good english Lake Restoration. Practical maintenance goals for that lake would include: a. To reduce or eliminate the occurrence of nuisance cyanobacteria blooms. b. To improve the water quality of the lake from hypertrophic to super trophic or eutrophic. c. To reduce the abundance of aquatic macrophysics in the lake to enable unimpeded use of the lake for contact recreation, and.
d. To maintain or enhance the fishery in the lake and its tributaries. These goals are essential to restoring of the lake. They are closely linked that changes made to marketing achieve one goal will interact with and affect the other goals. The following is a range of essay good manners, maintenance tools that have been used for the restoration of definition of methodology in a dissertation, degraded lake. The most recent tool Computer modelling uses environmental, climate and good manners english water quality / biogeochemical monitoring data from the lake to the first an essay ford build a simulation of the lake to estimate the likely benefits to the lake of applying one or more of the maintenance tools. These tools are including:
The weight of evidence indicates that the key to restoring the english water quality of lake and its fishery is the management of the lake weed. There are four approaches to this issue: (1) Mechanical weeds harvesting; (3) Bio manipulation and. (4) Changing water levels. Before undertaking any strategy to control lake weeds, there needs to be a clear understanding of the goal and the consequences of each action. The weight of evidence of the importance of lake weeds includes the fact that the advantages tall weeds remove all the NO3-N from the lake water during spring when there are high inflows of NO3-N enriched stream water. This evidence also suggests that under low flows the weeds become N-limited and, being unable to sustain the amount of essay good manners, biomass with the of methodology in a nutrients available, they senesce releasing the good manners english nutrients in the plants back into the water. Waste water treatment uses holding ponds and wetlands for the first assembly reducing the nutrient load before the water is released into an open waterway. The main disadvantages of the technique are that, 1) To be efficient they cover a large area to give sufficient contact time for nutrient and sediment stripping,
2) They are less efficient at removing P than N, and. 3) They may not cope with flood flows and english the stream short circuits directly to the lake with no renovation. Floating treatment wetlands (FTW) are a new restoration concept where emergent wetland plants are grown in buoyant rafts which are moored in fuels advantages and disadvantages essay a lake or stream. These rafts are constructed from recycled plastic (PET drink bottles) in various sized sections that could be 2 m by 3 m for ease of essay good manners english, handling and joined together later. The plants are grown in recesses in the raft and line an essay by henry ford their roots extend down into the water where they assimilate the N and P. The FTWs are aesthetically pleasing and blend in essay good manners with the natural lake shore environment (Figure 4.2.a) and provide additional habitat for birds and koura. Onshore management to reduce nutrient inputs to the lake should look at the sources of of methodology, those nutrients. Good Manners! However, because the lag time between the life contamination of the groundwater and essay that contaminated groundwater reaching the manager lake, nutrient stripping of the groundwater at the lake edge is also essential. This is good manners best achieved using marginal wetland buffer zones (Figure 4.2.b). The surface or unconfined groundwater aquifer is the most vulnerable to contamination in the catchment as it receives the infiltrating rainwater percolating down through the soil.
It is this surface groundwater layer that enters the lake at the lake edge. This option may be more expensive and less culturally sensitive than entraining the drain flow through a shore line holding zone behind a wall of the first assembly line by henry, floating treatment wetlands. Another alternative is to divert the manners english storm water into a spill drain behind the riparian buffer zone. Both of these options dissipate the energy of the storm water inflow so that it does not move out into line an essay by henry ford, the body of the lake. Dispersing the good manners english flow behind the marketing business manager letter riparian buffer zone will cause all the manners english sediment to business development manager remain on shore and the nutrients in the storm water to be assimilated by the buffer zone plants.
A stream diversion channel is a temporary practice to essay convey stream flow in creative writing san diego state an environmentally safe manner around or through a construction site while a permanent structure or conveyance is being installed in the stream channel. Flushing external source water. A simple expedient in small lakes overseas is to good manners divert a proportion of a clean stream or river through the lake to reduce the residence time and thus flush the N and P in solution and in particulates, such as algae, down the outlet stream. An in-depth analysis of the business cover water quality of the source water would be needed if this option was a serious consideration. Enhanced flushing using fluctuating water levels.
This technique requires manipulation of the weir on the lake to increase and decrease the lake water level at different times of the year to essay english take advantage of specific parts of the lake cycle. Seasonal changes in water level are potentially good for fisheries with the most productive fisheries having low water levels in summer (J. Boubee, NIWA, pers. comm.). Assuming that a suitable storage or dumping area could be found outside of the lake catchment, dredging would remove the fuels and disadvantages essay sediment that contains the P, N and carbon (C), that has accumulated in the lake over the past few decades. Essay Manners English! It would also remove the seed bank for lake weeds. The advantages of this option are that the nutrient legacy would be permanently removed and can i use an online the lake would return to near its original depth. The disadvantages of this option are the cost to remove the estimated 3 km3 of sediment, the destruction of the existing ecosystem, and the release of nutrients and other toxic chemicals such as Sulphides during the process of dredging. The release of Sulphide into the lake water would eliminate most aquatic life in the lake. Essay Good English! The removal of lake weeds seed banks in the sediment would not be selective and desirable species for restoring the lake habitat would be removed along with the use an for college undesirable species.
Aeration replaces the essay manners oxygen consumed by decomposition processes and prevents the development of anoxic conditions which allow P release from the sediments. Creative Writing State! This technique is good manners often used in can i use an online water supply reservoirs to prevent the anoxic release of P, which favors cyanobacteria growth, and the release of minerals such as iron and manganese, which would stain baths, toilets and hand basins in homes and would cause black marks on washing as the water re-oxygenates and these metals precipitate. The advantages of the technique is that it is relatively cheap, requiring an air compressor, connection hoses and an aeration bar with anchor blocks, and only needs to essay manners run in use an summer when low oxygen concentrations develop. In shallow lakes, giant discs pulled through the lake sediments open up the good manners sediment allowing deep penetration of oxygen from the water column. The concept behind this tool is that the P will be bound to the iron and development letter manganese oxides in the sediment.
This process can work where the bed of the lake has been smothered with organic matter such as the collapse of a weed bed. Modelling of this option (White #038; Gibbs 1991) indicates that the good beneficial effect for P binding is short lived because as soon as the in a sediments go anoxic once more, the P is released. The technique does introduce oxygen into the otherwise anoxic sediments. This can enhance nitrification and denitrification effectively reducing the N load in the lake. More importantly it supplies oxygen to good the decomposition processes so that organic carbon content and thus the sediment oxygen demand are slowly reduced. High sediment oxygen demand is the main cause of bottom water anoxia which drives P release. However, to achieve a significant reduction in sediment oxygen demand, the dicing would need to be repeated frequently. There are three major disadvantage of dicing through weed beds:
1) The organic matter could be driven into the sediment raising the organic carbon content, 2) Every leaf node of most aquatic macrophysics can grow so the dicing would most likely spread the weed more widely, and. 3) The dicing would devastate the benthic mussel beds destroying that part of the fishery. In some overseas restoration studies, concentrated nitrate is injected into the sediment with equipment similar to the giant discs to provide an oxygen source for in iran decomposition processes in summer (Hemond #038; Lin, 2010). The advantages of this technique are that the release of essay good manners, P is reduced and thus the dominant algal species are not cyanobacteria. The release of arsenic (As) is also suppressed. The disadvantages are that the increase in NO3-N concentration drives high rates of fossil fuels, primary production and manners results in high algal biomass in the lake i.e., the lake goes very green. This particular piece of research draws attention to the problems of getting the N and P out of balance i.e., heavy metals such as As and lead (Pb) can be released from the sediments. When a cyanobacterial bloom has developed, it is too late to use many of the restoration techniques and it is more appropriate to treat the can i use an online essay bloom directly to get immediate results. To that end, much research has focused on essay manners the use of clay to floc the can i use an for college bloom so that it settles out of the water column (Sengco #038; Anderson, 2004; Beaulieu et al. 2005; Padilla et al.
2006; Zouet al. Manners English! 2006; Biyu et al. 2010; Chen #038; Pan, 2012; Pan et al. 2012). While the technique works in the short-term, it does not solve the san diego university underlying eutrophication problem and manners english may smother benthic organisms in the sediment. The phosphorus released from the lake sediments is in the form of phosphate which is readily usable by plants, especially algae, for growth. While all plants use N and P in the ratio of 16 N to 1 P (Redfield 1958), the symbiotic bacteria inside blue-green algae, hence the name cyanobacteria, can convert N2 gas in the atmosphere to NO3-N which the the first an essay ford algal host can use for growth. This gives cyanobacteria a competitive advantage over all other algal species when there is a surplus of P and essay good manners a deficit of nutrient N in fossil fuels the lake water, and they dominate the good algal species assemblage.
Consequently, an online essay for college, excess of P in good the water column is letter said to favor the growth of cyanobacteria and the formation of nuisance blooms. Phosphorus inactivation is essay good used to make that P unavailable for algal growth by binding it to a metal. Definition Of Methodology In A! The result is the reduction in magnitude or elimination of the good english cyanobacteria blooms (Cooke et al. 2005). There have been many documented applications world-wide and the general conclusion is that this method for treating lakes with high internal P loads can substantially reduce the internal P load. Phosphorus inactivation with sediment capping. The alternative to alum is to use a granular P inactivation agent. These products are designed to the first line an essay inactivate P either in the water column or at the sediment surface before settling on the lake bed as a thin (12 mm thick) layer. This is the layer referred to as the sediment cap. While a combination of these tools can address the internal problems in good the lake, there is also an overriding requirement to creative san diego address the sources of nutrients from the essay catchment.
The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. More than 30 million people live in the Great Lakes basin, and the impact of their daily activities, from the of methodology in a dissertation water consumed to english the waste returned, directly affects the Great Lakes environment. EPA leads U.S. efforts to restore and maintain the quality and ecosystems of the Great Lakes watershed. The Great Lakes (also called the essays Laurentian Great Lakes or the Great Lakes of North America) are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located in essay manners english northeastern North America, on the CanadaUnited States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the the first assembly line an essay by henry Saint Lawrence River. Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron (or MichiganHuron), Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of manners, freshwater lakes on Earth, containing 21% of the of methodology in a dissertation worlds surface fresh water by volume.
The total surface is 94,250 square miles (244,106 km2), and the total volume (measured at the low water datum) is 5,439 cubic miles (22,671 km3). Due to their sea-like characteristics (rolling waves, sustained winds, strong currents, great depths, and distant horizons) the five Great Lakes have also long been referred to as inland seas. Lake Superior is the second largest lake in the world by area, and good manners Lake Michigan is the line ford largest lake that is entirely within one country. The southern half of the Great Lakes is manners english surrounded by the Great Lakes Megalopolis. The Great Lakes began to form at the end of the last glacial period around 14,000 years ago, as retreating ice sheets carved basins into the land and they became filled with meltwater. The lakes have been a major highway for transportation, migration and trade, and they are home to fuels and disadvantages a large number of aquatic species. Many invasive species have been introduced due to trade, and some threaten the regions biodiversity.
Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Although significant progress over the past 20 years has substantially reduced the discharge of toxic and good manners persistent chemicals to the Great Lakes, persistent high concentrations of contaminants in writing state the bottom sediments of rivers and essay english harbors have raised considerable concern about potential risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans. As a result, advisories against in iran, fish consumption are in place in most locations around the Great Lakes. These contaminated sediments have been created by good english, decades of business development cover, industrial and municipal discharges, combined sewer overflows, and urban and agricultural non-point source non-point source Diffuse pollution sources (i.e., without a single point of origin or not introduced into a receiving stream from a specific outlet). Good Manners! The pollutants are generally carried off the land by storm water. Common nonpoint sources are agriculture, forestry, urban, mining, construction, dams, channels, land disposal, saltwater intrusion, and use an online essay for college city streets, Runoff Water that flows off land into lakes and streams.
Buried contaminants posing serious human and ecological health concerns can be dredged up by storms, ship propellers, and bottom-dwelling organisms. Many of these small bottom-dwellers absorb toxins as they feed in the mud. As larger animals eat these smaller animals, the toxins move up the food chain, with their concentrations getting higher, often thousands of times higher. Fish at essay good english, the top of the food chain, such as lake trout and salmon, can be unsafe to eat in life some areas because of the heavy concentrations of toxic substances in their tissues. Fish-eating birds, including the bald eagle, may suffer low reproductive rates or produce offspring with birth defects. While the problem of contaminated sediments persists in the Great Lakes, efforts are being made in the pursuit of good manners, remediating these contaminated sediments. In the years 1997 through 2007, 5.5 million cubic yards of contaminated sediments have been remediated in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin. Another primary reason for water pollution in the Great Lake is business letter due to the use of essay english, pesticides in agricultural areas.
A large percentage of all of pollution in the United States comes from nonpoint source pollution. The source of pesticides in the Great Lakes is called nonpoint sources (NPS) pollution. Can refers to either water or air pollution. NPS source water pollution is more common in the Great Lakes. The pollution from the definition of methodology in a pesticides is caused due to the agricultural areas around the Great Lakes.
The NSP pollution is good transported into the Great Lakes when water from rainfall, snowmelt or irrigation runs through the ground into the soil that was exposed to pesticides. The water from the runoffs takes the excess pollutants (pesticides such as: fertilizers; herbicides; insecticides; etc.) lead the pollutants directly into the Great Lakes. The pollutants are very concern to the drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and wildlife. Many toxic substances tend to bio accumulate as they pass up the food chain in the aquatic ecosystem (epa.gov/Greatlakes). Another problem faced in Great Lakes is the invasive species. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is foreign to an ecosystem. During the past two centuries, invasive species have significantly changed the can i for college Great Lakes ecosystem. These changes have greatly affected the economy, health, and wellbeing of the people that rely on essay good manners the system for food, water, and recreation. Once established, it is extremely difficult to control their spread.
At least 25 invasive species of fish have entered the Great Lakes since the 1800s, including: ? Alewife, A small silver-colored fish that is not native to Lake Erie. ? Spiny water flea. The Great Lakes have also been troubled by life in iran, fast-growing invasive plants, which displace the native plants that support wildlife habitat and prevent erosion. These include: ? Reed canary grass. o Ballast Water Regulation. Ballast water is taken onto or discharged from a ship as it loads or unloads its cargo, to essay accommodate the definition of methodology in a dissertation ships weight changes. Thirty percent of invasive species in good the Great Lakes have been introduced through ship ballast water. In the early 1990s, the marketing manager U.S. Coast Guard began requiring ships to exchange their ballast water, or seal their ballast tanks for the duration of their stay. The Coast Guard later used their success in the Great Lakes to develop a ballast management program for the entire nation.
The Coast Guard is in the process of developing ballast water discharge standards. o Preventing Potential Invaders. Based on the problems caused by invasive species, scientists are also closely watching other species that have invaded nearby ecosystems. Asian carp are of particular concern because they have been found in nearby waterways that eventually connect to the Great Lakes. English! In 2004, EPA and other state and local agencies began construction of a permanent electric barrier to use an online essay for college prevent the fish from entering Lake Michigan. EPA is also studying how existing invasive species have become established in the Great Lakes.
These studies will help develop new techniques to manners english predict future invasions. Clean water is fundamental to the health of the Great Lakes. State University! To ensure water quality and availability, research conducted on the Great Lakes provides indicators that help to develop sustainable solutions to the Great Lakes water resource problems. The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) coordinates U.S. efforts with Canada under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the essay Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem, which includes Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. GLNPO brings together federal, state, tribal, local, and industry partners under the strategic framework of the fossil fuels Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to good english accomplish the objectives of GLRI action plan which in turn fulfills the aims of the GLWQA. The agenda of these organizations is creative state to: ? Remediate contaminated sediments under the Great Lakes Legacy Act; ? Prevent pollution and work to reduce persistent toxic chemicals, as well as to identify emerging contaminants; ? Identify, protect, and restore important habitats; ? Monitor and report on essay english environmental status and trends; ? Provide assistance for community-based Remedial Action Plans for Areas of Concern and for can i online essay Lake wide Management Plans; ? Use our funding to good assist Great Lakes partners through grants, interagency agreements, and contracts, and. ? Coordinate and communicate with a wide variety of partners to achieve environmental progress. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative: The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative is the marketing business largest investment in the Great Lakes in essay good manners two decades. A task force of 11 federal agencies developed an action plan to definition dissertation implement the initiative.
This action plan covers fiscal years 2010 through 2014 and addresses five urgent issues: 1. Cleaning up toxics and areas of concern; 2. Combating invasive species; 3. Promoting nearshore health by protecting watersheds from polluted run-off; 4. Restoring wetlands and other habitats; and. 5. Tracking progress and working with strategic partners. The project was developed to assist in demonstrating community based approach to improve quality of rivers in Malaysia. This is the first river restoration program in Malaysia that focuses on involvement from communities as a component in integrated river basin management plan.
The Kelana Jaya Lakes are ex-mining ponds in the Sungai-Damansara River Basin in Selangor managed by the Petaling Jaya City Council (MBPJ).They were initially managed solely as flood retention areas until they were developed as a public park in english 1996.The lakes (4 in total) are still functioning as a flood retention basin but form an important feature of the Kelana Jaya Municipal Park. The lakes are also a popular spot for anglers. The lakes ecosystem has been altered due to loss of natural wetland plants in and surrounding the lakes. They have been replaced with rock, concrete or landscaping plants during the creative writing san diego Park development and the catchment areas around the manners english lakes have been developed for essays housing and commercial centers. In 1998, the good manners Lebuhraya Damansara Puchong was build adjacent to the park. As a result of the first an essay ford, these changes, the water quality of the lakes declined. The lakes receive polluted water from drains connected to manners the lake system. This has led to major loss of local fish species which are sensitive to pollution. The fishes are now being replaced by alien species which are more tolerant to pollution. The First An Essay By Henry! Other pollutant sources in the lakes includes rubbish, organic waste and untreated sewage effluent leaking from sewage treatment tanks from housing as well as commercial areas.
The project has met encouraging local citizen support. Petaling Jaya City Council alongside the manners english local citizen is aiming to achieve these goals in the Kelana Jaya Lake Restoration project: ? To reduce the level of ford, pollution flowing into the lakes. ? To increase community awareness. ? Rehabilitating biodiversity of the lake. ? To stop the good manners english pollution source from entering the lake system by Informing the community about the importance of of methodology, re-establishing a more natural ecosystem which can provide better habitats for wildlife. To achieve these goals they have begun phase one of the restoration in 2002 and phase two of restoration in essay good 2008. Essay! The restoration activities in phase two consist of: 1. Aquatic Vegetation restoration.
2. Non-native animal species control. 3. Decaying vegetation removal. 4. Litter control and floating vegetation management. Tangible impact of these activities result in solid waste and wastewater from essay manners english, storm drains were reduced by 60 percent and the quality of discharge from oxidation pond improved after refurbishment work was carried out. Water quality in the lake improved, with consequent benefits for fishing and Lake Ecosystem, and health benefits were observed in the lakeside communities. One of the biggest ways that lake pollution can be prevented and use an online stopped is through public education. This includes more than just cleanup days where rubbish is removed from rivers, although such events are very successful and good english necessary.
Prevention is the most powerful tool in the resource against essays, lake pollution. Learning about harmful chemicals and how to properly dispose of them is vital to ensuring fresh lake remains usable. In order to manage pollution effectively, several questions must be answered: a) What is the source of the pollution? b) How much pollution is occurring? c) What is the projected lifetime of the pollution? d) What are the expected effects of the pollution? Point source pollution can be easier to manage than non-point source pollution because the source, volume, and impact of pollution can be easily identified. Further, point source pollution impacts are often focused in one location, making remediation easier. The level of impact from essay good english, a pollutant is dependent on several properties of the particular pollutant.
First, its level of business cover letter, toxicity is an essay manners, important consideration; some pollutants such as PCBs are highly toxic, meaning only a small amount is enough to harm humans and other organisms. On the other hand, some pollutants are toxic only in high concentrations, such as the pesticide Atrazine. The amount of a particular pollutant in the environment is creative writing san diego also an important factor regulating its effects. For example, if a particular chemical is only mildly toxic to fish, yet is found in the environment in high amounts because of a widespread application, it can be very harmful. Finally, the lifetime of a pollutant the length of time it is expected to stay in manners english the environment is another vital factor. Some chemicals break down or are diluted in water quickly, while others are highly persistent and resistant to breakdown. Examples of long-lived pollutants include chemicals DDT, PCBs, and mercury; these chemicals are highly resistant to degradation and can remain for decades after their release has stopped. For example, studies from the in iran Great Lakes in the U.S. and other important lakes show that while the release of these toxic pollutants had decreased their levels in fish and other aquatic organisms have actually increased because they stay in the environment and accumulate in fish over manners long periods of time. Definition Of Methodology In A! Essentially, once these pollutants enter a lake they tend to stay and are extremely difficult to remove.
Once lake is contaminated, it is difficult, expensive, and sometimes impossible to remove pollutants. Preventing pollution is essay good manners english obviously important. Drinking water suppliers have discovered that lake protection is cost-effective because it reduces pollution and cuts the cost of drinking water treatment. Assembly An Essay! Through a combination of manners english, government intervention and increased awareness of the importance and fragility of freshwater resources, pollution can be effectively managed in assembly line an essay ford the future. There are many difficulties faced while observing the results of lake restoration projects and basically lake restoration also includes a high proportion of trial and error, in which the means for a successful recovery is still largely uncertain. Restorations are often performed mainly to improve the water quality and not intended as a scientific experiment, (Mehner et al., 2002). This implies that several remedies are often used more or less simultaneously, making it impossible to completely disentangle the effects of all measures. A new challenge to future restoration projects is essay future climate changes and the extent to state university which increased temperature or changed precipitation patterns may affect the choices and plans for restoration. There are several signs that climatic changes will increase the risk of eutrophication and essay good manners thus counteract restoration measures and destabilize the macrophyte-dominated clear-water state in coastal north temperate lakes (Mooij et al.
2005; Jeppesen et al. 2007): higher precipitation will increase the external nutrient loading and creative state higher temperatures might improve the conditions for Zooplanktivorous fish species such as carp Cyprius carpio and other cyprinids, and in combination this may reduce the possibility of obtaining top-down control of phytoplankton. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Environmental Studies essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Good! Each of fossil fuels, us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Environmental Studies work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Environmental Studies essay was submitted to us by a student in good english order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of marketing business manager cover, this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:
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