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Arguments For and Against Banning Boxing. Five Essay Worksheets! Since completing university, Paul has worked as a bookseller, librarian, and freelance writer. Born in the UK, he now lives in Florida. Boxing has existed in some form since at least 688 BC when the ancient Greeks made it an Olympic game, but its history has often been a controversial one. Fans argue that the sport encourages physical fitness and discipline, as well as providing a way for young people way to murder in the questions remove themselves from paragraph essay writing worksheets poverty. Critics, however, believe that boxing is penn, barbaric, unacceptably dangerous and five writing worksheets, should be banned. Modern boxing developed in murder in the essay the UK and USA in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. The Marquess of Queensberry rules, drafted in five essay writing worksheets 1867, eventually helped boxing to make the gradual transition into being a modern sport after a long period when it had possessed only dubious legitimacy. Energy Homework! Below are the main arguments for and against that are employed by people debating the issue of whether boxing should be banned. Boxing is the only sport you can get your brain shook, your money took and your name in the undertaker book.
Boxing is essay writing, a lot of white men watching two black men beat each other up. Arguments for Boxing Being Banned. Student Voice Essay! The sport is barbaric and five paragraph writing, no better than an organized physical assault, which would be illegal in any other context. The fact that the participants are taking part voluntarily is irrelevant - in some senses, boxing resembles dueling, which was a normal part of life for many years, but is energy help, now banned. There are injuries that occur accidentally in other sports, but in boxing causing a head injury in five paragraph essay writing the form of a knockout to your opponent is actually one of the main objectives.
Although deaths that occur during fights are rare, many doctors believe that boxing should be banned because of the eye and brain injuries that can be caused by repeated punches to help the head. Five Essay Writing Worksheets! These injuries may go unnoticed at the time, but cause the boxer serious problems in nss camp essay later life. There are very few professional fighters who's brains end up unscathed by the end of their career. Professional boxing glamorizes violence and the concept of becoming rich and famous through physical aggression. Paragraph Essay Worksheets! This sends children especially the entirely wrong message. Although boxing may appear to offer a quick and easy route to help riches, it is in fact a poor choice.
Apart from the very real health risks, boxers are commonly exploited economically and even the five essay writing worksheets, most successful ones can often end up penniless. All of the sports have a safety net, but boxing is the only sport that has none. So when the fighter is through, he is through. While he was fighting his management was very excited for him, but now that he is done, that management team is moving on. Nss Camp Essay! The trouble with boxing is that too often it ends in sadness. Stone carvings show that Sumerians engaged in five boxing fights over 5,000 years ago. Boxing disappeared after the energy homework, Romans for a long time and didn't reappear until the late 1600s in England.
The fighting was brutal, with bare-knuckle bouts continuing until one of the boxers could no longer continue. Rule changes came in 1743, with the London Prize Ring Rules, and again over a century later when the Marquess of Queensberry rules introduced gloves and three minute rounds with one minute breaks. Boxing is like jazz. Five Essay! The better it is, the less people appreciate it. Arguments Against Boxing Being Banned.
Boxing requires a high degree of physical fitness, if you wish to be successful, so it teaches young people to look after their bodies. There is no general intent in boxing to injure the opponent. Murder In The Cathedral Questions! Rather, the primary aim is to score the paragraph writing, most points by hitting strictly defined regions of the body. The sport teaches discipline. As well as things like exercise and diet, it also informs young people when, and when not to fight, emphasizing the ethical outline, need for establishing mental control as well as physical. It also gives young people self-defense skills and can increase self-esteem, including the paragraph essay writing worksheets, ability to student defend themselves if physically assaulted. The vast majority of boxers train and fight not because they want to paragraph writing make lots of money, but because they enjoy it as a sport. Nobody is forced to angles box or watch a fight, all participants do so through their own free will. Five! Those who don’t like the sport should just ignore it if they don’t like it. Critics unfairly target boxing because it more obviously resembles a fight, rather than other sports which can be physically aggressive, such as ice hockey, or rugby, where there is a puck, or a ball to provide the homework, focus.
Likewise, the high degree of strategy and tactics employed by boxers are often missed by inexperienced observers. Boxing is a way for people to remove themselves from poverty. Other doors that may not be an option for a young boxer, such as a college education, and five essay writing, the sport provides another route to social and penn dissertations, economic advancement. At the very least it can provide a sense of self-respect. Without boxing, because of my neighborhoods, who knows what would have happened to me. It was always about following the essay worksheets, leader. And I definitely was not a leader. Boxing gave me discipline; a sense of self.
It made me more outspoken. It gave me more confidence. Sugar Ray Leonard. Boxing is a sport. We allow each other to hit each other, but I'm not treating my opponent like my enemy. We're doing a job to entertain people. Help! Do you think that boxing should be banned? The brutalities of a fight with bare hands, the crushed nasal bones, maimed lips, and other disfigurements, which call for the utter abolition of boxing in the interests of humanity, at five essay writing worksheets once disappear when the contestants cover their hands with large, soft-leather gloves. John Boyle O'Reilly. 15 Boxing Champions With the Most Impressive Reach/Arm Span. by nss camp essay, Charles Nuamah 0. Greatest Sports Rivalries: Muhammad Ali vs.
Joe Frazier. by paragraph essay writing worksheets, EJ Lambert 6. Chuck Wepner: The Man who Inspired the Movie “Rocky” by Readmikenow 11. Why Roberto Durán Is the Greatest Boxer of nss camp essay, All Time. How to Use the five essay, Dempsey Roll in Boxing. by CJMcAllister 1. Why Roberto Durán Is the Greatest Boxer of All Time. 15 Boxing Champions With the penn, Most Impressive Reach/Arm Span. by Charles Nuamah 0. I think boxing should not be banned. Hi this is a good story and boxing shouldn't be banned.
HEY SUP NOTHING MUCH 6 months ago. Boxing SHOULD NOT be banned because not just boxing is dangerous, but any other sports could be dangerous. So if we ban boxing, what is going to be banned next? Volleyball? Water polo?
Soccer? Football? Hockey? I have so, many reasons why boxing should not be banned but this is one of the reasons why. Max Spiller 6 months ago. Person on the Internet 7 months ago. I think that boxing should be banned on tv and in real life. Sure, people think it's fun and you train for self defense, but if you look at it differently, you are pretty much beating another person up! That's not cool bro. Five Writing Worksheets! teri an hortan ryder 8 months ago. it should be banned because it promotes little children to fight and hurt people. A cool star 9 months ago. I think it should not be banned from the earth it is because it is very important for student voice the peoples to save from the people who love fighting. no dont ban boxing.
Enjoy every bit of paragraph essay writing worksheets, life 11 months ago. Murder In The! I vote for not banning boxing. There are a number of five paragraph worksheets, dangerous sports (auto racing, American football, rugby,bull riding rodeo, X-games sports etc) and you can't ban all of them. If it isn't banned at least adjust the rules of pro boxing: i.e. Voice Essay! use the rules and the headgear presently found in amateur boxing to help mitigate some of the severe consequences of paragraph essay, boxing while maintaining the skill, discipline physical fitness etc mentioned in the arguments against boxing being banning. Voice Essay! Boxing shouldn't be banned because the people in the ring are willingly hitting each other. No one person was ever forced to five essay writing box. Most of the time it was an alternative to nss camp essay going to jail.
If the men in the ring were forced to five paragraph essay writing do what they do it wouldn't be considered a sport it would be a punishment. Every hit in boxing builds strategy skills. Constantly looking for an open hit. conor mcgregor 12 months ago. boxing should NOT be banned :) DOUBLE MMA CHAMP AND UFC TRIPLE BELT 12 months ago. Help! Boxing, Karate, Tai Jutsu and all other forms of Martial Arts should be respected and five paragraph essay worksheets, not banned due to their cultural richness. Wow there shouldn't really be a debate on this, boxing should just be banned all up. i think it should be banned because people getting hurt i dont want that. The reasons for not banning boxing were poor excuses and completely untrue. An article from neurological studies was the strongest argument by itself, and our 21st century era has outgrown boxing. What boxing officials don't seem to grasp is that boxing gloves and angles, head protection doesn't protect because the paragraph essay writing, human head wasn't designed to take much in blows, regardless if it has artificial padding around it. The protection just adds a ton of homework, weight that moves under force and impacts the head. Regardless of how they change the regulations, boxing is meant to impact the head for force the writing, opponents to knockout or submit when they've had enough blows. Energy! Why people agree that bõing should not be banned.
mwilliams66 5 years ago from Left Coast, USA. I am in no way a proponent of five essay worksheets, boxing. In fact I very much dislike it. This however, does not taint the fact that I don't believe it should be banned. I believe it would only serve to murder cathedral questions drive it underground. What I do feel should be banned is extreme fighting and MMA. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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Reflexivity: A Concept and its Meanings for Practitioners Working with Children and five essay worksheets Families. Senior Lecturer in Social Work. School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Waterfront campus. Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Philip Gillingham, B.A. (Hons), M.S.W., CQSW. Lecturer in Social Work.
School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Waterfront campus. Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Bethany Community Support. North Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Reflexivity is a concept that is increasingly gaining currency in professional practice literature, particularly in relation to working with uncertainty and as an dissertations, important feature of professional discretion and ethical practice.
This article discusses how practitioners working in child and five paragraph worksheets family welfare/protection organisations understood and interpreted the concept of murder cathedral questions, reflexivity for their practice, as one of the outcomes of larger, collaborative research project. This project was conducted through a series of workshops with practitioners. The overall research that aimed to expand practitioners’ practice repertoires from narrowly-defined risk assessment, to five paragraph essay writing an approach that could account for the uncertainties of practice, included the concept of reflexivity as an alternative or a complement to instrumental accountability that is increasingly a feature in child welfare/protection organisations. This article discusses how the concept of reflexivity was explored in the research and how practitioners interpreted the concept for their practice. We conclude that while concepts like reflexivity are central to formal theories for professional practice, we also recognise that individual practitioners interpret concepts (in ways that are both practically and contextually relevant), thus creating practical meanings appropriate to their practice contexts. Reflexivity is a concept that is increasingly gaining currency in professional practice literature, particularly in relation to dissertations working with uncertainty (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; 2000b) and as an important feature of five paragraph writing worksheets, professional discretion and ethical practice (Fook 1996, 1999; Taylor White, 2000). In an earlier article (D’Cruz, Gillingham Melendez, 2007), the authors critically reviewed the social work literature to explore the many meanings of the concept of reflexivity for social work theory, practice and angles homework research. In our previous article, we demonstrated how terms such as ‘reflexivity’, ‘reflectivity’ and five paragraph essay ‘critical reflection’ are used by different authors to student voice mean very different things (sometimes interchangeably) ( for example, Jessup Rogerson, 1999, p. Paragraph Essay Writing? 176; Leonard, 1999,p. vii; Pease Fook, 1999, pp. 13, 17, 231; Boud, 1999; Briggs, 1999; Rea, 2000; Mosca Yost, 2001).
We proposed that there were three main variations in the meaning of the homework help, concept, each of which had slightly different, though at times overlapping, consequences for paragraph social work practice. These variations are summarized below. In the first variation, reflexivity is regarded as an homework help, individual’s considered response to five paragraph writing an immediate context and is concerned with the ability of service users to process information and create knowledge to guide life choices (Roseneil Seymour, 1999; Kondrat, 1999; Elliott, 2001; Ferguson, 2003, 2004). In the second variation, reflexivity is defined as a social worker’s self-critical approach that questions how knowledge about clients is generated and, further, how relations of power operate in this process (White Stancombe, 2003; Taylor and White, 2000; Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; Sheppard, Newstead, Caccavo Ryan, 2000). In the third variation, reflexivity is concerned with the part that emotion plays in social work practice (Kondrat, 1999; Mills Kleinman, 1988; Miehls Moffat, 2000; Ruch, 2002). We surmised that the diversity of meanings that emerge from a critical analysis of terms such as ‘reflexivity’ and ‘reflection’ is indicative that such concepts are relatively new to nss camp essay social work and their meanings for the profession are still being debated. Further, that the diversity of meanings increases the possibilities for expanding practice repertoires and debate should be encouraged rather than some form of closure sought. In this article we discuss how practitioners working in child and family welfare/protection organisations understood and interpreted the concept of reflexivity for their practice, as one of the outcomes of a larger, collaborative research project. The overall research aimed to expand practitioners’ practice repertoires from narrowly-defined risk assessment, to an approach that could account for the uncertainties of practice through a range of concepts (D’Cruz, et al., 2004; D’Cruz and Gillingham, 2005; D’Cruz et al., in press).
Reflexivity was one of these concepts, that we introduced to participants as an alternative or a complement to instrumental accountability that is increasingly a feature in child welfare/protection organisations (Howe, 1992; Parton et al., 1997). As discussed further below (see also D’Cruz et al., in press) a theoretical aim of the research was to paragraph worksheets explore how a concept, such as reflexivity, drawn from a social constructionist paradigm could be combined with practice approaches dominated by instrumental accountability. The question of how practitioners might combine the two was central as, in theory, the approaches are considered to be incommensurable. We conclude that while concepts like reflexivity are central to formal theories for professional practice, it must also be recognised that individual practitioners interpret concepts, thus creating practical meanings appropriate to their practice contexts. Professional practice in contemporary child and family welfare/protection organisations. From the mid-1980s to the end of the 1990s, child and family policy and practice in many western countries such as the UK, the US and Australia became increasingly proceduralised and voice bureaucratised (Howe, 1992) following coronial and public inquiries into the deaths and serious injuries to children in the care of their parents/caregivers.
Risk management through risk assessment checklists was the preferred approach that aimed to minimise “practice mistakes” (Walton, 1993) seen as consequences of professional discretion and autonomy, and “subjective” decision making (Reder, Duncan Gray, 1993). Risk assessment criteria as prescriptive checklists represented rationality that could manage the uncertainty and paragraph essay unpredictability associated with ensuring the penn, care and protection of children living with their parents (Parton, 1998), and five paragraph writing thus minimise or eradicate “practice mistakes” (Walton, 1993). Professionals including social workers were expected to adhere to procedures, with “substantive accountability” to clients (children and families) replaced by angles help, “instrumental accountability” to the organisation (Bauman, 1987). The proliferation of research and paragraph writing literature critiquing these developments in child and family welfare/protection organisations has generated alternatives that recognise the necessity for professional discretion and energy help participatory ethical practice with children and parents. These alternatives include the recognition of both the essay, “dangers” and “opportunities” presented by protective practice (Ferguson, 1997), the importance of critically-reflective practice and “dialogue” (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a) between parents, children and practitioners, and in the cathedral reflexive practice that foregrounds the connections between professional knowledge and paragraph writing worksheets professional power in situated practice (Taylor White, 2000). The theoretical perspective informing many of nss camp essay, these critiques and practice alternatives is five essay, social constructionism, that offers justification for re-introducing professional discretion and autonomy, on the grounds that all social practices including professional practice, involve people making meaning through social processes (Parton et al., 1997; D’Cruz, 2004). This perspective challenges the implicit assumption of instrumentalist risk assessment approaches that there is an homework, objective truth about the care and protection of children that can be established if prescribed assessment procedures are followed. In some contexts, such as in Britain, these critiques have influenced changes in child and family policy and practice so that instrumentalist forms of risk assessment have been replaced by paragraph essay writing worksheets, broader family-focused approaches (Ferguson, 1997; Parton, 1997).
However, in the Australian context where the research discussed in this article was conducted, instrumentalist risk assessment approaches continue to dominate, as evidenced by the continued use and implementation of the Victorian Risk Framework (DHS, 1999) and ‘Structured Decision Making’ in South Australia (Hetherington, 1999) and Queensland (Leeks, 2006). Murder In The? A full discussion about why risk assessment approaches continue to dominate in Australia is, however, beyond the scope of this article. Exploring an expanded practice repertoire: a summary of the research. The research that is five worksheets, discussed in this article incorporates these approaches within a conceptual framework that explicitly recognises both risk assessment and social constructionism as important to professional practice. We have not dismissed the penn dissertations, necessity for risk assessment in some form, nor do we believe it is productive to dismiss the organisational contexts in which practitioners work. Instead we have explored the possibilities of an approach that accepts the practical, ethical, professional and five paragraph worksheets legal bases for risk assessment, and the opportunities for the space of practice that is silenced organisationally and for individuals namely, the discretionary aspects of practice. This research emerged from the argument essay, first author’s PhD research, which explored how meanings and identities were constructed in child protection practice (D’Cruz, 1999; 2004), rather than being predictable outcomes as absolute ‘realities’ achieved by heavily proceduralised and five paragraph essay writing instrumental practice informed by the risk paradigm (Howe, 1992; Parton et al., 1997). The approach taken that accommodates both perspectives ( D’Cruz, 1999; 2004, p. 255-261), described as “juxtaposing seeming incommensurables” (Marcus, 1994, p. 566) in post-modern thought, explored the possibilities of putting together concepts or phenomena that might be considered as mutually exclusive or polarities (Hassard, 1993). Ethical Argument Essay? For example, ideas of “realism” (as absolute, objective reality) and “relativism” (reality is relative, being constructed by five essay writing, participants) (Edwards, Ashmore Potter, 1995) are usually seen as mutually exclusive and nss camp essay oppositional concepts.
This approach is five paragraph, known as “dualism” (Heap, 1995), that accepts a physical reality that may generate a variety of plausible, and relative explanations and meanings depending on the situated positioning of participants (Reason and voice essay Bradbury, 2001, p. 6). For child welfare/protection, a dualist position allows for an acceptance of children’s lived experiences that include material disadvantage, oppression and trauma, and paragraph writing worksheets the necessity for ‘risk assessment’, while also acknowledging that these experiences may be explained and penn dissertations understood from many, competing perspectives (D’Cruz, 2004; D’Cruz et al., 2004). Child protection practitioners usually have to paragraph essay negotiate these multiple explanations in each case and decide which version is ‘truth’. The research that explored the possibilities of expanding the practice repertoire available to child protection practitioners incorporated three dimensions: theories of knowledge and power, related professional roles, and practice skills. The second and third dimension are beyond the scope of this article and here we focus on one part of the first dimension, the nss camp essay, concept of reflexivity. We briefly discuss below the five features of the first dimension, to contextualise how reflexivity was part of the overall research and especially of the first dimension.
The first dimension, theories of knowledge and power, draws on paragraph essay writing worksheets assumptions about knowledge and the practitioner’s relationship to knowledge represented as practice decisions informed by the risk paradigm and social constructionism. This dimension begins from the position that the risk paradigm and social constructionism are represented in theory as mutually exclusive, each with particular defining features. The proposed alternative conceptual approach moves from this position of mutually exclusive perspectives to explore whether features of energy homework, each perspective may be combined in different ways in practice as a way of expanding professional knowledge and practice repertoires for five essay practitioners (D’Cruz et al., in ethical outline, press). Overall, the five features of the first dimension of the paragraph essay worksheets, conceptual framework related to in the questions how theories of knowledge and power may be represented in regard to views about ‘reality’, ‘truth’ and ‘knowledge’ and writing worksheets expertise and authority. For example, whether knowledge is essay, objective and five essay writing worksheets absolute (real) or an outcome of alternative, contestable meanings (relative); and the relationship of knowledge to the speaker/author/knower (privilege/positioning). Instrumental rationality and reflexivity were the first feature of this dimension and, as explained below, reflexivity seemed to have the greatest resonance for the practitioners in terms of nss camp essay, how they could relate it to their practice. To explore how practitioners might be able to expand their practice repertoires through the possibility of juxtaposing concepts like reflexivity and instrumental rationality that are regarded as polarised and mutually exclusive, a research project, ‘Developing a practice-generated approach to policy implementation’, was developed (D’Cruz et al., in press). The aim was to develop an alternative approach for paragraph worksheets child protection practice that would account for murder in the essay ethical, legal and bureaucratic demands while providing “child centred, family focused” services (e.g.
Ferguson, 1997) beyond surveillance and monitoring that Donzelot (1980) refers to writing worksheets as “policing families”. Hence the research was designed to explore the assumptions about knowledge and student power underlying the main contemporary theoretical approaches to child protection, namely, risk assessment and social constructionism, that as abstract theories are considered as “incommensurable” or mutually exclusive, yet might be combined in five paragraph writing, practice through the exercise of discretion. In this article, we focus specifically on how practitioners who were research participants were engaged in regard to the concept of reflexivity as either an alternative to or complement for instrumental rationality that was/is the norm in their organisational contexts. Generally, “incommensurability” is taken to mean that different paradigms cannot be compared as each has self-contained criteria that include what is penn, relevant to the paradigm and simultaneously demarcates what is not (Feyerabend, 1975; Lee, 1994; Jacobs, 2002a; 2002b). Within this definition, the risk paradigm and social constructionism cannot be compared as they are considered to be incommensurable, as each is a self-contained perspective. We believe they can be compared on the grounds that they offer different perspectives of social reality and professional practice.
From a post-modernist perspective that claims that one can “juxtapose seeming incommensurables” (Marcus, 1994, p. 566) we have taken an approach that does not claim to combine entire self-contained paradigms. Instead, we have identified a few key features of each paradigm as being important for professional discretion and ethical practice and have incorporated these into paragraph essay, our overall conceptual framework. Student Voice? This approach also draws from Feyerabend’s (1975) conceptualisation of the worksheets, need for “pluralism” of apparently conflicting theoretical perspectives so that theories can better explain/understand “realities” that may not be adequately addressed through single approaches . Reflexivity (and its conceptual opposite, instrumental rationality) are two such concepts that are identified here as representing how professionals are expected to work from different paradigms or perspectives (in our research, social constructionism and the risk paradigm, respectively). We have aimed to explore whether reflexivity and instrumental rationality could be considered as two ‘ends’ of a continuum of possibilities that may generate countless variations to improve practice options. The idea of a conceptual continuum from a professional practice perspective, is angles, similar to five paragraph writing the “grey areas” of practice that are well known to practitioners, as the vast majority of cases do not fit neatly within prescribed official categories and related theories (Parton, 1991). How do practitioners understand the concept of reflexivity and its relationship to instrumental rationality in their practice? Research Participants and Procedures. The research was conducted in penn dissertations, 2002 and five paragraph writing 2003. There were ten participants in the first cohort, and seven in the second. The first group of participants involved senior practitioners and the second group involved relatively more recent graduates (primarily social workers).
The participants were employed at child welfare/child protection organisations in Victoria, Australia, namely, the Department of Human Services (Barwon South-Western Region), Glastonbury Child and Family Services, and MacKillop Family Services. Participants from each organisation were recruited by invitation using a plain language statement and participation required written consent. The research was facilitated by the first author who was also an active participant in the research process. Essay Questions? In 2002, the second author was a senior child protection practitioner who participated in the research as a key informant and as research assistant. In 2003, the second author continued to participate as a key informant and five paragraph essay writing worksheets the third author, who was a Bachelor of Social Work (Honours) student, was employed as a research assistant.
The particular challenges and opportunities of conducting collaborative research across a range of agencies are discussed more fully in D’Cruz Gillingham (2005), as are the ethical and practical dilemmas of (and the argument outline, particular insights gained from) the multiple roles occupied by the researchers. Key concerns in this process were how participants perceived the multiple roles of the researchers and five essay writing how they themselves could step aside from nss camp essay, their normal (and potentially oppositional purchaser/provider) roles. In order to address these concerns, rules about the confidentiality of paragraph essay worksheets, comments made and written were clarified at the beginning and essay questions during the workshops. The participants were also drawn from an area where practitioners move from one employer to another and so have to five paragraph essay writing worksheets accommodate the changing roles of colleagues. Comments from the participants indicated that they welcomed the penn dissertations, opportunity to debate issues with each other in five paragraph essay writing, the workshop that they would not be able to discuss in their normal occupational roles. Participants in both cohorts attended five focus groups that covered the three dimensions of the alternative approach. Nss Camp Essay? These were referred to as “workshops” in essay writing, order to reflect the collaborative and dialogic nature of the research and the participation, rather than just facilitation, by the researchers in the sessions. The first workshop (half-day) introduced the research and explored participants’ perceptions of the context in which they worked, and help the extent of discretion and professional power they believed they had (and sought to writing exercise) in their organisations and in relation to clients. Student Essay? These perceptions were important as they suggested how each practitioner/participant might engage with abstract concepts to be addressed in the research, as opposed to prescribed procedures, in their work environment. Paragraph Writing? Furthermore, perceptions about the extent of their discretion in their employing organisations might also influence how participants perceived the value of the research itself for its contributions to their practice.
At the second workshop (full day), reflexivity (and instrumental rationality) were explored as part of the first dimension of the conceptual framework, theories of knowledge and power. The third and fourth workshops (full days) the remaining dimensions of the alternative approach, namely, theories, professional roles and practice skills. At the end of the angles homework, fourth workshop, participants were asked to apply any aspects of the writing worksheets, approach to their practice and document it along with critical comments (Stringer, 1996; Reason Bradbury, 2001). Participants were alerted to the likelihood that they would not be able to apply the entire conceptual approach in every case; nor were they expected to. Cathedral Questions? This advice was given because the facilitator recognised from her own practice experience that specific cases do not fit tidily within the generalities of essay writing, formal theory hence the tensions between ‘theory’ and penn dissertations ‘practice’ (Fook, 1996; 1999; Camilleri, 1996; 1999). At the fifth and final workshop (half-day) participants discussed their examples of how they applied the approach to their practice and offered critical feedback.
Each workshop discussion relied on writing plain language definitions and semi-structured questions that had been mailed to participants prior to the workshop to facilitate their engagement with particular dimensions of the alternative approach. The conceptual features of each dimension and their plain language definitions were refined in discussion between the Principal Researcher (also first author) and the second author who, at the initiation of the research, was employed as a senior child protection practitioner in a large statutory organisation. The definitions, questions and related readings were mailed to participants before each workshop to allow them time to consider and critically engage with the materials. Figure 1 sets out the plain language definitions and explanations of “instrumental rationality” and “reflexivity” that were mailed to participants prior to their attendance at workshop two. Reflexivity (Hassard, 1993; Taylor White, 2000): An important practice skill and central to working ethically in uncertain contexts and unpredictable situations as opposed to instrumental accountability (following rules and procedures). Critical self-awareness by the practitioner, in how he or she understands and engages with social problems. Realisation that our assumptions about social problems and the people who experience these problems have ethical and practical consequences. Questioning of personal practice, knowledge and assumptions. The following questions were provided to facilitate practitioners’ engagement with questioning their practice assumptions and their interpretation of the concept of reflexivity: How do I know what I think I know about this person and their problem?
What has my experience of this immediate situation and the person(s) involved in it contributed to my conclusions for my practice? Is there at least one other way of understanding this situation and the people involved? Is there any possibility that this situation or aspects of it can be seen as the penn dissertations, normal consequences of everyday life and/or broader structural disadvantage? How can I use my professional knowledge and associated power as productively as possible? Figure 1: Plain language definitions and critical questions about “reflexivity” and “instrumental accountability” During the workshops, data were generated by engaging the participants in discussion about the questions (in Figure 1). Paragraph Essay Worksheets? They were also given time to provide written responses to material provided in the workshops, which asked them to consider how they might incorporate the proposed concepts into their practice. In 2002, the workshop discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed but this proved to be less than satisfactory. A particular problem was that participants, in the heat of the debate, tended to speak over each other (and at ethical essay outline, the same time), making the transcription fragmented and difficult to follow. Consequently this was not repeated in 2003, but extensive notes of the discussion were taken by the research assistant and research facilitator (first author). During the workshops in both 2002 and paragraph 2003, an electronic whiteboard was used to capture salient points during the discussions with the participants at the workshops and these were printed off.
The use of the whiteboard also allowed participants and researchers the opportunity to clarify the points being made. Penn? Participants were encouraged to comment on whether the worksheets, researcher using the whiteboard had adequately captured their meaning, This approach to help data recording, known as “member checking” (Rubin Babbie, 2005) was concerned with the point that “(t)he central meanings attached to objects or relations should reflect the beliefs that the insiders hold about these” (Kellehear, 1993, p. 38) and that “(v)alidity here begins with the convergence of the researcher and the subject’s ideas about the subject’s view of the world” (Kellehear, 1993, p. 38). The participants’ responses were analysed in accordance with principles drawn from qualitative research, whereby the researcher aims to identify patterns and contradictions in the data and interpret subjective meanings generated by the participants (Everitt, Hardiker, Littlewood Mullender, 1992). “Open coding” (Strauss Corbin, 1990) was used to start analyzing the data and involved reading through the range of documents generated by participants through their written responses and the discussions. Themes in relation to how participants defined reflexivity in relation to their practice were then identified, as they emerged from the five paragraph essay, data (Strauss Corbin, 1990), and categorised according to the interpretations of the researchers. Throughout this process, themes were expanded, developed and changed through the murder in the, identification of direct quotes from participants and repeated reading of the data. This process continued until no new themes emerged. The particular challenges of conducting collaborative research are discussed more fully elsewhere (see D’Cruz and Gillingham, 2005), as are the limitations of the research design, both practically and theoretically (see D’Cruz et al., in press). Particular limitations can be summarised as follows. The number of participants was small and we acknowledge that a larger number of participants would have strengthened any claims made. Five Paragraph Worksheets? We also relied on the accounts of the participants of how they tried to integrate the help, alternative concepts in their practice rather than observe them directly. We also acknowledge that the findings of the five paragraph, research are closely linked to essay the context in which it was conducted, a context which changes (and has changed since the paragraph essay worksheets, research was conducted) continually and essay outline sometimes swiftly.
The concept of reflexivity as interpreted by practitioners/participants. Of all the paragraph essay, concepts explored in angles homework help, this part of the research, reflexivity seemed to have greatest resonance for participants, as it seemed to fundamentally relate to knowledge, theory and practice and the connections between these ideas. Five Paragraph Worksheets? In particular, it also resonated with their recognition of the discretion that they have in their practice, however limited this may be by organisational settings. (The other concepts that had greatest resonance for student voice the participants seemed to relate more specifically to the other two dimensions that have not been addressed in this article, namely, professional roles and practice skills.) In fact, the richness of the data related to reflexivity enabled us to develop a detailed analysis (D’Cruz et al., 2004), which we now present below. Essay Writing Worksheets? Firstly we present the different meanings of reflexivity that participants generated and ethical argument outline secondly their engagement with the five, notion of power/knowledge as it relates to the definition of reflexivity that they were given. We were able to identify six themes that represented the participants’ conceptualisations of reflexivity in relation to their practice: as self-reflection, distinct from angles help, reflection.
as a way to combine objectivity and subjectivity. as a critical appraisal of action and knowledge creation, in the moment. reflexivity as a tool for practice/an introspective process. reflexivity as a learning tool/critical practice approach. as a process of critical reflection on policy (D’Cruz et al., 2004) These six themes are considered in more detail below. While we acknowledge that there are considerable overlaps between some of the themes, we have separated them out in order to convey the essay, subtleties and range of meaning in the responses. Angles? Due to five worksheets the way that the responses were recorded during group discussions, we were not able to identify participants individually, but have been able to identify and include which of the two cohorts they belonged to (2002 or 2003).
This identifying information is significant in that the two cohorts (as explained above in the section “Research Participants and Procedures”) differed in terms of professional roles and experience. Energy Homework? The 2002 cohort were mainly team leaders and supervisors, while those involved in 2003 were all relatively recently qualified practitioners. Practitioners’ Meanings of Reflexivity. as self-reflection, distinct from five, reflection. Some of the participants defined reflexivity as the use of intuition or tacit knowledge (Polyani 1967) to help make sense of a situation and also as a way of combining the use of the intellect and the emotions to do so. The inclusion of self (including emotional responses) in the critical approach to knowledge creation are conveyed by the following quotes: reflection is kinda looking out and looking at paragraph essay writing worksheets, everything whereas reflexivity is doing that but including yourself in energy homework help, that . (emphasis added) (2002) Need to be aware of internal (emotional responses and “gut feelings”) and paragraph external (things go on penn dissertations around us) factors. . . Paragraph? (2003) (2) as a way to combine objectivity and subjectivity.
The participants engaged with the idea of a continuum between instrumental rationality and reflexivity as a way of combining objectivity and subjectivity, of moving between the two and legitimating both approaches to knowledge creation in practice, as demonstrated by the following quotes: I sort of saw it as combining objectivity and subjectivity. . . . So you can be both, objective and subjective in the same context. . . (2002) [At the instrumental accountability end of the continuum] the assumption can only be. . . [that] if you’re objective then you can’t be subjective. . . whereas it’s actually contextually okay to penn dissertations be both. And it’s realistic to be both. (2002) reflection is kinda looking out and looking at essay writing, everything whereas reflexivity is doing that but including yourself in that (2002) These interpretations of the concept of reflexivity, in relation to instrumental accountability resonate with one of the penn dissertations, original aims of this research, which was to investigate whether and how two seemingly polarized approaches to social work practice in child protection can be combined. Essay Writing? Though we do not have these participants’ definitions of angles help, objectivity and subjectivity, it appears from the five paragraph, context of the discussion that they identifying the ‘instrumental rationality’ end of the continuum with ‘objectivity’ and the ‘reflexivity’ end with ‘subjectivity’. It appears that, for them, the concept of reflexivity offered the in the essay questions, opportunity to practice in two ways at five essay, the same time. Another participant, however, saw reflexivity as a way of student, acknowledging his/her personal emotional response and then distancing him/herself from this response in five paragraph writing worksheets, order to increase his/her objectivity: This helps me make sense of my responses to what I am being told. It helps me distance myself from my emotional responses to the person who is outline, speaking to me. . . . If I figure out that my emotional response is mirroring theirs, or that I am being convinced by their presentation rather than anything else, then I change my emotional response, or put it aside, to become more objective. (2003) (3) as a critical appraisal of action and knowledge creation, in the moment.
For some participants reflexivity allowed questioning of what is a ‘fact’ and a broadening of what might be considered pertinent to an assessment: Reflexivity for essay writing me means being able to argument essay more broadly consider the client’s experience of the world rather than through the narrow confines of worksheets, accountability through procedures (sic) facts and bottom lines. (2003) One participant gave the example of when the application of reflexivity allowed for penn alternative explanations for paragraph a mother’s behaviour in a domestic violence situation. Although (I was) very much aware of theory re DV and cycle of violence, the penn dissertations, information, context and worksheets presentation of mother were quite confronting. Rationalizing in my own head drawing on the context of her life/environment, my knowledge of theory and past experience of DV situations to assist with making sense and understand the mother’s thought processes. . . (2003) This application of the concept led to a reassessment of the situation rather than the mother’s behaviour being considered as just a breach of angles homework, procedures. Five Paragraph Essay? This questioning also extended to how formal theories and knowledge are applied in penn, practice. The example given here concerned theories about the cause and effects of domestic violence.
The questioning of ‘fact’, knowledge and theory is paragraph essay worksheets, exemplified by the following: valuing and holding fairly highly, the practice of conducting reflexivity. . . bring that sort of ‘third eye’ stuff. . . you keep making explicit the dissertations, fact that that’s what you’re doing. Essay Worksheets? The stopping and thinking about why you did, and where you did and what you did. And that navel gazing I guess is the notion. (2002) The reference to ‘navel gazing’ in the above quote could have quite negative connotations in that it could be read that applying the concept of reflexivity could lead to endless, or at least time-consuming, introspection and a lack of action. (4) reflexivity as a tool for practice/an introspective process. Reflexivity was conceptualized as a practice tool that could be used to change and enhance practice. As in version three, reflexivity was conceptualized as an introspective process, something that a practitioner can engage with on voice their own:
It’s about five paragraph essay writing worksheets change, it’s about changing your own practice in some subtle way or changing something outside the practice which is homework, why we are actually talking to someone. Essay? . that the internal conversation goes on . . Ethical Essay Outline? (emphasis added) (2002) valuing and holding fairly highly, the paragraph essay writing worksheets, practice of conducting reflexivity. . . bring that sort of ‘third eye’ stuff. . . you keep making explicit the fact that that’s what you’re doing. The stopping and nss camp essay thinking about writing worksheets why you did, and where you did and what you did. And that navel gazing I guess is the notion . Homework? . . (emphasis added) (2002) Reflexivity is an ongoing ‘live’ process going on internally as the outside world impacts on me. Paragraph Writing Worksheets? (2003) (5) reflexivity as a learning tool/critical practice approach. Reflexivity was conceptualized as a learning tool, as a process for creating rules to guide practice and enhance ‘practice wisdom’. Participants alluded to the idea that reflexivity can be used to dissertations sort out ‘what works’ in a particular situation, without having to ‘reinvent the wheel’. This is encapsulated in the following quote: . . . reflexivity creates a helpful rule in the context, then you might have a . . . point here and the next time you confront a similar situation, you might think, I can try and use that knowledge or rule that I created in five paragraph essay writing worksheets, that last case, let’s try it and if it works you do it and your reflexivity says if it isn’t working what can you do next. . . (2002) This quote also refers to the use of reflexivity as a continual and critical process of murder cathedral, questioning how knowledge to guide practice is created. However, reflexivity as a critical approach and as a learning tool was not considered to writing worksheets be easy and generated a level of dissertations, discomfort: But even if you don’t say anything about it, you’re just doing the paragraph worksheets, reflecting on yourself, it kind of, it’s not a comfortable feeling for people. Nss Camp Essay? (2002)
The process of practising reflexivity and moving to five paragraph essay that end of the continuum was considered as also being ‘scary’, while the instrumentalist end of the continuum was associated with safety: I mean it is that balance between it being scary and dissertations discomfort and I mean, I think there is probably a lot of staff that would sort of ‘just tell me what to do, how to do, what is the rule here, what is five essay writing worksheets, (sic) the rules to follow, how do I interpret this, whatever else’ and if you go back to them and take them through a different process, but I think it also has, I suppose the other side to that is energy, that it is paragraph essay writing worksheets, also rewarding in the long term. (2002) The extent of challenge in practising reflexively might also be linked to levels of penn dissertations, professional experience and expertise: I think it also has to do with the individuals, where they are at. . . personal development and professional development. Essay Worksheets? (2002) I think it’s a level of penn, confidence and. . . for dealing with some of their own issues that if they sort of reflected on themselves. . . (2002) Despite the challenges that reflexivity might pose, it was also considered to be rewarding in the long term: So the other side of this is the writing worksheets, rewarding, for some people it is a difficult process to go through with that, yeah, the mastery that goes with that. (2002) (6) as a process of critical reflection on ethical argument essay policy.
Some participants also interpreted the concept of reflexivity as critical reflection on the policies set by their agencies that inform and guide their practice: . Five Worksheets? . . you look at energy help, policy, you build in reflexivity in individual practice relative to clients, relative to program, relative to annual reviews. It’s at all those different levels. Five Paragraph Essay Writing Worksheets? (2002) I guess I don’t see policies or whatever as set in penn dissertations, concrete. I think you still need to keep reflecting on paragraph essay writing worksheets them and angles homework help seeing if they are still useful because I guess I have seen policies that are being useful to support workers in paragraph, their practice and homework help if they are not, well then you need to be relooking at them. Five Paragraph Essay Writing Worksheets? (2002) Again, as this quote shows, reflexivity was used as a critical approach to practice, offering a process of engagement with organisational instrumental rationality (rules and procedures) that shapes and guides practice. Participants also described adopting a reflexive approach to practice as rewarding and homework help as promoting growth and trust in relations with clients. Five Paragraph? But there remained the question of whether their employing organisations were supportive of such an penn, approach.
For example, in paragraph writing worksheets, that the participants questioned whether organisational culture provided sufficient safety and permission for them to adopt a reflexive stance in angles homework help, relation to their practice: It is about a culture as well isn’t it, it is the culture that allows that. (2002) Yeah, I think it is back to the ideal world in paragraph essay, a way and it is energy, a thing about how do you fit in organisational culture that allows. . . a relationship to writing worksheets happen rather than the task centred stuff that says we just want another chapter and nss camp essay verse and we don’t really care what your interpretation of that is. (2002) In the next section, we focus on how the participants engaged with the concept of power, as it relates to their roles and the process of knowledge generation. Reflexivity as Knowledge/Power in five paragraph worksheets, Practice.
We have acknowledged previously (D’Cruz et al., 2007) that the concept of reflexivity has been offered as a constructive (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; 2000b) and critical (Fook, 1996; 1999; Taylor White, 2000) approach to argument social work practice, particularly recognizing the relations of power in the generation of situated professional knowledge. Consequently an important dimension of five writing worksheets, how the participants in this research engaged with the energy homework help, concept of reflexivity was how they conceptualized and acknowledged the operation of power in paragraph writing worksheets, their practice. In engaging with the formal definition of reflexivity as an nss camp essay, integral relationship between knowledge and power, participants identified three different forms that power could take in their practice which we have categorised as: (1) constructive power, (2) coercive power, and (3) institutional power. The participants acknowledged that power enabled them to: empathize where the client is at [knowledge/assessment] should not merely be a conflict of views (2003) Power was also considered as constructive in relation to dealing with the seemingly inevitable conflicts that arise in paragraph essay writing worksheets, work with children and murder cathedral essay families: Practice starts off with [the] assumption of a power struggle. The first encounter destabilises power from parents and potentially sets up the groundwork for ‘battle’.
Therefore it is important to start with the parents how can we empower you to fulfil the role of parenting? (2002) The giving of knowledge or information was also seen as a way of empowering clients (parents) and reducing what was considered to be a power imbalance between professionals and families: Just an equalizing kind of thing, using your own knowledge in a constructive way to help people understand . . . (2002) It is five paragraph essay writing worksheets, also worth noting that participants considered the parents as clients rather than their children when they were asked to reflect on in the questions the operation of power in practice. The participants acknowledged the operation of power, in worksheets, relation to the generation of knowledge, in the relations between themselves, their supervisors (or supervisees) and clients. The following quote illustrates how power was considered to be operating in a top down (and unidirectional) manner. But apparently what’s sitting there is a power dimension about who’s asking the question to reflect anyway.
So if you’re asking, if the supervisor asked the question, the fact that they asked the question is a power differential. That fact that we go out to essay a client family. . . did you feed your kids last night is a very different question if I ask the essay, question or your mother did or the neighbour, I mean who asks the questions sets up. . . (2002) Statutory power was also considered as a last resort: at some point power needs to be used there are things we can do on the way to avoid reaching this point (2003) The operation of power as oppressive and as located in the rules and procedures of employing organisations which produce rigid solutions to nss camp essay problems was also identified by paragraph worksheets, the participants, as: a fixation on appropriate course of action for clients [as defined by the organisation] often results in neglecting clients’ real needs. (2002) In summary, power was considered by the participants to be operating in both constructive and oppressive ways in their practice. It was acknowledged as operating in relations between supervisors and practitioners and clients, predominantly in a “top down” manner. Homework? Power was also associated with statutory duties. With reference to paragraph essay writing worksheets the process of knowledge creation, at least one of the participants acknowledged the importance of the hierarchical status of the person asking the questions, again with power operating in a “top down” manner. Knowledge/power was also alluded to by one participant in relation to the possibility of knowledge sharing with clients as an empowering process. However, the participants engaged with a structural definition of power rather than a post-modern definition of power as relational espoused by reflexivity.
Participants’ interpretations and the literature. This section will discuss how the findings of this research extend the current literature about reflexivity as a concept that can be applied to social work practice. In order to consider the creative and ethical argument outline varying ways that the participants in five essay writing worksheets, this research related the concept to their practice, we draw on our critical review of the literature on reflexivity as a concept (D’Cruz et al., 2007) to provide an nss camp essay, analytical framework to locate these emergent meanings. Essay? In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), we identified three variations in the meaning of reflexivity: as an individual’s considered response to an immediate context, as a critical approach that questions how knowledge is essay, generated and paragraph writing worksheets as an approach to practice that is concerned with how emotion is implicated in social work practice. In this section we relate the findings of the outline, research to these three variations. Paragraph Essay Worksheets? We aim to understand the student, practitioner/participants’ interpretations within these broader conceptual frameworks in order to five paragraph bring together “formal theory” (expressed in academic literature) and “informal theory” (as emergent and grounded in the experience of practitioners) (Fook, 1999; Camilleri, 1999). The First Variation: Individual’s choices in ethical argument essay outline, context. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), the first conceptual variation of reflexivity is regarded as an individual’s considered response to an immediate context and is concerned with the ability of service users to process information and create knowledge to guide life choices (Roseneil Seymour, 1999; Kondrat, 1999; Elliott, 2001; Ferguson, 2003, 2004).
This emphasis on individual choice in context is apparent in the ways that some participants interpreted reflexivity for their practice. They saw it as a means (or skill) for making sense of the situations they faced in practice and deciding on five essay worksheets action that they could then take. Nss Camp Essay? However, their responses did not suggest that they considered reflexivity to be a skill that can be taught to clients to assist them to five writing make sense of nss camp essay, their worlds and to take action to five worksheets further their own interests (Ferguson, 2004). Rather, it was considered as a practice tool to aid their practice and develop professional expertise. The Second Variation: Self Critical Professional Practice. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), the second conceptual variation of reflexivity is defined as a social worker’s self critical approach that questions how knowledge about clients is nss camp essay, generated and, further, how relations of power operate in five essay worksheets, this process (White Stancombe, 2003; Taylor White, 2000; Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; Sheppard, Newstead, Caccavo Ryan, 2000).
This variation in the literature was apparent in the ways that the participants defined reflexivity as a critical approach to energy help their practice, the knowledge generated in practice and the rules and policies that guide practice. As in the conceptual variation in the literature, power was considered as part of the definition of reflexivity, particularly by one participant, in relation to the identity of the knower. The Third Variation: Emotion, Cognition and Social Work Practice. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), the third conceptual variation of reflexivity is concerned with how emotion is implicated in social work practice (Kondrat, 1999; Mills Kleinman, 1988; Miehls Moffat, 2000; Ruch, 2002). The meanings of reflexivity generated by participants in our research also identified emotions as being an important part of the process of knowledge creation. Participants spoke of their emotional responses when they attempted to apply a critical approach to the generation of knowledge to guide their practice. In particular they identified the personal discomfort associated with questioning strictly prescribed rules, procedures and policies in essay, organisational cultures that limit rather than promote practitioner discretion. Overall, there were elements of all three variations contained in the meanings that the participants gave to the concept of reflexivity in relation to their practice. Argument? Indeed, participants went beyond describing what practising reflexivity might mean to them. A key point that emerges from this research with practitioners is the descriptions of how they might engage with the concept of reflexivity in a context that prescribes instrumental accountability. They described the difficulties and discomfort in incorporating a reflexive approach to practice and the easier option of resorting to the relative safety of following rules and five essay writing worksheets procedures.
A certain amount of self-confidence is required to engage in critical or reflexive approaches to homework practice, with confidence associated with practice experience and levels of expertise. So, while reflexivity may offer a way of developing and increasing expertise, it also requires a certain level of expertise to begin with. It is five writing worksheets, worth noting that it was the 2002 group of participants, the more senior practitioners, team leaders and outline managers who reflected on this more than the less experienced 2003 group. This also mirrors the conceptualisation of paragraph essay writing worksheets, professional expertise and its development by murder cathedral essay questions, Fook, Ryan and Hawkins (2000), who argue that whereas “novices” in professional practice tend to follow rules, “experts engage with theory in a critically self-reflective process” (p. 189). This particular point offers an important insight that might inform the introduction of alternative practice approaches to enhance practice in child protection. The participants did not engage quite so fully with the concept of power as it relates to knowledge creation in the definition of reflexivity provided to them. While reflexivity was seen as important in challenging how knowledge was created, the role that power has in five paragraph writing worksheets, the process of knowledge creation, particularly the power that they, as child and family welfare professionals have, was not critically engaged with (except in terms of voice essay, ‘knowledge sharing’). We conceptualized their versions of power as constructive, coercive and institutional and acknowledged more as an writing, entity or possession than a process that operates in all interactions, namely, a structural version of power. This conceptualisation of power may be associated with the location of the practitioners in human service organisations which are structured as bureaucracies in which ‘legal authority’ is the most evident form of power, and angles help which, in Foucauldian terms establishes a pervasive system of paragraph essay, governmentality through hierarchical surveillance (Foucault, 1980). Consequently, participants may have engaged more with a process of ‘reflection’ rather than ‘reflexivity’ in that they did not fully acknowledge the knowledge/power dimension of reflexivity and their own positioned subjectivities in ethical argument essay outline, the process.
We have presented an paragraph writing worksheets, account of how practitioners might enhance their practice by engaging with a theoretical construct in murder in the cathedral, ‘real world’ situations rather than hypothetical situations, which offers some insight into the “opportunities” and five essay “dangers” (Ferguson, 1997) of adopting alternative, critical practice approaches. We have shown that it is possible for practitioners to penn dissertations combine an alternative practice approach based in five essay, the social constructionist critique of ethical argument essay, current child protection practice with the five writing, “risk paradigm” and that the two approaches are not necessarily “incommensurable” (Marcus, 1994). The consequence for practice is that it offers hope that alternative “constructive” approaches (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; 2000b) to murder cathedral child protection practice that aim to move beyond the paragraph worksheets, “policing” (Donzelot, 1980) and “surveillance” (Parton, 1991) of student voice essay, families can be integrated into child protection practice and paragraph essay that their development should continue. The possibility that such alternative approaches might be well received by practitioners has also emerged from this research, as demonstrated by homework help, the enthusiasm with which the participants in this research engaged with the concept of reflexivity. This article has discussed how the concept of reflexivity was applied by practitioners in five paragraph writing, the field of child and family welfare to expand their current practice repertoires. Murder Cathedral Essay Questions? The research has shown how individual practitioners interpret concepts and paragraph essay writing create practical meanings appropriate to their practice contexts in a range of imaginative ways that combine with current approaches. It has demonstrated how one concept, reflexivity, generated from an alternative approach to practice based in social constructionism, can be used to expand practice options, rather than just offer critique. Consequently this research supports the further development of alternative approaches to practice in child protection that extend beyond forensic approaches that focus on the identification and management of “risk”. Ai, A. L. (2002). Integrating spirituality into professional education: A challenging but feasible task. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 22(1-2), 103-127.
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Analysis of Masters of five paragraph writing, War, by Bob Dylan Essay. The 1960’s was also a major time in which social classes were at war with one another. The young and the old were large factors in this time period. In this time period the battle for Civil Rights fought as well. Cathedral? During this time period East and West Germany separated with the construction of the Berlin Wall (Harris 8-9). Mainly in this time period was the mass spread of culture.
The 1960’s are said to be the decade that is defined by the artists and opinions that made up the decade (Miller 1). Five Paragraph Writing? Many people were speaking out against the government’s decisions and rebelling against them in their works of art, such as music. Additionally, in this time period the Civil Rights movement took place and the races Some fans called Dylan leader of protest-song era of angles homework, early sixties. In 1965, Dylan shocked the fans with a mixture of folk, rock, folk-rock, protest songs, electric blues, and five essay worksheets, Nashville style country. He was screaming freedom through songs such as Like a Rolling Stone and Mr. Tambourine Man when all that seemed to student voice essay, work was war. Even in paragraph essay writing, his album Another Side of Bob Dylan, a lot of his poetry is printed and simply by reading it, one can feel his spirit, his when the ethical outline, war had not yet started, but was used, a couple years later, as a protest song against the war. “Blowin’ in the Wind” starts with a couple of questions: How many roads must a man walk down Before you call him a man? Yes, 'n' how many seas must a white dove sail Before she sleeps in the sand? Yes, 'n' how many times must the cannon balls fly Before they're forever banned?
He asks the first couple of questions so he can put the five paragraph essay worksheets, last question, the one that has to do with war, in the same old Dylan left his hometown of Hibbing in the fall of penn, 1959 for college at the University of paragraph writing, Minnesota, Minneapolis. This would be his first taste of the voice, big city and the life that awaited him. The sight and sounds of the big city opened many new vistas for five paragraph essay worksheets, the young Dylan and in the questions, he took advantage of his situation by essay writing worksheets studying the roots of penn dissertations, contemporary rock. He began to listen to the works of folk pioneers like Hank Williams, Robert Johnson, and paragraph writing, Woody Guthrie. At the same time Dylan was Bob Dylan's lyrics that evening were dated.
But, no doubt to angles help, his great dismay, they were no more less relevant on this evening in 1991 then they were when he wrote them in the midst of then President Lyndon Johnson's controversial deployment of paragraph writing, American troops to Vietnam. The audience that evening wasn't watching some fly-by-night hipster playing senseless fluff. They were caste in the shadow of the essay, most prophetic musical figure of the last fifty years. A man whose inner fire forged a new musical To do this day, there are still no records to be found of how Dylan really crashed while he was riding his motorcycle near his Woodstock, New York home. There are numerous stories that have been circulating around for years, such as he lost his balanced or that he slipped on essay writing an oil slick. Regardless, whatever happened on his motorcycle in that summer changed his life forever. In a 1984 interview, Dylan stated, “When I had that motorcycle accident . . . I woke up and caught my senses, I realized that is dissertations The Death of Emmet Till, a young black man who was unrightfully killed by the Ku Klux Klan. By 1963, Dylan and his on paragraph essay writing and off lover Joan Baez were both very well known in the civil rights movement. Baez and Dylan would sing together at energy homework help, rallies including the famous March on Washington. Dylan was on five paragraph writing stage with Martin Luther King Jr. when his gave his infamous I Have a Dream speech.
Though Dylan sang of American injustices, he was never incredibly interested in politics and angles homework, he was ultimately frustrated Bob Dylan: The Voice of a Generation Essay. The most widely accepted theory is that this was a tribute to one of five essay, his idols, poet Dylan Thomas. Dylan dropped out after his freshman year and began developing a unique voice and blues/folk style of singing. Angles? In 1962, he paid a visit to folk legend Woody Guthrie, who was dying of Huntington's Disease in a New Jersey hospital. Dylan gained much notoriety on paragraph writing the nearby circuit in New York, his breakthrough coinciding with a sparkling review in The New York Times. This review, as well as significant Essay about Themes Of Bob Dylans Music. his wife. Bob had written a song about her and the evidence shows that Dylan felt she saved his life and by the care she gave him. In the song “If not for you” Bob writes about energy homework, how is wife being there for him when he was recuperating and five paragraph writing worksheets, what he would do if she were not there. Argument? If not for you my sky would fall/rain would gather too./without your love I’d be nowhere at all, /I’d be lost without you. During his long recuperation, he spoke to paragraph writing, no one in the press. However, in May 1967, Dylan broke his Analysis of essay questions, Athol Fugard#x27;s Master Harold . . Paragraph Essay? . and the Boys Essay. Penn Dissertations? rowing for five worksheets, hanging around the argument essay outline, servants' quarters. (Hally, pp.
25) Hence the play is An intrepid social reformer will bot be daunted by the magnitude of the task he has undertaken. (pp. 17)The above quote uttered by Hally, from Athol Fugard's Master Harold . and the boys, addresses the importance of social reform . One vital area in which this can be achieved is through the teaching of a broad based educational curriculum, where Langston Hughes And Bob Dylan Essay. Five Worksheets? Why not just a writer?” And why not-if no one wants to be “just a writer?” Negroes in a free world should be whatever each wants to be-even if it means being “just a writer…” (Hughes, 773) On the other hand, Dylan’s young white male speaker states that the youth of America is changing socially and argument essay outline, warning “adults” to join in or get out of the way. Come mother and father Throughout the land And don’t criticize What you cant understand Your sons and your daughters
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Free Essays on paragraph essay, In Flanders Field By John Mccrae. In Flanders FieldsIn Flanders fields the poppies blow Between the crosses, row on dissertations, row,That mark our place; and in the skyThe larks, still bravely singing, flyScarce heard amid the five essay writing worksheets guns below.We are the Dead. Short days agoWe lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,Loved, and were loved, and now we lieIn Flanders. ‘In Flanders Fields ’ – John McCrae Canada is one of the few countries in the world to dissertations, have a poem printed on five paragraph writing, their currency. The font is so small that you need a magnifying glass to read it, but the poem is there on the ten dollar bill, written in both English and French. It is the first verse of.
Compare the Imagery in Mccrae's ''in Flanders Fields'' and Kipling's ''for All We Have and Are'' Topic: Compare the Imagery in McCrae's ''In Flanders Fields '' and Kipling's ''For All We Have and murder in the essay, Are'' ''Few countries in paragraph essay, the world have a poem printed on student essay, their currency, but Canada does … it is the first verse of John McCrae's ''In Flanders Fields ,'' a poem that each November is recited in writing worksheets, school. The poem, In Flanders Field by John McCrae , explains the emotions of the soldiers who fought in energy, World War 1. Writing! McCrae demonstrates this with the words he uses to set the changing tone of homework, this poem. The poem switches from pride to depressing and then to a warning which shows how quickly emotions can change. An analyzation of the symbolism and imagery in Flanders Fields by John McCrae.(World War One poem) World War One, poet John McCrae wrote many pieces of literature. He published many short stories but was most famous for his poem In Flanders Fields . Five! This poem uses many instances of penn, symbolism and imagery to convey the main idea to the reader.
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Not only in nss camp essay, Canada, but also in five paragraph worksheets, many Western countries McCrae's In Flanders Fields is recited or sung. relationship between shylock and jessica. One Color Photos World War One Slide Show The Nations Involved in angles, WWI Between the Wars Bismarck Declaration of War (American) Flanders Field Gavrilo Princip Kaiser Wilhelm II Marne Otto Dix Passchendaele Pershing Sasson Schlieffen Plan Somme Submarine. Development and Formation of Personality. Nature is heredity and five essay worksheets, nurture is environment. Inherited personality traits are usually the nss camp essay Five Factor Model of personality traits proposed by Robert McCrae and five paragraph essay writing, Paul Costa. These traits are: agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, extraversion, and neuroticism.
However, we often give heredity too much. for independence and patriotism is perceived. Lastly source three portrays the famous poem In Flanders Field by murder cathedral essay, John McCrae . It was said to be the most popular poem ever written during that time period. McCrae had written it in five, remembrance of his friend who he had watched die the day before. The perspective. UOP PSY 480 Week 3 Learning Team Application of Clinical Psychology Paper Case John Forbes Nash Jr. this material click on below link http://www.assignmentcloud.com/PSY480/PSY-480-Week-3-Learning-Team-Application-of-Clinical-Psychology-Paper-Case- John -Forbes-Nash-Jr. For more classes visit http://www.assignmentcloud.com Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word analysis of penn dissertations, your selected case, in which you.
Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., 16204 North Florida Avenue, Lutz, Florida 33549, from the NEO Five Factor Inventory, by Paul Costa and Robert McCrae , Copyright 1978, 1985, 1989 by PAR, Inc. Further use or reproduction of the NEO-FFI is prohibited without permission of PAR, Inc. ? Corresponding author. Experimental Psychology, by five essay, S. S. Argument Essay Outline! Stevens (Ed.) New York, NY, USA: John Wiley and five paragraph writing, Sons, pp. 304-329 Herschkowitz, N Herschkowitz, EC (2002) A good start in life: Understanding your child's brain and behavior. Joseph Henry Press Jang, K.L., McCrae , R.R., Angleitner, A. Riemann, R. Livesley, W.J. (1998). describe a person. The category can be described by traits like talkative, assertive, energetic, and dominant.
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How Do the Poems Reveal the essay Poet’s Attitude to War? people in ethical essay, the war or what has happened afterwards. I have chosen these five poems to write about: The Charge of the Light Brigade Disabled In Flanders Field The Man He Killed Dulce Et Decorum Est In each poem I will look at five essay writing worksheets the effects in angles, each poem such as rhythm, alliteration and many others. Call of Duty: A Poetic Pep Talk By John McCrae In the five paragraph time of World War I, many poets emerged shaping the cultural literature around the world. Some poets, such as Wilfred Owen and others who agreed with his argument, condemned the horrific Great War. In contrast, other writers supported the war.
reputation” (McKinnon, 1944, p.469). This facet of homework, personality is also the source of the big-five personality factors (Digman, 1990; Goldberg 1993: McCrae and Costa, 1987). Although personality is five writing defined in help, two very different ways, both definitions are important, and both bear references to five paragraph, individual. the Wars of the Roses as England's rulers. Ascent to penn, the throne The Tudors descended matrilineally from John Beaufort, one of the illegitimate children of 14th Century English Prince John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of five paragraph essay worksheets, Lancaster (third surviving son of Edward III of energy, England), by Gaunt's long-term mistress. who were killed in war. Writing Worksheets! Many died in the beautiful poppy fields of Europe, most notably In Flanders fields the poppies blow . We shall not sleep, though poppies grow. . (from In Flander's Fields by Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae , MD of the Canadian Army). Poppy flowers are also sold, and. How does In Flanders Field by John Mcrae relate and differ from ethical argument essay, Dulce et Decorum est by Wilfred Owen? Both of the poems are about war, being on the same subject they still have differences from five paragraph writing, another.
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He survived the front lines in Flanders , France. Analysis entrepreneur John de Mol. ?Analysis biography John de Mol ‘De gangen van John de Mol’ by Ton van den Brandt and Marc van Dinther. Help! Introduction of analysis John de Mol is five one of the angles homework help most successful Dutch entrepreneurs ever. He is the paragraph worksheets founder and current owner of two major companies, namely Talpa Media and Talpa beheer. poems “In Flanders Fields ” by John McCrae and “Dulce et Decorum Est” by Wilfred Owen are both magnificent poems that are based on the same theme, from the same time period and homework, written in similar circumstances. However, these two poems present such different points of view. Both John McCrae and Wilfred. the most bloody battle fought during the war. The two sides fought continuously during the first day and by worksheets, nightfall they were nearing the Flanders coast.
That day the homework English lost one admiral and five paragraph essay worksheets, had his flagship capture. The next day with the fleets of the two navy’s reduced to fifty and seventy-seven. STUDY ‘In Flanders Fields ’ The writer, Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae , was a Canadian poet, physician, author and energy homework help, soldier (doctor) during the first World War. He was appointed as a field surgeon in paragraph essay writing worksheets, the Canadian artillery and was in charge of a field hospital during the Second battle of Ypres in. along. In the mid-1970s, artists like George McCrae and Van McCoy’s hits were known inside the disco scene and it felt as though it was coming around big.
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This poem really. Does John Bunyan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress” have hidden biblical messages? Does John Bunyan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress” have hidden biblical messages? The story pilgrim’s progress is the second most influential Christian work of penn, that era. Written by a lowly tinker, whose early years were, if anything, even more humble than the bard. (Heydt 2006, 47) John Bunyan’s personal. How Ww1 Changed British Literature. technique that has now been called stream-of consciousness. She imitated in her stories the experience of moment to moment action.
In Flanders fields the poppies blow / Between the crosses, row on row, / That mark our place; and in five writing, the sky / The larks, still bravely singing, fly /. ? Examine the extent and significance of impersonation in Moll Flanders . Essay! This essay will examine impersonation in paragraph writing, the novel Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe and its significance. Impersonation is defined as; to assume a character or appearance, to embody, act or play a part. Impersonation is penn dissertations a major. keep them out of the adobe of the damned.”(McCloud.) In support to Dr. McCould claim of the harmful potential of practicing religion out of fear Dart John , the religious writer for the Los Angeles Times and the Christian Century Magazines, said that people who follow religious practice out of five writing, fear “often. round final of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, when he was learning and practicing. When I read the two poems “In Flanders Fields ” and“Channel Firing” created by Thomas Hardy and John A. McCrae respectively, what appeared in penn, my mind is the song’s name, “Life in Blossom.” Nonetheless, the paragraph background of these. Chapter 14 Eysenck, McCrae and help, Costa: Trait and Factor Theories Learning Objectives After reading Chapter 14, you should be able to: 1. Explain the basics of factor analytic procedures. 2. Explain the importance of R. B. Cattell's pioneering work. 3. Describe Eysenck's approach. The Story of John McCrae John McCrae is the author of the famous poem, In Flanders Field , written during the First World War.
John was born in 1872 and raised in worksheets, Guelph, Ontario and is remembered as one of Guelph's most famous citizens.McCrae was more than a poet, and was in fact a doctor, soldier. very poor? (Points : 5) The East End Mayfair Marylebone Paddington 7. (TCO 1) Who is energy associated with such characters as Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders , Colonel Jack, and Roxanna? (Points : 5) Henry Fielding Daniel Defoe Samuel Johnson Alexander Pope 8. (TCO 1) In which of the following literary. ?COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS: FORD MOTOR COMPANY vs TOYOTA MOTOR Adrienne Byrd December 13, 2015 John McCrae Abstract By carrying out a comparative analysis of worksheets, two organizations, Ford Motor Co. headquartered in Dearborn, MI and Toyota Motor. headquartered in ethical argument outline, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, we might break. of physics that deals with atomic and subatomic systems which we today call quantum mechanics. It is the underlying mathematical framework of many fields of physics and chemistry, including condensed matter physics, solid-state physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, computational chemistry, quantum. John James Audubon John James Audubon is five paragraph essay writing best known for Birds of penn, America, portraits of every bird then known in essay writing, the United States drawn and sculpted in argument, the size of life. Its creation cost Audubon eighteen years of massive effort in paragraph essay writing worksheets, finding the birds, making the essay book, and selling it to subscribers. the numerous assorted views of people regarding war. Five Essay Worksheets! The poems within this collection are For the Fallen by Laurence Binyon (1914), In Flanders Fields by John McCrae (1915), The Hero by Siegfried Sassoon (1917) and Into the Face of Death by Samuel Martins (1924). Firstly, the poem For the energy Fallen by. The Problem and Review of Related Literature.
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ROBERT G. Five! WEYANT, The University of Calgary This. Explorer John Smith Contents • Early adventures • Virginia Colony • Voyage • Site • Encounter with Pocahontas' tribe • Smith’s leadership of murder in the cathedral essay questions, Jamestown • New England • Authorship • Credibility as an author • Promoter of American colonization • Additional Works • John Smith Monument.