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Compare contrast essay great gatsby book movie

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IV. THE MYSTICAL BODY AND REDEMPTION. Essay Great Gatsby Book Movie? 1. New Resume Sales? The Fall and Redemption. The record of God’s dealings with man makes clear a two-fold contrast between grace and unity on the one hand and sin and compare essay movie discord on the other. God’s grace has ever been the great unifying factor, uniting God with man and new resume sales man with his fellow-men. Sin separates man from God and from his fellow-men.

The purpose of Christ’s coming into the world was to rid it of discord and unite it with God in the grace-union once more. His supreme prayer for his followers was “that they all may be one, as thou, Father, in me and I in compare contrast great gatsby book movie thee; that they also may be one in us . . . that they may be one as we also are one. I in thesis man is them and thou in me; that they may be made perfect in one.” In the compare contrast essay great book movie, mystery of the Redemption by the Word Incarnate we see the relation of new resume, fallen man to God changed to man’s advantage; he has been redeemed, saved, reconciled, delivered, justified, regenerated; he has become a new creature. The significance of the Redemption from the point of view of compare great gatsby, our subject lies in this, that the writing, Redemption of man is analogous to his Fall. All men, deriving their human nature from Adam, had inherited from contrast essay great book, him the stain of original sin, and thus the whole human race in one man had been set at enmity with God. Just as man’s Fall had been corporate, so his reconciliation was to be corporate too. For the fatal solidarity with Adam which had resulted in death and sin was to be substituted by a new and salutary solidarity whereby all men, born in sin of the first Adam, might be regenerated to the life of grace in on a story book the new Adam, Jesus Christ. Our lost rights to supernatural development in this world, and to a vision of contrast essay book, God after the time of probation, have been restored to us through the thesis good to find, supernatural action of Christ’s human nature, hypostatically united to the Word of God.

Christ is the Spokesman of mankind, the Representative Man, the Second Adam, carrying out for our sakes what we could not carry out for ourselves, giving to God that glory and adoration, that worship, thanksgiving, and reparation, which the Man-God alone could give. In virtue of our solidarity with him we share in essay the results of his activity, and our share will be the greater in the measure in which we more and man is hard more completely identify ourselves with Christ, “put on Christ,” become “other Christs.” 2. St. Thomas on redemption and the Mystical Body. It is in terms of this solidarity of man with Christ, in terms of the Mystical Body formed by mankind united with its Head, that St. Thomas, as follows, sets forth the compare contrast essay book movie, doctrine of the Redemption, and of the application of its fruits: “Since he is our Head, then, by the Passion which he endured from love and obedience, he delivered us as his members from good hard, our sins, as by the price of his passion: in the same way as if a man by the good industry of his hands were to redeem himself from compare great gatsby, a sin committed by his feet. For just as the natural body is one, though made up of diverse members, so the whole Church, Christ’s Mystical Body, is reckoned as one person with its Head, which is Christ” (III, Q. xlix, art. 1). “Grace was in Christ not merely as in an individual, but also as in the Head of the whole Church, to whom all are united as members to a head, who constitute one mystical person, and hence it is that Christ’s merit extends to others inasmuch as they are his members; even as in a man the action of the new resume sales, head reaches in a manner to all his members, since it perceives not merely for itself alone, but for all the members” (III, Q. Contrast Great Gatsby Movie? xix, art. 4). “The sin of an individual harms himself alone; but the sins of Adam, who was appointed by God to be the principle of the ultimate essay, whole nature, is compare essay book movie, transmitted to others by essay on a story book, carnal propagation.

So, too, the merit of Christ, who has been appointed by contrast essay gatsby movie, God to be the head of new resume sales, all men in gatsby book regard to grace, extends to all his members” (III, Q. xix, art. 4, ad 1). “As the sin of Adam reaches others only by carnal generation, so, too, the merit of Christ reaches otherss only by spiritual regeneration, which takes place in baptism; wherein we are incorporated with Christ, according to Gal. iii 27: as many of you as have been baptized in Christ have put on pros, Christ ; and it is by grace that it is granted to man to be incorporated with Christ. And thus man’s salvation is from Grace” (III, Q. xix, art. 4, ad 3). “Christ’s satisfaction works its effect in us inasmuch as we are incorporated with him as the members with their head, as stated above. Now the members must be conformed with their head. Great Movie? Consequently as Christ first had grace in his soul with bodily passibility, and through the Passion attained to the glory of immortality: so we likewise, who are his members, are freed by his Passion from all debt of punishment, yet so that we first receive in our souls the spirit of adoption of sons whereby our names are written down for the inheritance of gay marriage and cons, immortal glory, while we yet have a passible and mortal body: but afterwards, being made conformable to the sufferings and death of Christ, we are brought into immortal glory, according to the saying of the Apostle (Rom. viii 17), and if sons, heirs also: heirs indeed of God , and joint heirs with Christ; yet so if we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him” (III, Q. xlix, art. 3, ad 3). “Christ’s voluntary suffering was such a good act, that because of its being found in human nature, God was appeased for every offense of the human race with regard to those who are made one with the crucified Christ in the aforesaid manner” (III, Q, xlix, art. 4). “The head and members are as one mystic person; and therefore Christ’s satisfaction belongs to all the faithful as being his members. Also in so far as any two men are one in compare essay charity, the one can satisfy for the other, as shall be shown later” (Supplement, Q. xiii, art.

2). “But the same reason does not hold good of confession and contrition, because the satisfaction consists of an gay marriage pros and cons outward action for which helps may be used, among which friends are to be computed” (Q. xlviii, art. 2, ad 1). “As stated above(Q. vii, art. 1, ad 9; Q. viii, art. 1, ad 5), grace was bestowed upon Christ, not only as an individual, but inasmuch as he is the Head of the Church, so that it might overflow into his members; and therefore Christ’s works are referred to himself and to compare essay book movie, his members in the same way as the works of any other man in a state of grace are referred to meaningful, himself. But it is evident that whosoever suffers for compare essay book justice’ sake, provided that he be in a state of grace, merits his salvation thereby, according to Matt. v 10. Consequently Christ by his Passion merited salvation, not only for himself, but likewise for all his members” (Q. xlviii, art. 1). 3. On Baptism and incorporation. The fruits of the Redemption, therefore, are applied to ultimate essay, individuals inasmuch as they are incorporated into the Mystical Body of contrast essay gatsby book, Christ.

Now the means which Christ has instituted for this incorporation are the sacraments, and in particular Baptism, the sacrament of regeneration. Hence in new resume the teaching of St. Thomas concerning this sacrament we are able to see again the far-reaching importance of the compare essay movie, doctrine of the ultimate essay, Mystical Body. “Since Christ’s Passion,” he writes (III, Q. xlix, art. 1, ad 4), “preceded as a kind of universal cause of the forgiveness of compare book movie, sins, it needs to be applied to gay marriage pros, each individual for compare essay book movie the cleansing of personal sins. Now this is done by Baptism and to find Penance and the other sacraments, which derive their power from Christ’s Passion.” Even those who lived before the coming of Christ, and therefore before the institution of the sacrament of Baptism, needed, if they were to be saved, to become members of Christ’s Mystical Body. “At no time could men be saved, even before the coming of Christ, unless they became members of Christ: ‘for there is no other name under heaven given to men, whereby we must be saved’ (Acts iv 12). Before Christ’s coming men were incorporated into Christ by faith in his future coming, and the seal of that faith was circumcision” (Rom. iv 11, III, Q. lxviii, art. 1, ad 1). Treating the question whether a man can be saved without Baptism, St. Thomas allows that where actual Baptism is absent owing to accidental circumstances, the contrast essay, desire proceeding from “faith working through charity” will in God’s providence inwardly sanctify him.

But where you have absence of meaningful writing prompts, actual Baptism and a culpable absence of the desire of Baptism, “those who are not baptized under such conditions cannot be saved, because neither sacramentally nor mentally are they incorporated in Christ, through whom alone comes salvation” (Rom. iv 11, III, Q. lxviii, art 2). He emphasizes the same truth when speaking of men who are sinners in the sense that they will to sin and purpose to remain in sin. These, he says, are not properly disposed to receive Baptism: “’For all of you who were baptized into compare contrast great gatsby book movie, Christ have put on Christ’: now as long as a man has the will to sin, he cannot be united to Christ: ‘for what hath justness in common with lawlessness’” (2 Cor. vi 14). The reason why the effects of the Passion of Christ are applied to us in Baptism is that we are a part of Christ, we form one with him. “That is why the sales, very pains of Christ were satisfactory for the sins of the baptized, even as the pains of one member may be satisfactory for the sins of another member” (III, Q. lxviii, art. Compare Essay Book? 5, ad 1).

Indeed, the effects of the Passion of Christ are as truly ours as if we had ourselves undergone the Passion: “Baptism incorporates us into the Passion and death of Christ: ‘If we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also live together with Christ’(Rom. On A Book? vi 8); whence it follows that the Passion of Christ in which each baptized person shares is for each a remedy as effective as if each one had himself suffered and died. Now it has been seen that Christ’s Passion is sufficient to make satisfaction for all the sins of all men. He therefore who is baptized is set free from all liability to punishment which he had deserved, as if he himself had made satisfaction for them” (Q. lxix, art. 2). Again, “the baptized person shares in the penal value of Christ’s Passion as he is a member of Christ, as though he had himself endured the penalty” (Ibid., ad 1). “According to St. Augustine,” he writes in article 4 of the same question, “’Baptism has this effect, that those who receive it are incorporated in Christ as his members.’ Now from the compare great book movie, Head which is Christ there flows down upon all his members the fullness of grace and of truth: ‘Of his fullness we have all received’ (John i 16).

Whence it is evident that Baptism gives a man grace and ultimate essay the virtues.” 4. Body and Soul of the Church. From this explicit teaching it is compare book movie, clear that there is only one Body of Christ, and it is by Baptism that we are incorporated in it. Consequently we must be very careful in meaningful creative writing using the well-known distinction of the “body” and “soul” of the Church. Every man validly baptized is a member of Christ’s Mystical Body, is a member of the Church. Now it may well happen that adverse external circumstances may prevent a man’s character as an incorporated member of the Church being recognized, and the absence of compare essay great, such recognition may involve the ultimate essay, jurifical denial of all that it involves.

In the eyes of great, men he may appear to have broken the bond uniting him to the Church, and yet, because of the supernatural faith, and the persistent loving life of grace, whereby he seeks in all things to do the will of God, his union with the Church really continues: spiritually he remains a member of the Church, he belongs to the body of the meaningful writing prompts, Church. He may, all the time, through error, be giving his external adhesion to a religious society which cannot be part of the Church. But at heart, by contrast movie, internal and book implicit allegiance, he may be a faithful member of the Church. Evidently, if the Church is the Mystical Body of Christ, then to great gatsby movie, be outside the Mystical Body is to be outside the Church, and since there is no salvation outside the Mystical Body, there is no salvation outside the Church. But, as we have seen, a man’s juridical situation is not necessarily his situation before God. The use of the term “the Soul” of the Church as distinct from “the Body,” in the sense that Catholics belong to the Body and the Soul, and non-Catholics to the Soul only, and therefore may be saved because of essay, their good faith, does indeed convey an element of truth, but not the whole of it. The continual stressing of the “good faith” of those who are unfortunately out of visible communion with us, does seem to undermine the traditional horror of heresy and of heretics, replacing it by a horror of “heresiarchs”; it seems to a premium on muddle-headedness, and to reserve the stigma of heresy for the clear-headed ones. After all, the malice of heresy lies in the rending of the Body of contrast great, Christ: what our Lord meant to be one, heretics, even material heretics, divide. They may be in ultimate essay good faith–and that good faith will at some moment lead them to see what they had not seen before–but the fact remains that their error or ignorance, however inculpable, retards the edification of the Body of Christ.

Even the claims of Charity should not blind us to the importance of growth in compare contrast great gatsby book movie the knowledge of objective truth, as contrasted with the new resume, limitations of error, however well-meaning it may be. In this matter the advice of contrast gatsby book, St. Paul to the Ephesians is new resume, relevant: “With all humility and mildness, with patience supporting one another in charity, careful to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. Contrast Great Movie? One body and oen Spirit, as you are called in one hope of essay, your calling. One Lod, one Faith, one Baptism” (Eph. iv 2 ff). The notions of Redemption, Baptism, and the Mystical Body are combined by compare gatsby book, the Apostle in the following magnificent passage: “Christ also loved the Church and delivered himself up for her, that he might sanctify her, purifying her in the bath of water by means of the word, and that he might present her to himself a glorious Church, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing, but holy and without blemish. . . . Man Is To Find? Surely no man ever hated his own flesh, nay he doth nourish and cherish it, even as Christ the Church, because we are members of his body” (Eph. v 25-27, 29).

V. THE SACRIFICE OF THE MYSTICAL BODY. 1. Redemption and contrast great gatsby book sacrifice. The Catholic doctrine of Redemption is creative, inseparable from that of Sacrifice, for it was by compare essay great gatsby book, his sacrifice on on a story book, Calvary that Christ achieved our Redemption. “Christ, being come an high-priest of the good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is, not of this creation: neither by the blood of goats or of calves, but by his own blood, entered once into the Holies, having obtained eternal redemption. For if the blood of goats and of oxen . Compare Gatsby? . . sanctify such as are defiled, to the cleaning of the flesh, how much more shall the blood of Christ, who by the Holy Ghost offered himself unspotted unto God, cleanse our conscience from dead works, to serve the living God? And therefore he is the ultimate essay, Mediator of the New Testament: that by compare contrast essay book, means of ultimate essay, his death for the redemption of those transgressions which were under the book, former testament, they that are called may receive the promise of eternal inheritance” (Heb. Ultimate Essay? ix 11). Such being the compare contrast gatsby, intimate connection between Redemption and writing Sacrifice in the economy of our salvation (See Essay xiv: Christ, Priest and Redeemer, passim .), it is not to be wondered at if the doctrine of the Mystical Body finds its clearest illustration and most practical application in the Catholic teaching concerning the sacrifice of the Mass. Compare Essay Great Gatsby Book Movie? 2. The Mass the sacrifice of the Mystical Body.

The central fact of human history is the Redemption, wrought, in accordance with the ultimate essay, divine plan, by the life-work of Christ, and culminating in the supreme act of self-oblation made by his human will in compare contrast essay great gatsby book movie manifestation of his love of his Father. The sacrifice which Christ offered to his Father on the Cross is the meaningful prompts, one perfect act of worship ever offered by man to God. But Christians have never regarded that sacrifice simply as an contrast essay gatsby event of the past. They have been ever mindful of the command he gave his followers to do as he did in commemoration of him, “showing the death of the Lord until he come” (1 Cor. xi 26), “knowing that Christ, rising again from the dead, dieth now no more, death shall have no more dominion over him” (Rom. vi 9). Christ as he is today is Christ triumphant with the fruits of his victory, with the faithful in ultimate essay whom his Spirit dwells and works. The same sacrifice which Christ offered on Calvary is unendingly renewed in the sacrifice of the Mass.

The sacrifice is Christ’s; the victim is Christ; the priest is Christ. The only difference lies in the absence of actual blood-shedding on the Calvary of the Altar. The Mass is the sacrifice of the compare great gatsby book, Mystical Body of Christ (See Essay xxv in this volume: The Eucharistic Sacrifice ). That the whole Church has a sacerdotal character is clear from several passages of the creative prompts, New Testament. Baptism, which made us sons of God, members of the great gatsby book, Mystical Body, gave us an indelible character: “But you are a chosen generation, a kingly priesthood, a holy nation” (1 Peter ii 9). “Jesus Christ . New Resume? . . who hath loved us and washed us from our sins in his own blood, and hath made us a kingdom and priests to God and his Father” (Apoc. i 5). “Be you also as living stones built up, a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ” (1 Peter ii 5). Together with our Head, through the ministry of the priests who have the power of consecrating, we co-operate effectively in the offering of the sacrifice in the measure of our supernatural importance in the Mystical Body (Cf.

The Eucharistic Sacrifice ). 3. Christ, Head and great movie Members, offers the sacrifice. It would be a pitiable mistake to gay marriage pros and cons, think of the Body and Blood of Christ in the Mass as a dead offering. It is a living offering and is offered by compare great book, the living Christ. Ultimate Essay? Christ is the priest of the Mass. It is Christ who celebrates the Mass, and contrast essay great book he celebrates it with a warm and living Heart, the same Heart with which he worshipped his Father on Mount Calvary.

He prays for us, asks pardon for us, gives thanks for us, adores for us. As he is perfect man, he expresses every human feeling; as he is on a story, God, his utterances have a complete perfection, an infinite acceptableness. Thus when we offer Mass we worship the Father with Christ’s worship. Compare Contrast Essay Book? Our prayers being united with his obtain not only pros a higher acceptance, but a higher significance. Our obscure aspirations he interprets; what we do not know how to ask for, or even to think of, he remembers; for what we ask in broken accents, he pleads in perfect words; what we ask in error and book ignorance he deciphers in wisdom and meaningful creative love. Thus our prayers, as they are caught up by his Heart, become transfigured, indeed, divine. Hence by God’s mercy we do not stand alone. In God’s providence the weakness of the creature is never overwhelmed, unaided, by the omnipotence of God.

In particular the Catholic is never isolated in compare great movie his prayers, in his pleadings with God. He is a member of the divinely instituted Church, his prayers are reinforced by the prayers of the whole Church, he shares, in life an din death, in that amazing combination of grace-aided effort and accumulated energy known as the Communion of essay, Saints. But especially is the Catholic strong when he pleads before God the perfect sacrifice of Christ. Simply as a member of the essay great gatsby movie, Church, as a member of Christ’s Mystical Body, every Catholic has a share in the sacrifice offered by Christ as Head of his Church, a share in the supreme act of adoration thereby offered to new resume sales, God. And that partaking in the offering of the Sacrifice is as real and as far-reaching as the Mystical Body itself. 4. Christ, Head and Member, the victim. Christ, head and members, offers the sacrifice, but Christ, head and compare contrast essay book movie members, offers himself, and we, in union with our Head, are victims too. St. paul has told us that we are “heirs of meaningful writing, God, and joint heirs with Christ, if, that is, we suffer with him, that with him we may also be glorified” (Rom. viii 17). We must share in great gatsby book movie his sufferings if we would share in new resume sales his salvation. And in his epistle to the Collosians (i 24), St.

Paul stresses the importance of our privilege: “Now I rejoice in my sufferings on gatsby book, your behalf, and make up in good hard to find my flesh what is lacking to the sufferings of Christ, on behalf of compare contrast essay gatsby movie, his body, which is the Church, whereof I am become a minister.” So that as we are members of the one body, our sufferings, our prayers, our sacrifices, “may further the application to others of what Christ alone has secured for all” (Lattey in loc ). “The Church,” says St. Ultimate Essay? Augustine ( De Civ. Dei , x 20), which is the body of which he is the head, learns to offer herself through him.” “The whole redeemed city, that is, the congregation and compare essay great book society of the saints, is the new resume sales, universal sacrifice which is offered to contrast essay book, God by the High Priest” ( Ibid ., 6). Erik Freixas? “I exhort you therefore, brethren,” writes St. Paul (Rom. xii 1), “by the compassion of God, to great gatsby, present your bodies a sacrifice, living, holy, well-pleasing to God, your spiritual service.” Since we are members of Christ our sufferings, united with the good, offering of Christ, acquire a value in the carrying out of Christ’s purpose in the world which they could never have of themselves. Compare Essay? Our mortifications, our fastings, our almsdeeds are seen to meaningful writing prompts, have a range of compare essay great, effective influence in the Mystical Body, however trifling they may appear in themselves. The Lenten Fast is no mere personal obligation: the Church calls upon her children to do their share in furthering the interests of new resume, Christ in the world, insists that they should not be merely passengers in the barque of contrast great gatsby movie, Peter, but should “:pull their weight”; for they too have benefited and meaningful creative writing are benefiting from the fastings and prayers of God’s holy servants throughout the compare contrast essay gatsby movie, world. The call to reparation on new resume, behalf of others is bound up with the privileges we enjoy through our solidarity with our fellow-members of the Mystical Body.

5. The sacrificial attitude of mind. Every sacrifice is the external expression of an internal sacrificial attitude of compare essay great movie, mind, whereby we submit all that we have and all that we are to the divine will, that in all things it may be accomplished. In every sacrifice the victim is offered in place of him who offers it, as a means of essay, expressing as adequately as possible the perfection of his submission to essay great gatsby book, God. Now we have seen that our union as members of Christ’s Mystical Body with the Victim offered to God in the Mass, unites us with our High Priest both as offerers and as offered. Hence, from our solidarity with the priesthood and the victimhood of Christ there follows as a necessary corollary the duty in Catholics of cultivating the sacrificial attitude of mind.

When the pursuivants were thundering at the door of the house of Mr. New Resume? Swithun Wells in Gray’s Inn Lane on the morning of All Saints’ Day, 1591, as the priest, Edmund Genings, stood at the improvised altar and offered the Sacrifice of the compare contrast essay gatsby book movie, Mass, there could be no mistake about the sacrificial attitude of essay book, mind of the small group of faithful present on that occasion. All had suffered for the privilege of worshipping God as he would be worshipped in his Church, and had refused to conform to the observances of the Established Church. With calm deliberation they took their lives and great gatsby movie fortunes in new resume sales their hands, and offered them up to God in compare contrast essay gatsby union with the redeeming sacrifice of Christ himself. The working out of God’s will was to them as mysterious as it is to us. But their duty to God was clear, and the danger they ran was clear; but they commended themselves into the hands of God, and prayed that his will might be done. The spirit inspiring them shines out in Mr. Swithun Wells’ reply when in prison he answered, “That he was not indeed privy to the Mass being said in his house, but wished that he had been present, thinking his house highly honored by having so divine a sacrifice offered therein,” and ultimate essay the Justice told him that though he was not at compare contrast essay great book the feast, he should taste of the sauce. On 10 December, 1591, he won the crown of gay marriage, martyrdom.

If we compare the contrast essay great book, attitude of mind of the small group of devoted Catholics who were gathered round the martyr’s altar with the attitude of those indifferent Catholics who under the most favorable conditions content themselves with deliberately conforming to the very minimum of the Church’s requirements, we can see that there is room for many gradations in the intensity of the worship of God in the Holy Mass. Better perhaps than any technical definitions the example of our Catholic forefathers can teach the lesson so many of us have to ultimate essay, learn. Our lives are spent in the midst of men who, however religious-minded they may be, have lost all idea of compare contrast book, sacrificial worship: the Great Christian Act of Sacrifice is no longer the center of their religious observance. At times one may wonder whether the influence of atmosphere does not affect the less-instructed of the faithful. Pros Essay? Our people have a firm and deep belief in the Real Presence of Our Lord in the Blessed Sacrament, but it often happens that they have a less clear perception of what the Sacrifice means. At times one hears the question, “Why is contrast essay great gatsby, it that when Our Lord is already present in the Tabernacle, such a great manifestation of reverence should surround the pros essay, Consecration?” a question which shows how little it is realized that at the Consecration Our Lord comes offering himself as our Victim, bearing our sins, offering himself to his Eternal Father for us. Compare Contrast Book Movie? Such a though makes the Sacrifice real and living to us, and moves us to offer ourselves up with him, to be ready to suffer what we can for him who suffered and died for us. Freixas? VI. THE MYSTICAL BODY AND HOLY COMMUNION. 1. Union with Christ consummated by compare contrast book, Holy Communion.

The end of all sacrifice is union with God; and the end of the Sacrifice of the New Law is new resume, union with God through and in Jesus Christ; a union which is consummated by Holy Communion, wherein those who have offered the sacrifice partake of the sacred Victim. It is evident, therefore, that the Sacrament of the Eucharist, as well as the contrast essay great, Eucharistic Sacrifice, the Mass, is intimately bound up with the ultimate essay, doctrine of the Mystical Body. In fact, the Eucharist is the Sacrament of the Mystical Body of compare essay gatsby book movie, Christ. 2. Sales? Nature of this union. How close this connection really is may be seen from the study of three well-known texts of the Gospel of St. John: “Abide in me and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself unless it abide in the vine, so neither can you unless you abide in me. I am the vine, you the branches; he that abideth in me, and I in him , the same beareth much fruit, for without me you can do nothing” (xv 4-5). “That they all may be one, as thou , Father, in me, and I in thee ; that they also may be one in us . . . I in them, and contrast essay book movie thou in me ; that they may be made perfect in one” (xvii 21-23). “Except you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you shall not have life in you; he that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood hath everlasting life. . . . He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood abideth in ultimate essay me, and I in him . As the living Father hath sent me and I live by the Father; so he that eateth me the same also shall live by me” (vi 54 ff). The comparison of these three passages not only brings out in a striking manner the nature of the union that Christ wills should exist between himself and the faithful–and among the faithful themselves–but also shows what Christ intends to be the primary and chief cause of that union. The union for which Christ prayed is a union of life, a communion of supernatural life, of the divine life of grace and charity, that union which, as we have seen, knits together the members of the Mystical Body, as the branches are united with the vine. It is a union so intimate that those who are united may be truly said to compare essay, be in each other ; a union so close that Christ does not hesitate to essay on a story book, compare it with the union existing between his Father and contrast great gatsby movie himself: “as thou, Father, in me, and I in thee.” Now the union between Christ and his Father is writing, a union of nature and life. “He that seeth me,” he had said to Philip, “seeth the Father also.

Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father in me? . . . Yet a little while, and the world seeth me no more. But you see me; because I live, and you shall live. In that day you shall know that I am in my Father, and contrast gatsby you in me, and I in you. . . . If any one love me . . . my Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our abode with him” (John xiv 9 ff). The members of Christ, therefore, are united with their Head and with each other by the communication of the life of thesis good to find, grace and charity, which, as St. Peter tells us, is nothing else than a participation of the divine nature (Cf. 2 Peter i 4. Contrast Essay Great Gatsby? Cf. Pros Essay? also 1 John iv 7: “Everyone that loveth is born of God and knoweth God”; ibid ., 15-16: “Whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God abideth in him, and he in God. . . . Contrast Great Gatsby Book Movie? He that abideth in ultimate essay charity abideth in God, and God in Him.”) 3. The sacrament of the Mystical Body. What is the chief means whereby this life of grace is to be communicated to the members of compare essay, his Body?

The answer is found in new resume sales the third of the texts quoted above: “He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood abideth in me and I in him. As the living Father hath sent me and I live by the Father; so he that eateth me, the same also shall live by me.” The Sacrament of Our Lord’s Body and Blood is the divinely appointed means for incorporation into his Mystical Body. The Eucharist, in other words, is not only the Sacrament of Christ’s true body; it is compare contrast great book, also the Sacrament of his Mystical Body. Hence St. Paul writes: “The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not fellowship in the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not fellowship in the body of Christ? We many are one bread, one body, for we all partake of the one bread.” And commenting on these words of the Apostle St. Pros And Cons Essay? Augustine says: “The faithful know the body of Christ if they do not neglect to be the body of Christ.

Let them become the body of Christ if they wish to live by the Spirit of Christ; and therefore it is compare gatsby book movie, that St. Paul, explaining to us the nature of this bread, says, ‘We being many are one bread, one body.’ O sacrament of piety! O symbol of unity! O bond of charity! He who wills to live has here the place to on a, live, has here the source of his life. Let him approach and believe, let him be incorporated, that he may receive life” (In Joan., tr. Compare Essay Movie? xxvi 13). Creative Writing Prompts? “Be what you see,” he writes elsewhere (Sermon 272), “and receive what you are. . . . Compare Contrast Essay Book Movie? He who receives the creative writing prompts, mystery of unity and does not hold the compare essay book movie, bond of peace, does not receive the mystery for his profit, but rather a testimony against himself.” Hence also St. Thomas, dealing with the sin of unworthy Communion, having pointed out that the Eucharist signifies the “Mystical Body, which is the fellowship of the Saints,” writes: “He who receives this sacrament, by the very fact of doing so signifies that he is united to Christ and incorporated in his members: now this is effected by charity-informed faith which no man can have who is in mortal sin.

Hence it is clear that whosoever receives this sacrament in ultimate essay a state of mortal sin is guilty of falsifying the sacramental sign, and is therefore guilty of sacrilege” (III, Q. Compare Contrast Great Gatsby Book? lxxx, art. 9). 4. The Eucharist and Baptism. Erik? The intimate connection of the contrast essay great gatsby book movie, Sacrament of the Eucharist with the Mystical Body may be clearly illustrated by the teaching of St. Thomas on the necessity of the Eucharist for new resume sales salvation (See Essay xxxiv: The Sacrament of the Eucharist ). It has been seen in a preceding section that Baptism is the Sacrament of incorporation in compare contrast essay great the Mystical Body, and hence for infants the actual reception, and for adults at least the desire, of this sacrament is indispensable for salvation; for outside the Mystical Body of Christ none can be saved. Gay Marriage And Cons Essay? Now to compare contrast movie, assert that Incorporation is the proper effect of the Eucharist would seem at first sight to good to find, contradict the undoubted truth that Baptism is the compare great book, “gate of the Sacrament” and, alone, is necessary for salvation.

St. Thomas solves the difficulty by pointing out that the Eucharist is the source of the efficacy of all the other Sacraments, these being subordinated to the greatest of them all. “This Sacrament,” he writes (III, Q. lxxix, art. 1, ad.1), “has of itself the power of bestowing grace; nor does any one possess grace before receiving this sacrament except from some desire thereof; from his own desire in the case of the adult; or from the Church’s desire in ultimate essay the case of children.” If this desire in adults is compare contrast, a sincere one, as it should be, and the baptized person is faithful to the promptings of the Holy Spirit, he will complete what is expected of him and good man is receive the contrast essay great gatsby movie, Blessed Sacrament: “The effect of ultimate essay, this sacrament is union with the Mystical Body, without which there can be no salvation; for outside the Church there is no entry to salvation. . . Contrast Great Gatsby Book? . However, the essay, effect of a sacrament can be had before the actual reception of the compare movie, sacrament, from the very desire of receiving it; hence before the reception of thesis good to find, this sacrament a man can have salvation from the desire of receiving this sacrament. . . . From the very fact of being baptized infants are destined by the Church for essay the reception of the Eucharist, and just as they believe by camayd, the faith of the Church, so from the intention of the Church they desire the Eucharist, and consequently receive its fruit. But for baptism they are not destined by means of another preceding sacrament, and therefore before the reception of baptism infants cannot in any way have baptism by desire, but only adults. Hence infants cannot receive the effect of the sacrament (of baptism) without the actual reception of the contrast essay, sacrament. Therefore the Eucharist is not necessary for salvation in the same way as Baptism” (III, Q. lxxiii, art. 3). And elsewhere (III, Q. lxxx, art. 11), “There are two ways of receiving this sacrament, namely, spiritually and sacramentally. Now it is on a book, clear that all are bound to eat it at least spiritually, because this is to be incorporated in compare essay great book Christ, as was said above ( i.e. , in the passage just quoted). Now spiritual eating comprises the desire or yearning for receiving the essay, sacrament.

Therefore a man cannot be saved without desiring to receive this sacrament. Contrast Great Book Movie? Now a desire would be vain, except it were fulfilled when opportunity presented itself.” 5. Union of the on a story book, faithful. But it would be a mistake to regard the compare contrast great gatsby movie, Eucharist as having its effect merely in the individual soul that receives it. All that has been said hitherto about the solidarity of the members of Christ forbids any such restricted view. The Eucharist has far-reaching effects passing beyond the mere individual to the masterpiece of divine Love, the sanctification of ultimate essay, mankind; bringing all men under the Headship of Christ, uniting soul with soul, and souls with Christ, until all the elect in Heaven and in Purgatory are one in Christ with his faithful on earth; so that all work together to achieve his Fullness: “for the perfecting of the contrast book movie, Saints in the work of ministry, unto the building up of the body of Christ, till we all attain to the unity of the Faith and of the full knowledge of the Son of God, to the perfect man, to the full measure of the stature of Christ . Ultimate Essay? . . thus . . . we shall hold the compare essay great gatsby book movie, truth in erik essay charity, and grow in all things unto him who is the Head, Christ” (Eph. iv 12-15). VII: THE COMMUNION OF SAINTS AND ITS CONSEQUENCE. 1. Great Gatsby Book Movie? Meaning of the term. The term “Communion of Saints” seems to have been first inserted in man is the baptismal creeds in compare essay great gatsby book movie the South of Gaul; and erik camayd freixas essay it is to be understood as the South Gallic writers of the fifth and sixth centuries understood it; giving the word “Saints” the normal meaning which it still holds today: the Elect, those who have attained the end for which they were made, in the Kingdom of God. Essay Great Book? The term “communion” is used in the abstract sense and means a spiritual benefit conferred in the Church, or the Mystical Body of Christ. “And so the addition ‘the Communion of Saints’ signifies the inward spiritual union of the faithful as members of Christ’s Mystical Body with the other members of pros essay, this Body, especially the elect and perfectly just, whose participation in the heavenly kingdom of God is absolutely certain, and through whose intercessions help may be given to the faithful still wayfaring on earth” (Kirsch, The Doctrine of the Communion of Saints in compare contrast essay great gatsby the Ancient Church (Tr. McKea), 268). Story? 2. Veneration of the Saints.

In venerating the Saints of God and especially the Mother of God, we give them due honor because of the supernatural excellence we recognize in them as derived from God himself through the merits of Jesus Christ. It is therefore to the honor and glory of God that is ultimately directed all the veneration paid to his servants. Strictly speaking a like honor might be paid to saintly men and women which they are still living on this earth. It is, however, the custom of the Church not to essay great gatsby movie, venerate the just until she has declared by good, infallible decree that they are in essay gatsby book movie definitive enjoyment of their eternal reward in heaven. In English we are accustomed to speak of “honoring” or “venerating” the Saints, while the cult of “adoration” is reserved for God alone. This distinction–for the rest, a convenient one–may be regarded as roughly corresponding to the Latin theological terms dulia : the honor paid to the Saints, and latria : the essay, worship paid to compare great, God alone. Mary is particularly honored because of the special greatness of the favors she received from God.

She is what God made her, and erik essay as such we recognize her. All her graces on earth and her glory in heaven are celebrated in relation to her unique privilege: her Divine Maternity. By reason of her unique supernatural excellence the special veneration which we pay to her is called “ hyperdulia .” In honoring her and the Saints of God the Church would have us celebrate with veneration their holiness which they owe to the merits of Jesus Christ; obtain their prayers–which avail only in so far as by the divine ordinance they intercede in virtue of the great gatsby movie, grace they have received from Christ the essay on a story, Head of the contrast essay book movie, Mystical Body, and in view of his merits; and erik finally set before ourselves the example of their virtues, the compare movie, exercise of which is ultimate essay, due to the grace of God through which they were united to the Mystical Body, and so imitated the model of compare contrast gatsby book, all virtues, Jesus Christ himself. The veneration of the Saints is thus directed to the glory of good man is hard, God, who is wonderful in his Saints, and therefore in his Saints is duly honored. So eminently reasonable is this practice, so perfectly in accord with the doctrine of the Mystical Body, that we are not surprised to find that from the earliest times Catholics have paid honor to the Saints. Contrast Great? We may see it especially in the commemoration of the Martyrs. Thus when Faustus the Manichean objected to the practice St. Augustine replied: “Faustus blames us for honoring the memory of the martyrs, as if this were idolatry.

The accusation is not worthy of a reply. Christians celebrate the memory of the martyrs with religious ceremony in order to arouse emulation and in order that they may be associated with their merits and new resume sales helped by their prayers. But to none of the martyrs do we erect altars as we do to the God of the martyrs; we erect altars at their shrines. For what bishop standing at the altar over the bodies of the martyrs ever said ‘We offer to thee, Peter, or Paul, or Cyprian?’ What is offered ( i.e., the sacrifice) is offered to God who crowned the martyrs, at the shrines of the martyrs, so that the compare contrast book movie, very spot may remind us to arouse in ourselves a more fervent charity both towards them, whom we can imitate, and towards him who gives us the power to do so. We venerate the martyrs with the same love and fellowship with which holy men of God are venerated in camayd freixas essay this life . . . Essay Movie? but the martyrs we honor with the greater devotion than now, since they have happily gained the victory, we may with the greater confidence praise those who are blessed in their victory than those who in this life are still striving for it” ( Contra Faustum , 1 20, c. 21).

3. Intercession of the gay marriage pros and cons, Saints. With regard to the intercession of the Saints let it suffice to note with St. Thomas that “prayer may be offered to a person in two ways, either so that he himself may grant it, or that he may obtain the contrast, favor from another. IN the first way we pray only to God, because all our prayers should be directed to creative writing, obtaining grace and glory, which God alone gives, according to the Psalmist (83): ‘The Lord will give grace and glory.’ But in the second way we pray to the angels and Saints, not that through them God may know our petitions, but that through their prayers and merits our petitions may be effective. Hence we read in the Apocalypse (viii 4) that ‘the smoke of the incense of the prayers of the compare essay gatsby movie, saints ascended up before God from the hand of the Angel.’ And this is manifest also from the method which the Church uses in praying; for new resume sales we ask the Trinity to have mercy upon us, but we ask the essay great, Saints to camayd freixas essay, pray for us” (II, Iiae, Q. Contrast? lxxxiii, art. 4). 4. Relics and images. Closely associated with the essay story book, veneration of the Saints is the honor paid to their relics and images.

The principle underlying the veneration of relics is thus set out by St. Thomas: “It is manifest that we should show honor to compare great, the saints of God as being members of Christ , the ultimate essay, children and friends of compare contrast movie, God and our intercessors. Wherefore in memory of them we ought to honor every relic of theirs in a fitting manner: principally their bodies which were temples and organs of the Holy Ghost dwelling and creative prompts operating in them, and as destined to be likened to the body of Christ by the glory of the Resurrection. Hence God himself fittingly honors such relics by working miracles at book their presence” (III, Q. xxv, art. Good Man Is Hard To Find? 2). A similar reason justifies the veneration of compare essay gatsby, their images. Essay Story Book? The images recall the Saints to our minds, and the reverence we pay to them is simply relative, as the images themselves, considered materially, have no virtue in them on account of which they should be honored. The honor paid to them passes to the rational persons, the Saints, whom the images represent. The purpose of the practice is compare contrast essay gatsby book movie, explained by the second Council of Nicaea in its decree concerning sacred images: “that all who contemplate them may call to mind their prototypes, and love, salute and honor them, but not with true ‘latria,’ which is due to God alone. . . . For honor paid to pros essay, the image passes to the prototype, and he who pays reverence to the image, pays reverence to the person it depicts” (Denzinger, 302). A final application of the doctrine of the Mystical Body may be found in Indulgences ( Cf . Essay xxvii: The Sacrament of Penance ). Essay Gatsby Book Movie? The matter is explained by St.

Thomas as follows: “The reason why indulgences have value is the unity of the Mystical Body, in which many of the faithful have made satisfaction beyond what was due from them. They have borne with patience many unjust persecutions, whereby they might have expiated many temporal punishments if they had deserved them. The abundance of those merits is so great as to surpass all the temporal punishment due from the sales, faithful on earth, and that particularly owing to the merit of Christ. That merit, although it operates in the Sacraments, is not limited to the Sacraments in its effectiveness: but its infinite value extends beyond the efficacy of the Sacraments. Now, as we have seen above (Q. xiii, art. 2), one man can make satisfaction for essay great gatsby book another on the other hand, the Saints, whose satisfactory works are superabundant, did not perform them for some one particular person (otherwise without an indulgence he would obtain remission) but in meaningful writing general for the whole Church, according to the words of St. Paul (Col. i 24), ‘I rejoice in my sufferings on your behalf, and make up in my flesh what is lacking to the sufferings of Christ, on behalf of his Body, which is the Church .’ And so these merits become the common property of the whole Church.

Now the common property of a society is distributed to the different members of the society according to the decision of him who is at compare contrast great gatsby book the head of the society. Consequently, as we should obtain the remission of the temporal punishment due to sin, if another had undertaken to make satisfaction on our behalf, so too do we obtain it when the satisfaction of another is applied on our behalf by him who has authority to do so” ( Summa Theol ., III, Suppl. Q. xxv, art. Pros? 1). One of the most striking phenomena of the present development of the compare book, Church’s life in the course of the last few years is the appeal made to the minds of the faithful by the doctrine of the Mystical Body. New Resume? Books are being published in every tongue setting out its implications, especially in its bearing on the practice of frequent Communion, and of assisting at Mass. The time is ripe for it. For as far as the Church at compare movie large is concerned, Protestantism is of the ultimate essay, past, however much it may linger on in these islands. It has left us a legacy for which future generations will be grateful. Contrast Essay Gatsby Book? The last four hundred years have witnessed a remarkable development in the working out and clear formulation of the revealed teaching concerning the Church, and more particularly of the teaching concerning the visible headship of the ultimate essay, Church.

The great disadvantage of the controversial treatment of any doctrine is that it involves the stressing of the controverted point to a disproportionate extent, and there is contrast book, a consequent lack of camayd, attention paid to other truths. Not that those other truths are entirely lost to essay gatsby book, sight–the remarkable correlation of revealed truths, each involving and pros leading up to the others, which so impressed Newman, is sufficient to prevent such an oversight: but the truths which are not actually under discussion attract less attention and essay great movie study, and consequently what is involved in them is not made fully explicit nor is the connection which actually does exist between them always clearly seen. Now Catholics and Protestants alike agree that Christ is the Head of the Church–the struggle arose and has continued on the question as to whether the Pope, as Christ’s Vicar on earth, was the visible Head of the Church. But even that argument was largely verbal: since the very constitution of the Church was in gay marriage and cons essay dispute, and the character of the Headship differed fundamentally as conceived by both sides. That point, however, remained in the background, and did not attract the attention it deserved. Contrast Essay Movie? A second obstacle stood in essay story book the way of the development of the doctrine of Christ’s Headship of the Mystical Body–involving, as it does, the full Catholic doctrine of Sanctifying Grace. Baianism, Jansenism, and compare contrast great Cartesianism are all bound up with erroneous or heretical teaching concerning sanctifying grace. Meaningful Creative Writing Prompts? The influence of Cartesianism was particularly disastrous on the philosophical setting of Catholic teaching: its rejection of the distinction between substance and accidents cut away the basis of the traditional treatment of sanctifying grace and the virtues, and not a few eighteenth-century theologians took to the simple method of ignoring the supernatural accidents of the soul as mere mediaeval subtleties, and that unfortunate attitude of mind made its influence felt well into the nineteenth century. This statement admits of easy historical verification: consult the textbooks in use in theological seminaries in the early nineteenth century and you will be amazed at the indifference or, at least, the astonishing reserve with which the all-important doctrine of sanctifying grace is treated.

Actual grace and all the interminable controversies to which it gave rise absorb all their energies. A sad practical result followed: the clergy being insufficiently instructed in these important doctrines were incapable of instilling them into the faithful, of bringing them to realize what the supernatural life is, and so were unable effectively to compare contrast essay book movie, resist the ultimate essay, onset of naturalism. The heavy penalty of this neglect is compare great, now being paid in many Catholic countries on the Continent. Fortunately, happier days have dawned. These anti-Protestant polemics, necessary as they may be, do not absorb all our energies, and the stimulating and consoling truths of our supernatural life and destiny are being studied more and more, so that we may hope for a fuller development of the truths involved in Christ’s Headship of his Mystical Body. We know that the Church is a perfect society; we analyze all that that statement involves, we realize the Church’s complete and entire independence of the State within her own sphere.

We have defended every detail of her visible organization against non-Catholic assault. But let us be on our guard against imagining that because we have grasped every element of her visible and of her moral constitution which Christ willed should be in order that his Church might utilize all that is best in man’s human nature–that we understand Christ’s Church through and through. For there still remains the most potent element of all in the supernatural constitution of the Church, that divine, all-pervading, all-guiding and directing influence interiorly exercised by Christ upon every individual member, and upon all the members collectively, bringing the ultimate essay, individual soul into harmony with himself, and with all faithful souls, so that, as St. Paul wrote to contrast essay great gatsby book movie, the Ephesians (iv 15-16): “We may in all things grow up in meaningful creative writing him, who is the Head, even Christ. Great Gatsby Movie? From whom the whole Body, being compacted and fitly joined together, by what every joint supplieth, according to the operation in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the Body unto the edifying of itself in charity.” We have to meaningful creative, strive to realize more vividly Christ’s living influence in the world today, and the need in compare contrast gatsby movie which we stand of it, to realize, too, the wonderful way in which Our Lord meets this need by making us, and preserving us as members of his Church, members of essay, that Mystical Body of contrast essay gatsby book, which he is the Head. Copyright © 2017, Mary’s Touch By Mail.

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resume texas tech Born February 28, 1967, US and Romanian Citizen. High school diploma , C.D. Compare Contrast Essay Great Movie! Loga High School, Timisoara, Romania, 1985. Coach for Mathematical Olympiads: Titu Andreescu. Diploma of Merit in Mathematics , awarded by the Romanian. Ministry of book Education for the highest GPA in the country, University of Timisoara, Romania, 1989. Mentor: Gheorghe Eckstein. Dissertation: Invariant subspaces for subdecomposable operators.

Advisor: Florian-Horia Vasilescu. Dissertation: Problems in topology and operator theory. Assistant Professor , University of essay great Michigan, 1997-2000 (post-doctoral position with Ruth Lawrence as mentor) Assistant Professor , Texas Tech University, 2000-2006. Associate Professor , Texas Tech University, 2006-2015. Professor , Texas Tech University, 2015-present. SHORT TERM APPOINTMENTS.

Coach of the US International Mathematical Olympiad Team, Mathematical Olympiad Summer Program, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2006-present. Visiting Professor , Université de Nantes, May 1999. Coach of the International Mathematical Olympiad Team of Brazil, Colégio Etapa, Saõ Paulo, Brazil, 2011, 2013. Coach of the International Mathematical Olympiad Team of India, Homi Bhabha Center of Science Education, Mumbai, India, 2004, 2005. Instructor , Awesome Math, Dallas, 2009, 2010, 2012. First Prize , Balkan Mathematical Olympiad, (Sofia, Bulgaria), 1985. First Prize , Romanian National Mathematical Competition for Universities Traian Lalescu, 1986. First Prize , Romanian National Mathematical Competition for Universities Traian Lalescu, 1987. First Prize , Romanian National Computer Programming Competition Grigore Moisil, 1987.

Romanian National Fellowship , 1987, 1988. Award for best performance on the qualifying examinations , Department of Mathematics, University of Iowa, 1992. Outstanding Teaching Award , University of Iowa, 1997. D.C. Erik Camayd Freixas Essay! Spriestersbach Dissertation Prize for compare contrast essay great gatsby book movie, best dissertation in Mathematical and Physical Sciences and Engineering, University of Iowa, 1998. Rackham Summer Grant , University of on a book Michigan, 1999. Research Enhancement Fund , Texas Tech University, 2000 and 2001. Grant from the contrast essay great book movie, National Science Foundation for the study of the quantization of the moduli space of flat SU(2)-connections on a surface, 2006-2009. Grant from the essay story book, National Science Foundation for organizing The Topology and Geometry of Physics Conference, 2008. 1. Un problema de paridad y la formula de Green , Uinverso.math, Vol.2, no.

3, (2016). 2. Una aplicacion de la desigualdad isoperimetrica , with Cezar Lupu, Universo.math, Vol.2, no. 2 (2015). 3. Compare Essay Movie! The topological quantum field theory of classical theta functions with Alastair Hamilton, J. of Geometry and Physics, 98(2015), 242-261. Camayd Freixas Essay! 4. Una identidad algebraica y los determinantes circulantes, Universo.math, Vol. 2, no. 1 (2015). 5. Classical theta functions from compare contrast, a quantum group perspective with Alastair Hamilton, New York Journal of Mathematics, 21(2015), 93-127. 6. Un problema de geometria combinatoria y las curvas elipticas Universo.math, Vol. 1 no.

3 (2014). 7. Gay Marriage Pros Essay! Representations of the Kauffman bracket skein algebra of the punctured torus , with Jea-Pil Cho, Fundamenta Mathematicae, 225(2014), 45-55. Essay Great Gatsby Book! 8. Essay! From classical theta functions to topological quantum field theory , with Alejandro Uribe, in essay book movie L. Katzarkov, E. Lupercio, and and cons essay, F. Turrubiates (eds.), The influence of Solomon Lefschetz in geometry and topology: 50 years of Mathematics at compare essay Cinvestav, Contemporary Mathematics, Amer. Math. Soc., 2014. 9. Pros Essay! Quantum mechanics and non-abelian theta functions for compare gatsby book movie, the gauge group SU(2) , with Alejandro Uribe, Fundamenta Mathematicae, 228(2015), 97-137. Creative Writing! 10. Dynamically consistent discrete-time Lotka-Volterra competition models , with Lih-Ing Roeger, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems, Supplement (2009), 650-658. 11. Some results about the Kauffman bracket skein module of the compare essay great gatsby book, twist knot exterior , with Fumikazu Nagasato, J. Knot Theory Ramif., 8(2006), 1095-1106. 12.

El polinomio de Jones y la mecanica cuantica , Aportaciones Math. Comun, 36, Soc. Mat. Mexicana, Mexico, (2006), 85--99. 13.

On the holomorphic point of and cons view in the theory of quantum knot invariants , J. Great Gatsby! Geom. Phys., 56(2006), 2163-2176. 14. The computation of the noncommutative A-ideal for the figure eight knot , with Jeremy Sain, J. Knot Theory Ramif. 6(2004), Vol. 16, 1-24. 15. The Weyl quantization and the quantum group quantization of the moduli space of flat SU(2)-connections on ultimate essay the torus are the same , with Alejandro Uribe, Communications in Mathematical Physics, 233(2003), 493-512. Compare Great Gatsby Book Movie! 16. The noncommutative A-ideal of a (2p+1,2)-torus knot determines its Jones polynomial , with Jeremy Sain, J. Meaningful Writing Prompts! Knot Theor. Ramif, 2(2003), Vol.

12, 187-201. 17. Noncommutative trigonometry and compare essay gatsby, the A-polynomial of the trefoil knot , Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 1(2002). 18. On the relation between the A-polynomial and the Jones polynomial , Proceedings Amer. Meaningful Writing Prompts! Math.

Soc., 4(2001), Vol 130, 1235-1241. 19. The A-polynomial from the noncommutative viewpoint , with Charles Frohman and Walter Lofaro, Transactions Amer. Math. Soc., 354(2001), 735-747. 20. Skein modules and contrast great gatsby book, the noncommutative torus , with Charles Frohman, Transactions Amer. Math. Soc., 352(2000), 4877-4888. 21.

On the formula for essay story, the quantum invariant of three manifolds with boundary , Bulletin Math. Soc. Compare Contrast Essay Book Movie! Sc. Math. Roumanie, 43(91) 2(2000). 22.

On the groupoid of transformations of rigid structures , with Louis Funar, Journal of Math. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, 4(1999), Vol 6, 599-646. 23. Topological SL(2,C) quantum field theory with corners , J. Knot Theor.

Ramif., 7(1998), 893-906. 24. Ultimate Essay! Topological quantum field theory with corners based on compare contrast gatsby the Kauffman bracket , Comment. Math. Helv., 72(1997), 216-243. 25.

The quantum invariant of the camayd freixas essay, regular neighborhood of compare contrast great movie a link , Topology and its Applications 81(1997), 147-157. 26. Topological Hilbert Nullstellensatz for Bergman spaces , Integral Equations and pros and cons, Operator Theory, 28(1997), 191-195. 27. Rings with topologies induced by spaces of functions , Houston Journal of Mathematics, Vol. Compare Essay Great Gatsby Movie! 21, no.2(1995), 395-406. 28. Erik Freixas! Compact perturbations of Fredholm n-tuples , Proceedings Amer. Math. Soc.

122(1994), 195-199. 29. Compare Book! Compact perturbations of Fredholm n-tuples, II , Integral Equations and Operator Theory 19(1994), 360-363. 30. A short proof of pros and cons essay a result on polynomials , Amer. Math. Monthly 100(1993), 936-937. 1. Putnam and Beyond , with Titu Andreescu, Springer, 2007, second edition scheduled 2016. 2. Compare Great Book Movie! Mathematical Olympiad Challenges , with Titu Andreescu, Birkhauser, 2000, second edition 2008. 3. Theta Functions and Knots , World Scientific, 2014.

TALKS DELIVERED AT MEETINGS. 1. Theta functions and knots , Conferencias Samuel Gitler, Mexico City, Mexico, October 2016. 2. Sales! Theta functions and movie, knots , Conference on on a story book Knot Theory and Its Applications to Physics and compare contrast great gatsby, Quantum Computing, Dallas, TX, January 2015. 3. Weyl quantization versus quantum group quantization of moduli spaces of meaningful creative flat connections on a surface , SMS Spring Conference on Quantization of Moduli Spaces, Geneva, Switzerland, April 2014. Compare Contrast Great Gatsby! 4. Theta functions and quantum field theory, National Meeting of the American Mathematical Society, Baltimore, MD, January 2014. Meaningful Creative Prompts! 5. Classical theta functions in a quantum group perspective, 1080th Sectional Meeting of the American Mathematical Society, Washington, DC, March 2012. 6. Compare Book! Obtaining the Witten-Reshetikhin-Turaev invariants from quantum mechanical considerations, 50 Years of Topology, Geometry and Physics at Cinvestav, Mexico City, November 2011. 7. Representations of the Kauffman bracket skein algebra of the punctured torus, Knots in Washington XXXII, Washington, DC, May 2011. Essay On A Book! 8. Compare Contrast Essay! La teora Chern-Simons desde el punto de vista de la mecnica cuntica, Congreso Nacional de la Sociedad Matemtica Mexicana, Tuxtla-Gutierrez, November 2010 (plenary talk).

9. Non-abelian theta functions a la Andre Weil , Knots in Washington XXX, Washington, DC, May 2010 (plenary talk). 10. The theory of essay on a book classical theta functions from a topological perspective , 1060th Sectional Meeting of the American Mathematical Society, Newark, May 2010. 11. From classical theta functions to topological quantum field theory , 8th Joint Meeting of the American Mathematical Society and the Sociedad Matematica Mexicana, Berkeley, June 2010. 12. Theta functions and knots , Lloyd Roeling Mathematics Conference, Lafayette, Louisiana, November 2009. 13. The reduced Kauffman bracket skein algebra of the torus has a unique irreducible representation , 1037th Sectional Meeting of the AMS, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, March 2008.

14. The quantum group quantization of the moduli space of great gatsby book flat SU(2)-connections on pros and cons a surface determines the Reshetikhin-Turaev representation of the mapping class group , First Joint Meeting of the American Mathematical Society and compare contrast great, the Polish Mathematical Society, Warsaw, Poland, August 2007. 15. The quantum group quantization of the moduli space of flat SU(2)-connections on a surface determines the Reshetikhin-Turaev representation of the mapping class group , A second time around the volume conjecture conference, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, June 2007. 16. The computation of the basis of the on a book, Hilbert space of compare contrast essay gatsby book a certain quantum system , National Meeting of the American Mathematical Society, San Antonio, January 2006.

17. El polinomio de Jones y la mecanica cuantica , Congreso Nacional de la Sociedad Matematica Mexicana, Mexico City, October 2005. 18. On the holomorphic point of thesis hard to find view in the teory of essay great gatsby quantum knot invariants , 1002nd Sectional Meeting of the AMS, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, November 2004. New Resume! 19. Towards the compare contrast great gatsby book movie, computation of the noncommutative A-polynomial of twist knots , 1000th Sectional Meeting of the erik camayd freixas, AMS, Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 2004.

20. On the quantization of the moduli space of flat SU(2)-connections on essay gatsby movie the torus, 6th Joint meeting of the AMS and the SMM, Houston, May 2004. 21. The computation of the matrix of the quantum group quantization of the moduli space of flat SU(2)-connections on the torus , Spring Topology and Dynamical Systems Conference, Lubbock, March 2003. Ultimate Essay! 22. The computation of the great movie, noncommutative generalization of the A-polynomial for the figure-eight knot , National Meeting of the AMS, Baltimore, January 2003. 23.

On the quantization of the flat SU(2)-connections on the torus , International Conference on Geometric Topology, Xi'an, China, August 2002. 24. The Weyl quantization and the quantum group quantization of the moduli space of flat SU(2)-connections on the torus are the same , 974th Sectional Meeting of the ultimate essay, AMS, Ann Arbor, Michigan, March 2002. Contrast Book Movie! 25. Skein modules and the Berezin quantization of the moduli space of flat SU(2)-connections on the torus , 972nd Sectional Meeting of the pros, AMS, Irvine, California, November 2001. 26. The noncommutative A-ideal of a (2,2p+1)-torus knot determines its Jones polynomial , 969th Sectional Meeting of the gatsby book movie, AMS, Columbus, Ohio, September 2001.

27. Kauffman bracket skein modules and character varieties , 5th Joint meeting of the AMS and SMM, Morelia, Mexico, May 2001. 28. Essay On A Story Book! Kauffman bracket skein modules and character varieties , Texas Geometry and Topology Conference, February 2001 (plenary talk). Contrast Great Gatsby! 29. Gay Marriage And Cons Essay! On the noncommutative version of the A-polynomial , 954-th Sectional AMS Meeting, Lafayette, Louisiana, April 2000.

30. On the contrast gatsby, relation between the ultimate essay, A-polynomial and essay gatsby book, the Jones polynomial , AMS National Meeting, Washington, January 2000. 31. Noncommutative trigonometry and the A-polynomial , 949-th Sectional AMS Meeting, Charlotte, North Carolina, October 1999. Creative Prompts! 32. Compare Essay Great Gatsby Movie! Skein modules and noncommutative geometry , Summer School on Knot Invariants, Grenoble, France, June 1999. 33. Skein modules and the noncommutative torus , Knots in Hellas, Delphi, Greece, August 1998. 34.

Kauffman bracket skein modules and the noncommutative torus , 932-nd Sectional AMS Meeting, Manhattan, Kansas, March 1998. 35. On the essay story, quantum invariant of torus knots , 920-th Sectional AMS Meeting, College Park, Maryland, April 1997. Compare Movie! 36. SL(2,C) topological quantum field theory with corners , 909-th Sectional AMS Meeting, Iowa City, March 1996. Ultimate Essay! 37. Topological quantum field theory with corners , Thirteenth annual workshop on geometric topology, Colorado Springs, June 1996. 38. Topological quantum field theory with corners based on the Jones-Wenzl idempotents , Great Plains Operator Theory Symposium, Phoenix, May 1996. 39.

Topological quantum field theory with corners via the Jones-Wenzl idempotents , Sixteenth International Operator Theory Conference, Timisoara, Romania, July 1996. Essay Great Gatsby! 40. Topological SL(2,C) invariants for 3-manifolds with boundary , Minisemester in Knot Theory, Warsaw, Poland, July 1995. 41. On a conjecture of R. Good Man Is! G. Douglas and V. Paulsen , South-Eastern Analysis Meeting, Atlanta, March 1995. 42. On a conjecture of R. G. Douglas and V. Paulsen , Great Plains Operator Theory Symposium, Cincinnati, May 1995. 43. Rings with topologies induced by spaces of functions , Great Plains Operator Theory Symposium, Lincoln, Nebraska, June 1994.

44. Fredholm n-tuples that cannot be perturbed with compacts to invertible ones , Great Plains Operator Theory Symposium, Boulder, Colorado, June 1993. 45. Contrast Essay Book! Fredholm n-tuples that cannot be perturbed with compacts to invertible ones , Amer. Math. Soc. Summer Research Conference in Multivariable Operator Theory, Seattle, July 1993. 1. Finite rank perturbations of Fredholm n-tuples , University of California at Riverside, October 1992.

2. Topological quantum field theory with corners , Indiana University, Bloomington, October 1996. Essay On A Book! 3. Topological quantum field theory with corners , Columbia University, New York, March 1997. 4. Topological quantum field theory with corners , University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, February 1997. 5. Skein modules and the noncommutative torus , George Washington University, Washington, September 1998 (Colloquium talk). 6. Compare Essay Great Movie! Skein modules and and cons, the noncommutative torus , Northeastern University, Boston, March 1999. Compare Contrast Movie! 7. Skein modules and ultimate essay, noncommutative geometry , Universite de Nantes, May 1999. Compare Contrast Great Gatsby Book! 8. The A-polynomial from the noncommutative viewpoint , University of gay marriage and cons Texas at Austin, November 1999. Compare Essay Gatsby Book Movie! 9. The A-polynomial from the noncommutative viewpoint , George Washington University, Washington, January 2000. 10. The A-polynomial from the new resume, noncommutative viewpoint , Michigan State University, East Lansing, January 2000. Compare Essay! 11.

Skein modules and writing, noncommutative geometry , SUNY at Buffalo, February 2000 (Colloquium talk). 12. Skein modules and essay great gatsby, noncommutative geometry , Texas Tech University, Lubbock, February 2000 (Colloquium talk). 13. Skein modules and noncommutative geometry , Columbia University, New York, March 2000.

14. The A-polynomial from the noncommutative viewpoint , Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, May 2001. 15. On the pros and cons essay, quantization of the moduli space of flat SU(2)-connections on a surface , University of Texas at compare contrast essay movie Dallas, October 2001. Good Man Is! 16.

The Weyl quantization and the quantum group quantization of the compare contrast great gatsby, moduli space of flat SU(2)-connections on writing prompts a torus are the same , University of Notre Dame, March 2002. 17. The Weyl quantization and the quantum group quantization of the great gatsby book, moduli space of flat SU(2)-connections on a torus are the same , University of South Alabama, Mobile, November 2002 (Colloquium talk). 18. The Weyl quantization and the quantum group quantization of the essay on a book, moduli space of contrast essay great book flat SU(2)-connections on a torus are the same , University of Wisconsin, Madison, November 2002. Gay Marriage And Cons Essay! 19. Knots and quantum physics , The Boeing Company, Seattle, March 2003. 20. Recursive relations for great, colored Jones polynomials , Indiana University, Bloomington, November 2003. 21.

Recursive relations for colored Jones polynomials , University of Texas at Dallas, January 2004 (Colloquium talk). 22. On the quantization of the pros, moduli space of flat SU(2)-connections on the torus , Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India, June 2004 (Colloquium talk). Contrast Gatsby Book Movie! 23. Some geometric aspects of quantum topology , Georgia Tech University, Atlanta, November 2004.

24. Computing the essay on a story, basis of a vector space arising in quantum physics , Indiana University, Bloomington, April 2005. 25. The Jones polynomial and quantum mechanics , Boise State University, Boise, November 2006 (Colloquium talk). 26. Teoria espectral y la cuantizacion del espacio de moduli de conexiones planas en una superficie , CINVESTAV, Mexico City, March 2007. 27. Sobre la relacion entre la cuantizacion del espacio de moduli de conexiones planas de su(2) en una superficie y el functor modular , CINVESTAV, Mexico City, September 2007. 28. Nudos y mecanica cuantica , Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca, Mexico, September 2007. 29.

On knots and linear operators , University of contrast essay movie Texas at San Antonio, April 2008. 30. Theta functions and knots , Yale University, New Haven, November 2009 (Colloquium talk). 31. Theta functions and essay on a book, knots , University of compare great gatsby movie Nevada at and cons essay Reno, February 2010 (Colloquium talk). Compare Contrast Essay Great Gatsby Movie! 32. Essay! Theta functions and knots , Vassar College, October 2013 (Colloquium talk). 33.

Theta functions and knots , Central Connecticut State University, October 2014 (Colloquium talk). 34. Compare Gatsby Book! Theta functions and knots , University of Michigan, November 2014 (Colloquium talk). 35. Theta functions and knots , Universidade Federal de Fortaleza, Brazil, May 2015. 36.

Chern-Simons theory and gay marriage and cons, Weyl quantizations , Dartmouth College, September 2015 (Colloquium talk). 37. Chern-Simons theory and compare movie, Weyl quantization , University of Texas at Dallas, October 2015. 38. Thesis Hard To Find! Theta functions and knots University of Texas at Dallas, April 2016 (Colloquium talk). Graduate Committee 2014-present. Undergraduate Committee, Texas Tech University, 2006-2008, 2010-2011.

Hiring Committee, Texas Tech University, 2010-2015. PhD Dissertation Committees of: Jeff Sink, University of Michigan 1999 Kendrick Smith, University of Michigan 2000 Todd Kennaugh, Texas Tech University, 2009 Jea-Pil Cho, Texas Tech University, 2012 (PhD advisor) Nadeeka De Silva, Texas Tech University, 2012 Elias Gonzalez, Texas Tech University, 2016. MS Dissertation Committee of: Jea-Pil Cho, Texas Tech University, 2010 (committee chair), Hongwei Want, Texas Tech University, 2015 (committee chair). Lale Asik, Texas Tech University, 2016. Committee for Mathematics Competitions, University of Michigan, 1999-2000. Organizer of the 8th Annual Red Raider Symposium - The Topology and compare great movie, Geometry of creative Physics Conference , October 2008. Session organizer at the Sectional Meeting of the American Mathematical Society , April 11-13, 2014. Co-organizer of compare contrast essay gatsby movie 93rd Texas MAA Sectional Meeting , April 11-12, 2013.

Co-organizer of Texas Geometry and camayd essay, Topology Conference , Spring 2002, Spring 2005, Spring 2008, Spring 2011, Spring 2014. Session organizer at the Sectional Meeting of the American Mathematical Society , April 22-23, 2006. Session organizer at the Sectional Meeting of the American Mathematical Society , 8-10 April 2005. Co-organizer of the compare great gatsby book movie, Spring Topology and meaningful writing prompts, Dynamical Systems Conference , March 2003. ACTIVITIES RELATED TO MATHEMATICS COMPETITIONS. Deputy Leader of the US International Mathematical Olympiad Team, Madrid, Spain, 2008 (US ranked third), Cape Town, South Africa, 2015 (US ranked second), Hong Kong, China, 2016 (US ranked first). Leader of the compare movie, US Team taking part in the Romanian Masters in Mathematics, Bucharest, Romania, 2011 (US ranked first), 2012 (US ranked third), 2013 (US ranked first), 2015 (US ranked second), 2016 (US ranked first). Member of the USA Mathematical Olympiad Subcommittee of the MAA, 2013-present. Member of the USA Mathematical Olympiad Advisory Panel, 1997-present. As such I propose problems for the USA Mathematical Olympiad. Coordinator of the man is, grading , 40th International Mathematical Olympiad, Bucharest, Romania, 1999, and of the 42nd International Mathematical Olympiad, Washington, USA, 2001.

Advisor for the coordination of grading , 44th International Mathematical Olympiad, Tokyo, Japan, 2003. Coach of University of Michigan Putnam Team, 1998-1999. In 1998 the Michigan Team placed 14th among over 200 teams. In 1999 the Michigan Team was one of the 5 winners of the Putnam Competition, placing 4th. Contrast Essay Great Movie! One of pros essay my students, Dapeng Zhu placed 16th. Coach of the Texas Tech University Putnam Team, 2000-present. In 2000 one of the students, Jeremy Sain, placed 86th in the nation, and in great gatsby book movie 2001 he placed 78th in the nation.

Grader of the USA Mathematical Olympiad, 1997-2005, 2007-2009, 2013-present. Writer of the problems for new resume sales, the Konhauser Problem Fest, 2010, 2014. Coach of compare essay great gatsby Jay Chung, a student at West High School, Iowa City, 1992-1995. Good To Find! Jay obtained a bronze medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad, Toronto, Canada, July 1995. Coach for mathematical competitions, employed by the Iowa City Community School District, 1992-1993. Editor of universo.math, 2014-present. Assistant Editor of Mathematics Magazine, 2002-2007. Associate Editor for compare great gatsby movie, Revista Matematica din Timisoara (Timisoara Mathematics Gazette), 1985-1989. Talks on mathematical Olympiads presented at. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, February 1998, Northeastern University, Boston, March 1999, Ft.

Lewis College, Durango, March 2002, University of South Alabama, Mobile, November 2002, C.D. Loga High School, Timisoara, December 2002, Texas Tech University Summer Math Academy, June 2006, June 2011, Texas Tech University Research Experience for Undergraduates, June 2007, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca, September 2007, Mathematical Olympiad Training Program of the Estado de Mexico, September 2007, Dallas Metroplex Math Circle, November 2007, March 2009, January 2010, November 2010, November 2014, University of Texas at San Antonio, April 2008, Yale University, November 2009, Sistema Elite high school, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 2011, Etapa high school, São Paulo, Brazil, June 2013, Vassar College, October 2013, Central Connecticut State University, October 2014, Ari de Sa high school, Fortaleza, Brazil, May 2015, Undergraduate : Precalculus, Calculus I, Calculus II, Multivariable Calculus, Advanced Calculus I and II, Introduction to Differential Equations, Advanced Geometry, Linear Algebra, Math for Business Students, Problem Solving, Introduction to Topology, Number Theory for Teachers, Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning, Graduate: Topology, Real Analysis, Low Dimensional Topology, Functional Analysis, Quantum Mechanics. landscape photography (I love the Southwest), tourism (as long as I organize everything myself), music (classical: instrumental and opera, ethnic: blues, latin, Romanian, etc), skiing (no bumps), snorkeling, kayaking, hiking, history of painting, indo-european languages, cooking, carpentry, gardening.

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(Teaching) Essayist Literacy in the Multimedia World. Abstract: This article presents an gatsby book argument for the “re-turn” of creative, essayist literacy in multimedia and multiliteracy contexts. For its democratic, pedagogical, and contrast essay book intellectual potential, essayist literacy is ultimate essay, too important to be removed from composition curriculum, but it needs to be re-imagined within a diversity of essay traditions, including the contrast essay great book, turn toward multimedia writing undertaken in diverse writing classrooms. This article analyzes the findings from a study of one such ‘re-imagined’ essayist literacy unit/assignment in a composition course designed to focus on multiliteracies at a research university in the Northeast United States. Douglas Hesse The decline in essayist literacy has been viewed as the decline of knowledge itself. Ron Scollon and Suzanne Scollon. Adam Banks’s chair’s address at the 2015 Conference on College Composition and man is hard Communication in Tampa, FL, triggered heated discussion on the place of “the essay” in writing curriculum. In his speech, Banks weighed in on the status of the essay and declared its promotion to “dominant genre emeritus.” While recognizing the value of “the essay,” Banks wanted to essay gatsby movie, “acknowledge the rise and erik camayd freixas essay promotion of compare essay great book movie, many other activities around which writing and communication can be organized” and urged writing teachers to move past this dominant genre and teach writing in its expanded sense, including “multimodal, multimedia forms of composing.” From Twitter to listservs, writing teachers and sales scholars reacted to great book, his speech, some interpreting it as a call for the field to abandon the essay, and others maintaining that Banks was just opposing a mechanical and stilted version of the pros and cons, academic essay, not the contrast essay great movie, genre of the essay itself. For instance, Andrea Lunsford posited that Banks’s speech itself was an essay “in the gay marriage pros essay, very best sense of the word” (WPA Listserv), or, as David Green noted, it was “an interesting, exploratory, meditation on a topic through language and symbols” (WPA Listserv). As these scholars pointed out, Banks was not, in gatsby book movie fact, pitching the idea of sacrificing essayist literacy in all its manifestations; his major issue was with the static five paragraph, thesis-driven, academic textual form that has potential to stifle the creative and innovative use of pros essay, multiple media/modes, languages, and forms of compare contrast, expression in variegated forms of composing.

As Banks’s speech and ultimate essay the ensuing discussion illustrate, the genre of “the essay” and its place in the writing curriculum is a contentious one. Many scholars argue that essayist literacy should not be removed from composition curriculum since it is valued for its historical and current role in knowledge production, preservation, organization, and dissemination; for its flexible form, which can sponsor its writers’ and readers’ space for essay great gatsby critical reflections and conversations with other genres and text forms; for its pragmatic function in numerous situations, ranging from the college admission process to a job search; for its humanistic and new resume democratic values; and for its merit as the medium of inquiry, argument, or pursuit of knowledge (Badley, Hesse, Olson, Bloom, Scollon and compare essay great gatsby book movie Scollon, Heilker, Trimbur). On A Story Book! Therefore, as the argument goes, essayist literacy should be given the due space it deserves in composition curriculum. This article considers how we can make essayist literacy instruction and writing assignments steeped in that tradition pertinent to a diverse body of students in this age of multimedia. Compare Great Movie! While some argue for primacy of multimodal composition, sometimes even at new resume sales, the cost of traditional, print-based essays, others insist on the value of the essay and adherence to its traditional form (Badley, Hesse, Heilker). It is within this context that this study addresses one central question: what does a multimediated essayist literacy look like in a 21st century classroom? In an essay movie attempt to explore this question critically, and extensively, I designed a research study of the writing practices of college students that explores how the form we ask students to produce can be re-imagined within diverse essay traditions, multimedia contexts, and students’ multiliteracy practices. Essayist Literacy for creative writing a Linguistically and compare contrast book movie Culturally Diverse Classroom. The typical essay form our students are being asked to produce now is far removed from the original notion of meaningful writing prompts, essay introduced by Michel de Montaigne and compare contrast essay great movie has been challenged by the plural literacy traditions our students bring to the classroom and the increasing trend of multimodal essay composition inside and outside the academy. In the Montaignean sense of the term, subjectivity, pursuit of truth, and exploration characterize an essay, as opposed to the objective and new resume sales neutral tone associated with the current ‘standard’ academic essay.

Like Montaigne, many other thinkers and compare contrast essay scholars foreground subjectivity, exploration, and the search for writing truth as the major qualities of an essay. Compare Contrast Movie! One among them is Georg Lukacs, who argues that “[T]he essay . must be an uncertain exploration of received opinion that searches for truth rather than trying to establish it” (qtd in Paul Heilker’s The Essay 38). Essayists advocating for gay marriage and cons a Montaignean approach present the essay form as antithetical to science or logic or even the rational order imposed by compare contrast essay great gatsby book movie, disciplinary conventions. However, a typical thesis-driven academic essay, Ron Scollon and Suzanne Scollon contend, is a particularly western communication pattern “carefully inculcated through processes of socialization” (9). Therefore, it is wrong to assume that everyone across the world has this same pattern of writing or speaking, as it is not an “automatic outcome of maturation” (9). Essayist literacy, in that sense, can be seen as a historical and cultural construct of the Western world. But Marcia Farr has a different take on the evolution of essayist literacy. In her view, “[E]ssayist literacy may have arisen as a genre style (Olson, 1977; Scollon Scollon, 1981; Trimbur, 1990), but it currently represents a situational style because it is associated more generally with academic situations (classrooms, academic conferences, public lectures) than specifically with essay writing” (8). Pros! Farr makes another striking observation about essayist literacy that, as a Western historical and cultural construct, “[E]ssayist literacy can be understood as one way, or style, of compare contrast essay great gatsby book, “speaking” among many. Here “speaking” refers to both oral and written uses of language, as it does in Bakhtin’s (1986) work on ‘speech’ genres” (7). If we were to accept Farr’s position on essayist literacy, it raises a critical question: What happens if we teach or attempt to meaningful, teach this genre of discourse to a diverse body of contrast great gatsby, students?

Heilker states that through this practice we “impose strict limits upon the various discourses students bring to classtheir regional, racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic jargons . ” (55), whereas Linda Brodkey posits that such a practice rejects “minorities and new resume women . as either scholars or subjects” in the name of maintaining “the processes of disinterested, intellectual inquiry (Said 1982)” (13). Essay Great Book Movie! Farr herself contends that many groups of thesis good man is hard, students are discriminated against as they “use spoken and written language in ways that contrast sharply with the implicit model of language use underlying much writing instruction in this country” (5). Our current model of instruction privileges some over other groups of students, continues Farr, because “[T]hose who already know and use, at least in some contexts, discourse that resembles this taught model relatively closely have less difficulty learning to produce texts that conform to it than those whose naturally acquired discourse differs from it” (5). This implies that students from contrast essay movie, other cultures and discourse conventions are disadvantaged within the current model of instruction on essayist literacy. So, while discussing essayist literacy, we should be mindful of the essay on a book, fact that our classrooms are rife with the “multiplicity of compare contrast great, discourse styles” which in on a story book no way are “deficient versions of the Western European (male) tradition of rational discourse but simply may differ from contrast essay gatsby, it in some, though, perhaps not all, ways” (Farr 7). We should also be aware that “reasoning can be carried out and displayed in a variety of ultimate essay, discourse styles” (Farr 32) across cultures.

As Farr states, “A text that may appear “illogical” through the lenses of essayist literacy may be quite logical when looked at through other lenses. Essay Great! The logic may become clear (to outsiders) only with an camayd freixas essay understanding of unstated cultural assumptions” (32). The implication of this for our instruction is that “[S]tudents whose ‘ways of speaking’ may differ significantly from the ways of essay great, essayist literacy are not taught effectively by instructors who do not understand and appreciate the sociolinguistic repertoire they have brought to the classroom with them” (Farr 33). Hence, the re-imagination of this literacy form and the ways it is being taught to diverse students in composition classes is imperative. Such a re-imagination of essayist literacy, however, entails an integration and prompts incorporation of multimodal and multilingual literacy practices that our students regularly engage in their daily lives, and/or that regularly feature in many contemporary media platforms.

Expanding the genre this way facilitates a more critical understanding of essay great book movie, its “traditional” designation as a neutral and objective academic prose form, for camayd freixas essay it recognizes that this genre is not necessarily a static and stilted text form, but a flexible semiotic mode capable of accommodating multiple media and discourse styles that our students bring with them to our classrooms. Responding to increasing influence of multimedia technology in students’ literacy practices, Kathleen Blake Yancey argues that we need to re-conceive “composition in a new key.” According to her, such a reconceived notion of composition or writing includes print, but it also includes writing for the screen and compare book an understanding that writing is not just textual but also visual. Yancey’s view of ultimate essay, writing reflects Gunther Kress’s ideas of the changing landscape of writing and literacy in this age of essay gatsby book, multimedia/new media. Kress writes that given the “theoretical change . from linguistics to semioticsfrom a theory that accounted for language alone to a theory that can account equally well for gesture, speech, image, writing, 3D objects, colour, music and no doubt others” (35-36), the language modes, such as speech and writing should have to be “dealt with semiotically” as they constitute “a part of the whole landscape of the many modes available for representation” (36). Jodie Nicotra also speaks of the new resume sales, literacy landscape, but from the point of essay gatsby book movie, view of pros, changes in material technologies of compare essay, literacy, shedding light on the evolution of literacy and literacy technologies over thesis good man is timefrom orality to writing, from writing to contrast great gatsby book movie, print, and from print to digital media. She explains that digital media technologies are not changing the fact that we write and speak, but only the ways we write and speak. In following Nicotra’s line of argument, it can be said that we and our students still compose, but compose with different media technologies, and this fact challenges the ways we teach our students to compose, as Steven Fraiberg notes: “composition for the twenty-first century requires a shift toward conceptualizing writers as ‘knotworkers’ negotiating complex arrays of languages, texts, tools, objects, symbols, and tropes” (107). Fraiberg argues that writers these days remix multiple modes or media as they “design” composition of different kinds. According to him, as the “flow of new resume sales, content across multiple media platforms” collides, intersects, crisscrosses, and interacts “in unpredictable ways” (Jenkins qtd. in compare essay great gatsby movie 107), 21st century writers naturally bring together content from those “multiple media platforms” (107) when they compose texts of diverse sorts, including academic essays.

So, one way to ultimate essay, challenge the limitations of essayist literacy might be to contextualize it within multiple media platforms that include print, visual, digital, etc. As are multimodal literacy practices, multilingual literacy practices are also integral to compare great book, our students’ literate lives these days; therefore, essayist literacy needs to take that reality into account as well. There is already a lot written in World Englishes, intercultural communication, as well as in rhetoric and composition about the role of book, language, language varieties, cultures, and students’ past literacy traditions in shaping students’ current literacy practices. Cynthia L. Compare Great Gatsby Movie! Selfe and Gail E. Hawisher, for instance, argue that cultural ecologies influence literacy practices, whereas Steven Fraiberg contends that multilingual writing is a design like any other literate practice. Fraiberg advocates for mashing or the complex blending of multilingualism and multimodality as a new framework for composition (117). Sales! In fact, multilingualism and English language varieties (World Englishes) are long held to be great semiotic resources for composition as they contribute to and increase what Selfe calls the bandwidth of semiotic resources for composition by making available all means of contrast essay gatsby movie, persuasion (Selfe, Aurality and sales Multimodal Composing ). For instance, Yamuna Kachru notes that writers from contrast great gatsby, Outer (countries where English is spoken as a second language) and Expanding Circles (countries where English is spoken as a foreign language) use different rhetorical organizations in writing because of “nativization of English” and “Anglicization of indigenous languages” due to increasing “contact between English and camayd freixas essay local languages” (379). Compare Essay! Her characterization of ultimate essay, textual structures by writers from different places highlights the possibility of the varied literacy traditions our diverse students are likely to bring to our classrooms. Our students’ plural discourse structures and literacy practices ask us to re-vision our current understanding of essayist literacy and how we teach the essay genre in a globalized writing classroom, informed by multiple languages, modes of representation, and meaning making practices. Essayist Literacy Instruction in the Multimedia Age: A Research Study.

It is within this context that this essay addresses the research question: How do students negotiate multiple literaciesincluding essayist literaciesin a 21st century classroom? In an attempt to explore this question critically, and extensively, I designed a research study of the writing practices of college students. For the study, I collected argument essays from unit 2 in my course focused on essayist literacies (see Appendix 1) but situated among assignments that were less traditional and called on multiple literaciesessay reflections, blog posts and responses, portfolios and portfolio reflectionsfrom fourteen student research participants. Contrast Great Gatsby Movie! I also conducted interviews with each participant immediately after the unit was over. In addition, as another set of erik freixas, data, I collected the participants’ literacy narratives from the first unit, along with interviews with students about their literacy traditions. Compare Contrast Great Gatsby Book Movie! Additional data included my field notes, and curricular artifacts from unit 2, including the unit syllabus, calendar, assignment descriptions, evaluation criteria, class heuristics, and unit objectives. I examined this data in light of relevant theoretical insights from scholarship in essayist literacy and other closely connected fieldsintercultural communication, World Englishes, rhetoric and composition, and meaningful creative writing new media. The research participants for this study included diverse students from compare contrast essay, my sophomore level writing class in the Spring of 2012one Haitian female, one Mexican male, one Mexican female, one South Korean male, one African American male, one African American female, two Puerto Rican females, one Indian male, two white American females, two white American males, and one mixed race (white and African American) female. My course for thesis this particular class was framed around the idea of multiple literacies, or multiliteracies (New London Group, Schwartz, Lynch and Wysocki) for diverse students in this age of globalization and technologies. Inspired by compare essay great gatsby book movie, Michele Anstey and Geoff Bull’s argument that “Globalization provides a contextual necessity for us to become multiliterate” (175), my course took up multiliteracies in its broader frame, with multiliteracies not only encompassing the meaningful creative writing prompts, notion of plural literaciessuch as visual, cyber, academic, critical, digital, new media, and intercultural, among other kinds of literacies (Kalantzis and Cope; New London Group; Anstey and Bull; Hawisher and contrast movie Selfe; Selber)but also entailing the ability to interact using multiple Englishes in English speaking contexts and pros and cons essay multiple writing/communication styles across cultures and disciplines.

In addition, this notion of compare great movie, multiliteracies also encompassed the ability to thesis good hard to find, critically evaluate information and great gatsby movie resources and to use them ethically across contexts. In my course, mutliliteracies, therefore, meant a repertoire of creative, critical, reflective and rhetorical skills that students need to successfully navigate the complexities of the globalized world. Creative Writing! With regards to essayist literacy, in particular, the notion of multiliteracies spoke to students’ acquisition of skills and compare contrast essay book ability to choose, practice, and negotiate different forms and levels of essayist literacy as the writing context or occasion calls for them. In fact, essayist literacy was included in my curriculum as a subset of multiliteracies, and re-imagined within the context of multiple media, Englishes, languages, and writing prompts writing styles. Through triangulation and rhetorical analysis of all the data sources, I found a complex negotiation happening in compare essay great the students’ process of essay writing, from topic selection, to location and ultimate essay evaluation of sources, to contrast essay great gatsby book, adoption of a particular essay form or style. I also discovered similar negotiation in place with regards to students’ past and present linguistic, cultural and literacy traditions, and their personal and academic ‘selves.’ Even though the degree of negotiation varied across students as expected given their different positionalities (detailed discussion to follow), they nonetheless demonstrated that exploratory and academic essays are not watertight compartments as some scholars tend to maintain, but more flexible. New Resume Sales! The findings from this study also challenged my assumptions about diverse students’ linguistic and contrast gatsby book stylistic negotiations during the composing process in erik freixas English for academic audiences.

Based on my prior readings of scholarship in rhetoric and compare book movie composition, applied linguistics, and literacy studies (Canagarajah; Young; Lu; Pennycook; Horner, Trimbur and Royster; New London Group), my assumption going into this research was that if provided with an appropriate assignment, instruction, and resources, international multilingual students would negotiate multiple languages, writing styles, essay forms and literacy traditions much more actively and effectively than domestic American students. But findings from this study complicated that assumption and challenged me to re-evaluate any preconceived notions I had about any group of students. An analysis of student artifacts showed that domestic American students also negotiate, but negotiate differently because their positionalities and new resume sales negotiating factors are different. Furthermore, American students negotiate slightly different elements to varying degrees than their international multilingual counterparts. As the case studies analyzed below also demonstrate, domestic American students do not negotiate linguistic or cultural differences as complexly as international students while writing in English for American institutions; they nevertheless negotiate, for example, formal and informal tones, personal and academic ‘selves,’ and thesis driven and exploratory essay forms if their composing and research processes are supported with relevant resources and essay book movie instruction. Thus, on the one hand, this study challenged my assumption about the composing process of some groups of students; on the other, it also demonstrated the effectiveness of my pedagogical strategy that students in writing prompts globalized classrooms (Khadka) should be taught to negotiate a number of factors, such as linguistic, cultural, and stylistic differences, and binaries in essay forms (such as exploratory/thesis-driven, inductive/deductive, alphabetic/multimodal etc.), encouraging them to retain the foundational values of essay, such as ‘personal,’ ‘exploratory’ and ‘situated,’ while being rhetorically persuasive to their intended audiences, including the compare, academic ones. In short, this study showed that students can and should negotiate multiple literacies, including more traditional print literacies, while taking up essayist literacy in a writing class. The findings from this study suggest that we can productively foreground negotiation, or shuttling (Canagarajah, Toward ) on multiple fronts of language, culture, dialect, style, and and cons essay media, as the compare contrast essay gatsby movie, major goal while teaching essayist literacy in a diverse 21st century writing classroom. In this study, I made triangulation the central part of analysis because it is ultimate essay, highly valued in compare essay movie qualitative research for its function of cross-verifying interpretations and research findings with additional testimonials. Writing Prompts! For triangulation, I used multiple sets of datastudent texts, interviews, field notes, curricular artifacts, and relevant insights from compare gatsby book movie, multiple interconnected fields of studyintercultural communication, World Englishes, new media, globalization, and rhetoric and composition, which also served as analytical frameworks for my study. Another factor I accounted for in this study is participants’ positionalities in light of the prevailing research theories that a writer’s position in a context (essay writing context, for instance) is shaped by his or her gender, class, race, culture, language, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, political views, literacy background, and/or personal and professional experiences.

Therefore, a particular literacy practice of a writer reflects imprints of his or her positionality. And Cons Essay! For this specific reason, I examined the implications of positionalities in my diverse student participants’ essayist literacy practice. I collected the contrast essay gatsby book movie, details on their positionalities by asking them to ultimate essay, compose extended literacy narratives and by conducting follow-up interviews with additional questions around their literate lives in the past and present. Compare Essay Great Book! I also asked them to reflect on their writing and research process for the argument essay, connecting their rhetorical choices (of persona, tone, style, resources etc.) with purpose and/or with their cultural, literacy, and ultimate essay linguistic traditions. I used all these data in conjunction with other sets of essay great, data collected through multiple research methods for camayd freixas the purpose of triangulation, and for analyzing participants’ research and writing process in this particular assignment. These multiple approaches to collecting and analyzing data helped me to explore and answer my research question: How do students negotiate multiple literaciesincluding essayist literaciesin a 21st century classroom? Taking into consideration interdisciplinary conversations about essayist literacy, and essay great literacy in general, I divided my sophomore-level writing course into four units focused on the theme of multiliteracies. I took up multililiteracies as a topic for the course because it was broad enough to let students choose something they were interested in or wanted to explore further.

I settled on this topic also because I could teach this course informed by, what I prefer to man is, call, a multiliterate composition pedagogy. Moreover, multiliteracies as a topic was multifaceted and closely aligned with other productive research areas, such as globalization, information and communication technologies, World Englishes, new media, and contrast book intercultural communication. In order to familiarize students with the ultimate essay, concept of multiliteracies, I had a small set of articles, and videos in my calendar. I assigned them The NCTE’s Definition of compare contrast great book, 21st Century Literacies ; The New London Group’s A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures ; Howard Gardner’s The Washington Post article: The End of Literacy? Don't Stop Reading ; Victoria Department of Education’s Video Series: 1. Considering Multiliteracies and meaningful creative writing 2. Compare Contrast Gatsby! Exploring Multiliteracies; and two YouTube videos: A Vision of Students Today ( and Multimedia and Multi-literacies in the Composition Classroom (

The first unit (See Appendix 2 for assignment details) in my course was dedicated to thesis, learning from students about their literacy traditions (literacy narrative assignment) and teaching/practicing critical and visual literacies (rhetorical analysis of a digital artifact project), whereas the third unit was meant to introduce students to the notion of remediation (Bolter and Grusin) with some hands-on training with “repurposing” media (See Appendix 3 for details on remediation project). Students were asked to compare essay book, remediate their unit 2 print-based argument essays into web forms in this unit. This particular project was intended to put students to work with multiple media or modalities, introduce them to convergence culture (Jenkins), as well as make them cognizant of the rhetoricity of different media (e.g. website vs. print), or the dynamics of intercultural/interracial communication. Unit four, on the other hand, was dedicated to documentary production (See Appendix 4 for details on collaborative documentary film-making project), in which students collaborated in groups of three to produce a movie on a controversial contemporary topic like Occupy Wall Street, the Trayvon Martin (shooting) case, or the Democratic Movement in to find the Middle East. While units 1, 3, and 4 were fruitful and interesting for students and contrast essay great gatsby me, the unit given relatively more time and space in the curriculum was the 5-week-long unit 2. This unit was given due importance in recognition of the new resume, value of essayist literacy in compare contrast gatsby book students’ academic and and cons professional lives, and for essay great gatsby movie its key place in course structure and the assignment sequence. While unit 2 culminated in new resume a traditional print-based argument essay, unit 3 activities and its web design projects were built on the foundation laid in unit 2. While designing unit 2 based on essayist literacy in particular and the course itself in general, I had to negotiate a number of thingsmy research agenda/s, my program requirements/course learning objectives, current scholarship in essayist literacy and multiliteracies, and my own evolving sense of composition curriculum for a diverse classroom. For instance, I was flexible in source requirements for the essay even though one of the designated outcomes for compare contrast book movie the course specifically states that the course is new resume, geared toward teaching students to compare great gatsby book movie, use “library resources” and some methods of good hard to find, primary data collection. With that statement, the course outcome leaves aside popular texts and many multimedia sources found on the web, so I expanded it to include those kinds of sources as well.

This demonstrated that sources, in this age of multimedia, are available in digital mediums as much as they are in print mediums; that information is compare contrast gatsby movie, available in new resume popular sources as much as they are in scholarly sources; that each medium (such as image, text, and compare essay book sound) has its own unique affordances, and mediums work more productively in combination than in isolation; that compositions, even essays, now are increasingly multimodal and/or multimedia; and that information abundance is both a boon and bane at meaningful writing, the same time. In order to ensure that students actually get acquainted with and use both scholarly and popular sources in different formats, I specified the potential types and contrast essay great number of sources to be used in the essay, and also provided them with the ultimate essay, description of the evaluation process for contrast great gatsby locating and selecting credible and relevant sources. My assignment description also had specific directions about avoiding too broad topics or research questions while still giving students freedom to good hard to find, choose any issue(s) associated with the course inquirymultiliteracies. Students were specifically asked to narrow their scope for the essay around one or two central research questions on their chosen topic but to “engage the compare book movie, complexities (social, political, ideological, economic, historical) of and current debates about that topic” (Writing Program Outcome). Moreover, I added a separate note regarding English language varieties and styles of writing or literacy traditions on the assignment description, aiming to thesis man is hard to find, encourage plurality and originality in essay great gatsby book movie students’ work. This particular note on language and style was intended to make students aware of the fact that communities across the world compose texts in different styles; they do speak different languages, even if only different varieties of the same language. Additionally, the meaningful creative writing, note on language brought attention to the fact that privileging one language, or language variety over another, or one writing style above another could prove discriminatory to some groups of contrast essay gatsby book, students, while other groups could feel at home and, as a consequence, may have unintended advantages.

Next, I made it clear in ultimate essay the language of the assignment that academic writing, and contrast essay great academic language, is what I value, but that there is no single universal academic writing style or academic language. Good Hard To Find! With that note on World Englishes and plurality of academic writing styles around the world, I negotiated the notion of academic writing articulated in the designated course outcomes while complicating the compare gatsby book, traditional notion of essayist literacy in the context of globalization and increasing cross-cultural and cross-linguistic interactions. Academic writing in a general sense is what the new resume sales, Writing Program wants instructors to teach students; the compare essay great gatsby book, course description says: “WRT [. Meaningful Creative! ] focuses on the rhetorical strategies, practices, and conventions of critical academic researched writing,” which implies plurality of academic writing with the compare contrast book movie, term “conventions,” but neither the course description nor the ultimate essay, learning outcomes speak specifically about the form of the essay or the type of sources, or the compare contrast book movie, writing style, or the language variety to be used or adopted in the class. The story of negotiation did not end there; putting together materials and erik camayd essay activities for the unit constituted another kind of negotiation. On the one hand, there is no denying that a course driven by multiliteracies as an inquiry should reflect ‘multi’ in its course materials and contrast gatsby movie artifacts too, which means the course materials should ideally be an assemblage of texts in multiple media, multiple modalities, and multiple forms; on the other hand, this particular unit was dedicated to essayist literacy, which in a traditional sense is print-based literacy. There were also programmatic priorities to be mindful of, such as the strong tradition of academic writing instruction in the field. Hard! Nonetheless, the negotiation was productive, and ultimately I gathered three videos ( A Vision of Student Today, Multimedia and compare gatsby movie Multiliteracies in the Composition Classroom, and Epic 2014 ), one online news article (Howard Gardner’s The Washington Post article: The End of Literacy? Don't Stop Reading ), one website (Victoria Department of Education’s multiliteracies web page), three print texts, ( Making an Effective Argument, a chapter from Jack Selzer and Lester Faigley’s Handbook, Good Reasons ; Yamuna Kachru’s book chapter, Speaking and Writing in World Englishes from writing prompts, The Handbook of World Englishes ; and Sheila J. Ramsey’s journal article, Interactions between North Americans and Japanese: Considerations of Communication Style ), a set of essay great gatsby book movie, handouts on different aspects of writing and research (such as narrowing the research focus; locating and evaluating print and sales Internet sources; textual, visual and multimodal analysis and contrast essay book movie argumentation; drafting a research proposal; evolving thesis; claim making and synthesizing sources; annotated bibliography; composing, revising and editing process; codemeshing and translanguaging; methods of data collection and analysis; stylistic and linguistic plurality/diversity; dialoguing with sources; and documenting sources), and some sample documents as unit texts. These multiple texts and topics enabled me to place essayist literacy within a context of multimedia and multiliteracies. Case studies of how students responded to such a re-designed essayist literacy unit yielded some interesting findings. I will present some of writing prompts, them here.

In the following discussion, I closely look at contrast essay great book, the data specific to on a, two of my research participants, who I call Sophia and Andre. My analysis is specifically focused on the kinds and degrees of great gatsby book, negotiations these participants engaged in their writing and research processes within the context of essayist literacies. I particularly examine the moments and instances of negotiation in action with respect to their choice of essay, topics, languages and/or English varieties, their decision on essay great, “personas” and writing styles, and their determination of sources and forms for gay marriage and cons their respective essays. Contrast Essay! For instance, I analyze how these participants explored and narrowed topics for meaningful their research; how they evaluated and selected sources for their essays; how they settled on writing styles including the contrast essay great book, use of on a, tone, diction, languages and/or English varieties; and contrast gatsby book how they decided on on a story, the form/s for their essays. The analysis organized this way helps to make sense of multiple sets of data and also to contrast essay great gatsby book, examine in detail how or whether students engaged essayist literacy in its expanded sense. In order to gay marriage, frame my analysis better, I use the first course assignmentthe literacy narrativeto contextualize the second unit and to give insight into compare contrast essay great book, these participants’ positionalities and erik camayd freixas previous literacy experiences. Sophia is compare essay book movie, a Hispanic female student from Puerto Rico. Her alphabetic literacy began with her learning writing and reading in on a book Spanish, her first language. Compare Essay Great Book! From first grade on, she also started taking English and Math classes.

Her computer literacy also began from grade one, although computer intensive classes began in her high school years, around the same time her Internet literacy began. Her literacy narrative details her preliminary literacy education as follows: The first language I started using for writing was Spanish, a year after I also started writing in new resume English. I began reading in English and compare great gatsby movie Spanish when I was about five or six years old, yet I have always made use of the new resume sales, English language when it comes to working on a computer. I come from Puerto Rico, making this my first language Spanish, and compare essay English my second language.

I learned to speak English because my mother and essay grandmother would always play Disney sing along videos and movies for compare contrast great gatsby movie me, and the books they bought me were usually in meaningful prompts English, so that I was able to compare contrast great book movie, learn it more quickly and have a better core or base in erik freixas essay this language than what was taught in school. (literacy narrative) In Sophia’s digital literacy learning experience, the hegemony of compare contrast gatsby, English is evident; she reports that she has always used English in digital activities even though Spanish is her first language. As an pros and cons essay English-as-a-second-language speaker, she confesses that she struggles to switch between her first and second language while writing in English: “Having to switch languages back and forth also makes my writing experience confusing and limited, if I happen to not know how to write something in specific or the way I think of it in Spanish is not ‘the correct way’ to write it in English” (literacy narrative). Here, it is also important to note that her entire pre-university education was done in Puerto Rico. In her argument essay for unit 2, Sophia discusses the language policy debate in Puerto Rico in some length, exploring the larger cultural and historical issues associated with this high-stakes topic, and presenting her position on gatsby, the debate. Initially, she had planned to meaningful, talk about the English language policy in Latin American and Caribbean countries, but later narrowed her focus to the language policy in Puerto Rico. She discusses her narrowing process in compare great book movie her reflection essay: I had the curiosity of learning about erik camayd freixas how the contrast great gatsby movie, English language is presented and taught in ultimate essay Latin America and the Caribbean, but this topic resulted to be too broad and I was not able to compare contrast essay great gatsby, find many good articles or specific books on thesis man is, the topic since these countries have a wide range in culture, and compare book laws and policies on language.

I had to change my topic and focus of the essay into one specific region and that choice . was the English language in Puerto Rico. My research into her source use found that Sophia used some Spanish language sources. Creative Writing! For instance, IV Congress of the Spanish Language by Eugenio Besnard-Javaudin, and The Spanish of Puerto Rico by Centro Virtual Cervantes are sources written in Spanish and great gatsby available only online. Similarly, The Singularly Strange Story of the English Language in Puerto Rico is an online article in Spanish by Alicia Pousada from Universidad de Puerto Rico. Sophia also used a Spanish print article, Manuel Alvarez Nazario’s Historia de la lengua española en Puerto Rico (History of the Spanish Language in Puerto Rico). Of course, she also had sources that ranged from images to videos in English that were produced within the United States. In that sense, there is erik, diversity in her source use, and her sources come from compare contrast essay great book, scholars and publication forums (both print and web) from across borders. New Resume Sales! As expected, she provides translations of texts cited in languages other than English. Sophia is aware that her native language and culture influenced her writing style. She says: “because my main language is gatsby, Spanish . I was translating from Spanish to English, my thoughts, ideas and opinion . I would read books in Spanish and erik camayd freixas essay would translate them” (interview).

True to her words, she uses some quotes in Spanish in the essay, but provides English translations for them. She begins her essay with an epigraph in Spanish: “Un idioma debe servir como herramienta de paz. Compare Essay Gatsby Book! Nunca para oprimir. Ultimate Essay! Siempre para liberar. Movie! Ivelisse Rivera”, which she translates as: “A language should serve as a tool for peace. Never for oppression. Always for freedom.” Since she is gay marriage, more proficient in compare contrast essay gatsby book movie Spanish than in English, she says that she has to “switch languages back and forth,” which makes her “writing experience confusing and limited” (literacy narrative).

She also regrets that translation did not come as naturally or sound as good as the original: “translated stuff . does not sound like an English” (interview). This confusion and translingual challenge is thesis, reflected in her style. In that sense, even though her essay was submitted in English, she actually composed it in Spanish, which suggests that her writing has the style of a Spanish essay. Compare Contrast Great Gatsby Book Movie! Structurally, Sophia says, Spanish and English essays are different, and she was taught to compose them differently: “Spanish essays begin with an introduction, and they really do not talk much about thesis statement” (interview). Even though she claims that she was taught to write essays in ultimate essay both languages and differently for each one, the organization of contrast movie, her essay is more Spanish-like than English. For instance, at the beginning of her essay she had a long section that traced the historical accounts of language policy in Puerto Rico: “I provide a summarized history of Puerto Rico since the Spanish colonial times until the colonization of the good hard to find, United States and how these various establishments have affected the people of Puerto Rico” (from her essay).

Although she states that at the beginning of her essay, she does not give a reason why that historical survey was necessary. Only after that long section follows her thesis, which she reinforces time and again in the essay except for in the conclusion. Instead of reinforcing or circling back to her claim, she ends her essay with a call to compare contrast movie, language teachers of Puerto Rico: “Teachers have to work with motivating students to appreciate the Spanish language more and new resume learn it with passion as part of their culture, and also encourage them and teach that it is also important to learn English, and many other languages to expand their knowledge and compare contrast essay gatsby become better intellectual human beings” (from her essay). Pros And Cons Essay! In that sense, her essay has a hybrid structure and conclusion different from conventional western academic essay. Sophia also has a dominant personal voice present in the essay that reflects her positionality: “I included my perspective” because “I care about compare contrast great gatsby movie this topic . it has directly affected me, my family, my community and meaningful creative writing prompts everyone around me” (essay reflection). Her strong personal presence in compare essay great gatsby book the essay has to do with her personal investment in the topic: “I personally support the ultimate essay, idea of learning another language to expand our horizons, yet it should not be done by force, but because the people actually have an contrast essay interest and a need to be more intellectual in terms of learning the sales, language” (essay). She has an engaged voice in that she directly addresses her audience, for compare contrast gatsby book movie instance, in thesis good man is to find this excerpt from her essay: “I think that language creates and helps shape the culture of a country or region. When you take away something as unique as language from someone, you are taking away their culture, their identity, their way of expressing without limitation and direction” (essay). In her essay reflection, she makes it clear that her personal presence in the essay was her deliberate rhetorical choice: “I chose to write about the English Language in Puerto Rico . because it is a topic that I as a Puerto Rican can relate to and have knowledge of . because it has directly affected me, my family, my community and everyone around me” (portfolio reflection). Sophia’s composing process is notable for a number of reasons. As a multilingual writer, she works her way through a number of forces that defined her composing situationassignment requirements, current writing instruction, her multilingual and multicultural positionality, her past literacy learning (particularly past writing instruction), and her translingual challenges, among others.

For instance, she uses an contrast essay epigraph from a Spanish text and also cites a number of pros, sources produced by Spanish-speaking authors outside the compare contrast book movie, Unites States. Her practice is ideal from thesis to find, a point of view of integrating multiple sources; it nonetheless raises a number of questions about translation and its complexityhow close to originals are her translations or the compare contrast essay great gatsby book movie, translated versions of originals she cites? A monolingual or even a bilingual teacher has no way of assessing translation accuracy unless she or he speaks the same set of languages that the student speaks, which is a rare coincidence in a globalized classroom. Similarly complex is the issue of writing style that she adopts in her essay. She notes that she is freixas essay, aware of the differences in organizational patterns of typical English essays and Spanish essays, yet her essay organization does not reflect her adherence to contrast essay great gatsby, an English essay writing style. Despite her awareness, she explores and adopts a style that resonates with her topic, and is intrinsic to her positionality. My goal in this unit/assignment was to gay marriage pros and cons essay, encourage students to negotiate writing styles, languages, and contrast great book media for particular audiences and situations.

Sophia’s essay is testimony to the fact that she negotiated a number of factors while composing this text for American academic audience, and gay marriage and cons her essay form departs from a traditional thesis-driven academic essay form. Therefore, her case affirms that essayist literacyand traditional print-based assignmentscan also cultivate the same attention to multiplicity as multimedia assignments. In addition, her composing style and essay form serves as a good example of the play of “multiplicity of discourse styles” in compare gatsby book a writing class. More importantly, her case supports the idea that essayist literacy can contribute to the aims of a course based on multiliteracies. Andre’s first language is English, and he is an African American male student in his sophomore year. He notes that his writing began with story composition in the fifth grade. His intense writing experience, however, began with his international baccalaureate program, where he enrolled in meaningful prompts writing intensive courses. Regarding his overall writing experience, he notes, “I’ve experienced the growth in my writing.

From the thematic essays in history class to the analysis of novels, I’ve been introduced to the different sides of writing” (literacy narrative). He is also digitally literate: “Being born in compare contrast great book movie the generation that I am, I was forced to become accustomed to the digital literacy” (literacy narrative). He began his digital literacy with typing and video games but later worked up to the complex tasks of assembling and disassembling the hardwares of desktop computers. He also learned to work with the Internet soon after. He, however, laments that he is an essay on a book English monolingual speaker: “I feel like I have a disadvantage. So many people come from gatsby book movie, different places, and they have two languages or more. Most of story book, my friends speak other languages. Their mother tongue may be Spanish or French; they come here and learn English, and I feel if I was born somewhere else or have different tongue, I would have two languages” (interview). In his argument essay, Andre explored the relationship between technology and mental capacity with an overarching claim“as technology increases, our mental capacity decreases” (interview). In his reflection, he reveals that he struggled a lot while composing this essay: “I ran into writers block around the 5 th page because I knew the essay wasn’t supporting my thesis. Also, I didn’t have enough sources to contrast essay great, help me justify my claims for 10 pages, so that was another reason I was stuck.

But once I change my thesis for the better, I was able to find sources for new resume my argument and the oppositions” (essay reflection). Compare Contrast Great! His strenuous process, including his evolving thesis, shows that he evolved as a person and learned new things in pros the process of compare essay book movie, researching and writing this essay. More importantly, it shows his awareness of the need to interact with multiple sources in order to be able to construct an informed argument. Andre’s source use is not much different from essay story, many other students in the class. He used print sources, such as Plato’s Phaedrus and Ziming Liu’s Reading Behavior in the Digital Environment: Changes in compare contrast Reading Behavior Over the Past Ten Years, and multimedia sources including some YouTube videos, Rachel Dretzin’s documentary Digital Nation, , and some videos on multiliteracies taken from Bill Cope and Mary Kalanztis’ New Learning website. However, when it comes to ultimate essay, his writing style, Andre reports that he consciously chose to represent himself, and his topic, in a particular fashion based on his positionality: [F]or writing style, I had to think about how I wanted the tone of the essay to contrast great book movie, sound, because in unit 1 it was very communicative/funny and it was like to get the audience to laugh a little bit and this is a research paper, I want it to gay marriage pros essay, be stern, I want it to be like this is my voice and this is what I am saying, you guys should believe this, but also at the same time I did not want to scare the reader away. I want the people to have the comedic side: a couple jokes, metaphors so that people could actually have fun reading so I combined more of humorous side to what’s really stern and what an academic paper is all about. Compare Movie! So I leaned more towards my academic part of it, but I was still able to slide [in] my humorous side too. (interview) From this excerpt, it becomes apparent that he deliberately chose two different approaches for the two different unit assignments of the same course. This also shows that he is story book, mindful of the academic writing situation where a serious approach to a chosen topic is compare contrast great, expected.

That is the reason he moderates his humorous side in the interest of an academic tone. New Resume Sales! His humorous side, he says, he inherited from his father: “My dad he was always that funny comedic guy . always tells jokes and never stops. I put that into my writing and push it a bit too much so which is my downfall, so I got to pull back . Compare Contrast Essay Great Gatsby! because I am serious but my tone could come out as not serious because of the pros and cons, comedy in essay great the paper” (interview). Story Book! As he claims, his style in the argument essay has a fusion of humorous and academic tones. Compare Contrast Great Gatsby! Structurally, however, his essay begins with an epigraph from a popular documentary, Digital Nation, and is organized around subtitles, such as “Introduction,” and meaningful writing “Decline of Thought.” His thesis in the very first paragraph reads, “As technology increases, our ability to think critically suffers” (essay). To support his thesis he offers local as well as global examplesa primary research result and transnational (Korean kids’ addiction to video games) case study. Andre also includes a section devoted to gatsby movie, opposing arguments in which he presents some potential arguments that people challenging his claim might present. This clearly shows that he is adhering to the structure of a thesis-driven essay and the traditional strategy of refuting the opposing arguments in order to establish his own point. In that sense, his essay is well organized. Maintaining the form of a conventional academic essay, he closes his essay by gay marriage, offering a potential solution to the issue he raises and reinforces his claim. Additionally, throughout the essay, his tone is mostly neutral, detached and formal, yet is blended well with his ‘humorous side.’ In fact, the only instance where his personal side was brought into the essay was when he mentioned his own writing class to further his argument that technology should complement the compare essay book movie, human brain, but not rule over it: “The style of teaching is changing.

For example in my Writing class at ultimate essay, [. ] University, students are requested to essay, blog about good man is readings that are done outside of class” (essay). Contrast Essay Gatsby Book! He argued that blogs, or any other teaching technologies, should facilitate actual interactions in the class, but not substitute for them. Thus, stylistically speaking, his essay is primarily thesis-driven with a slight personal touch. Ultimate Essay! This is significant because he is able to negotiate multiple discourse styles (personal humor with objective academic style, for instance) for a specific rhetorical purpose despite the essay gatsby book, fact that he is a monolingual writer trained to write in a specific way, and also despite the fact that he is writing a traditional print-based essay. His case demonstrates a more complex view of meaningful creative writing, essayist literacy in practice. In addition, Andre’s is an interesting example of an essay book essay being a catalyst for essay on a story the pursuit of knowledge, and its form a carefully crafted style of presenting ideas. Compare Essay Book! As he mentions in his literacy narrative, essay and portfolio reflections, and interview with me, his essay writing has been a journey of exploration about a number of interrelated issues pertaining to his topic. His evolving thesis that he describes when talking about his writer’s block speaks to the fact that his essaying was tantamount to creative writing prompts, learning and discovery. His essay form is thesis-drivensomething expected of a domestic American student schooled in American academic system all his life, but, in his case, it is something carefully chosen to great gatsby book, fit the academic audience. Another interesting thing about his style is that, even within a traditional thesis-driven form, he could incorporate his ‘humorous side’ and some personal reflections, which corroborates the idea that the academic essay is not necessarily a stilted form. Instead the pros, essay form should be considered malleable to the writer’s rhetorical decisions, as was evident from Andre’s stylistic choice of a particular tone for the essay.

These two case studies are not representative of all fourteen research participants in my larger study, let alone of compare book movie, all domestic and international students in American higher education. In the larger study, I found that both domestic American and international multilingual students actively negotiated, though in different degrees, multiple factors, including languages, dialects, writing styles, tones, essay forms, literacy traditions, and media, while producing their argument essays. While the particular positionalities of these participants informed the nature and degree of gay marriage and cons, negotiation in the composing process, this study suggested that foregrounding negotiation of compare contrast book movie, multiple literacies in ultimate essay a writing course or a writing assignment can encourage students’ learning and practice of “multiplicity of discourse styles” in a writing class. It would be premature, though, to compare essay gatsby, generalize anything based on meaningful creative prompts, the couple of compare contrast essay gatsby movie, case studies presented above or even based on the findings from the analysis of my entire sample. It could be safe, however, to say that each student writer (research participant for that matter) labored or labors at the crossroads of multiple forces, including language, assignment requirements or expectations, and her/his past literacy practices. This composing situation makes negotiation a skill imperative for erik freixas each one of our student writers. Another aspect this study highlights is that writing teachers play an important role in student writers’ learning and practice of “multiplicity of discourse styles,” and skill of negotiation. However, supporting the growth of this ability in students involves redesigning both the curricular and contrast essay book movie pedagogical artifacts we use in or for the class.

An essayist literacy unit or assignment is just a case in point, which I redesigned keeping in view the changing student demographics, the complex tradition of academic or essayist literacy, and increasingly multimediated forms of writing inside and outside the academy. Good Hard! This curricular and pedagogical experiment was driven by my conviction that we can no longer overlook the linguistic and cultural diversity in our classrooms, nor can we ignore the increasing global interactions of people and ideas, and the unprecedented influence of media and technology in our and compare essay gatsby book movie our students’ literacy practices. In fact, it could be counterproductive for pros essay our students, rhetoric and composition as a discipline, and for American academic institutions for compare contrast essay gatsby book us to promote and enforce only the western essayist textual form in our classrooms, for doing so would be tantamount to meaningful writing prompts, imposing a norm from one particular culture or context on to the other. It would also mean privileging some groups of students and their stylistic conventions above other groups and their textual conventions. Movie! In plain terms, it would be equivalent to adhering to an undemocratic practice, something we should forgo sooner rather than later. Relinquishing this practice would involve expanding the boundaries of the course, unit, or assignment on essayist literacy in order to create spaces for multiple languages, multiple media, literacy conventions, and subjectivities or positionalities of the essayists.

However, expanding the boundaries should not be understood to mean the creative writing prompts, sacrifice of basic reading and writing skills in compare contrast book movie composition classes. Expansion should always be an thesis good man is hard to find ‘addition to,’ not a ‘subtraction from,’ what we have been doing in gatsby book our classes. For instance, students in my class did most of the creative prompts, things students in any traditional writing class would do: critical summary, paraphrasing, critical responses to unit readings and texts, critical source evaluation, synthesis of multiple sources, textual and visual analysis, annotated bibliography, proposal writing, claim-making, evolving thesis, and so on. But they also obtained crucial insights that their positionalities and literacy backgrounds have, or can have, bearing on their literacy practices. Compare Essay Book Movie! This meta-awareness of how multiple factors shape their writing performance benefitted them personally and academically.

They could see that their positionalities and past literacy practices could serve as a reservoir of erik freixas, resources to turn to great gatsby book, as and when needed to make their communicative acts, essays for that matter, rhetorically effective. They also gained the insight that depending on the writing context they might find themselves in, they should even be able to suppress their positionalities and ultimate essay past literacy habits in order to write in a style and convention of a particular genre in a particular composing situation. Therefore, it is imperative that a course, or unit, on essayist literacy has components of multiple essay forms, multiple writing styles, multiple modes and mediums of writing, and multiple presentation patterns incorporated into it. These components contribute to the development of the shuttling abilitythe idea that students should be able to move back and compare contrast essay great gatsby book forth between differing essay forms, discourse styles, writing modes, and/or organization patterns, as the writing situation demands. Essay! They should even be able to negotiate those forms or styles towards their rhetorical end effective and persuasive arguments and compare essay gatsby book claims on the topic at hand. Gay Marriage Pros! Given the value of great gatsby book, shuttling ability in the globalized world (and classroom), I foregrounded it even in another assignment in the sequencethe remediation project.

The remediation project was an on a story extension to compare contrast great gatsby, the argument essay assignment, where students repurposed their print-based essays for different media and different target audience. They remediated their academic essays into web forms, and the process involved therein brought into relief the complex relations among media, audience, context, resources, and gay marriage pros and cons presentation style. Working on this project, students particularly understood how their rhetorical and essay stylistic choices are shaped by the consideration of audience, and medium of delivery. Sales! Building further on this thread, the compare essay gatsby, final assignmentthe collaborative documentary projectprovided students with an additional opportunity to reflect on and respond to freixas essay, a different composing situation, where a shuttling ability of compare book movie, slightly different sort was called into service. Therefore, it would be in the best interest of cultivating negotiation or shuttling skill in students to expand the breadth of course materials by on a book, situating essayist literacies within the context of compare essay great movie, multiple media and modalities, multiple languages, and ultimate essay multiple literacy traditions. This would essentially mean expanding the narrow bounds of essayist literacy, writing, and rhetoric and compare movie composition as a discipline.

In addition, this would mean adopting a global outlook to writing by incorporating into our curriculum, among other things, how writing is done and ultimate essay taught around the world and how its practice is shifting with the change in writing technologies (Khadka). Compare Essay Gatsby! In broader terms, it all would mean the co-evolution of creative, writing curriculum with multiple technologies, multimedia, and multiple literacy practices around the world. This would also entail larger shifts in the mission of composition classes, discipline of essay book movie, rhetoric and composition, and of American higher education. This would mean making the American academy conducive to gay marriage pros essay, the growth and flourishing of plurality of languages, literacy traditions, and multiple forms and genres of writing. Finally, this would mean making composition classes, and the discipline of rhetoric and composition, relevant to students and the world outside the academy through substantial transformation in their outlook towards ‘other’ Englishes, ‘other’ languages, ‘other’ writing styles, ‘other’ composition media and technologies, and ‘other’ student populations. Appendix 1: Unit 2 Essayist Literacy Assignments. A. 10-12 Pages of Argument Essay on Course Inquiry. You will investigate an issue, debate, problem, controversy or a question about multiliteracies in relation to other attendant issues, such as globalization, information and communication technologies, World Englishes, new media or intercultural communication in compare contrast great some length and depth.

You are required to use primary and secondary, scholarly and popular, and print and digital (online) sources in your essay. Erik Camayd Freixas! When you research and develop your argument, you do a number of things simultaneously: extend a conversation, historicize, make a new claim, complicate an existing claim or established fact, find a gap in the studies done, and propose a solution or offer an alternative perspective. As a college-level student writer, you also make moves that academics make in their essays: state your thesis or theses at some points in the essay, make general or specific claims, and furnish evidences for contrast essay great book the claims made. I am aware that it is almost impossible to come up with some grand universal claims or some irrefutable thesis or set of theses in a paper of this length, but you can and have to attempt to present a tentative claim or set of claims in erik camayd this paper corroborated by the data or sources you retrieve through different research methods. Even though it is an academic essay and you might have been schooled to avoid personal in your academic essays, I am open to you implicating yourself in the essay i.e. using “I” or bringing in contrast essay great book relevant personal narratives or experiences from thesis good man is, your life. In other words, your essay should ideally be a combination of personal and academic, experiential and empirical, and facts and narratives. A Note about English Varieties and Styles of Writing. As a writing teacher, I am aware that while requiring you to compose academic essay in academic English, I should not privilege one variety of English or one particular literacy tradition over contrast essay great gatsby book movie other English varieties or literacy traditions (or writing styles). So that no one in the class feels discriminated against or underprivileged both linguistically and culturally, I entertain the erik freixas essay, play of gatsby book movie, English varieties or literacy traditions in your argument essays within reason.

No doubt, I want you to compose your essay in academic language, the language that other scholars in the academy use, but I am also cognizant of the fact that there is no single universal academic language across disciplines or cultures. So, as you attempt to write as or like academic writers, you can bring in your local English variety/ies or literacy tradition/s (or writing style/s) if the context demands or allows (e.g. while citing the thesis good man is hard, local sources or authors, while remixing your original writing style with the academic writing style or while offering examples of local/different argumentation pattern or information presentation style). I won’t even have a problem with you citing sources in contrast book movie an/other language/s as long as you make the sense clear to essay story book, your audience either through translation/s or discussion/explanation of cited text/s in English. In this paper, you reflect on a number of choices you make during the selection of the topic for compare movie your research, while conducting actual research on your chosen topic, while composing the essay, and while revising the story book, essay for or before final submission. You tell your audience why you chose a particular topic or question or debate/controversy you did as well as what research methods you used to collect sources/information/data pertaining to that particular topic. Compare Essay Great Book Movie! You also tell your audience about your writing processwhen, how and where did you begin your essay? What were the challenges of ultimate essay, putting together research data/findings and your experiential/situational dimensions towards proposing or formulating a claim/claims about your chosen topic? How did you decide on the tone, style, language variety or cultural references of your essay? How much time did you spend on contrast essay great gatsby movie, composing or revising the draft? Why did you revise if you did?

In what way did the assignment description or requirement or grading criteria affect your composition process or the final essay form? What is new resume, your overall experience of working on this particular assignment? Your portfolio should include every thing you do during the process and period of composing your unit 2 essay assignmentclass notes, drafts, sources, interview questions, interview tape or transcription, field notes, class works/ activities, peer review drafts, email exchanges, blogged texts, blog responses etc., and 1 page reflection on portfolio content/s. Appendix 2: Unit 1 Literacy Narrative, and Rhetorical Analysis Assignments. A. Alphabetic and Digital Literacy Narratives: 1000 words. Literacy narrative is composing a story about reading and composing in compare contrast essay great book movie print and/or digital media. Step 1: Alphabetic Literacy Narrative. Compose your literacy narrative in alphabetsusing letters and words. Consider the following questions as you compose: When and how did you learn to read or compose texts on papers and (or) screens?

What made that learning possibleschools, parents, community centers, relatives or something/somebody else? What language(s) did you first use for reading, writing and/or online activities? Is English your first language? When and how did you learn to thesis to find, speak, read and write in English? What about computers and the Internet? When and where did you first encounter them? What did you begin with? What were the programs/applications you began your digital or cyber literacy with? Choose key events/moments in your literate life, and carefully organize your narrative around them.

You might want to consider these questions as you compose: Where did you stand in relation to alphabetic literacy or digital literacy and compare book where are you now? If you speak more than one language, you can write your story in the first language and then in the second language and meaningful creative writing reflect on contrast great book movie, the difference in the story itself because of the language. You can also talk about literacy in the first language and the second language and the degree of proficiency in each of them. Gay Marriage! You can also shed light on the cultural or linguistic differences and literate practices or talk about digital divide and essay movie literacy learning (for example, English as the default language in computers or access to the Internet or computer programs and digital literacy etc.) if that speaks to your situation. Step 2: Digital Literacy Narrative. Video or audio record the narrative.

Camera on your computer or your phone should be fine. Creative Prompts! If you don’t have access to camera, talk to me. Step 3: Upload the recorded narrative to a computer. Step 4: Submit me both the narratives in compare contrast essay great movie a CD and/or via email. Appendix 3: Unit 3 Remediation Assignments. A. Remediation of new resume, Argument Essay in compare great gatsby book Web Form, Presentation, and Blog Post. Remediation is the incorporation or representation of one medium into another. In their book Remediation: Understanding New Media, J. David Bolter and Richard A. Grusin argue that digital or new media are characterized by remediation because they constantly remediate (present in different media) the contents from ultimate essay, their predecessors such as television, radio, and print journalism (old media). Remediation, however, is compare contrast great, not just an adaptation of the new resume, old. Compare Contrast Great Gatsby! Sometimes, new media present old media in entirely new ways without any clue to the old and only people familiar with both know that remediation is taking place.

And another significant fact about remediation is that it is not that only new media remediate the ultimate essay, old but it works both ways. Television screens and newspaper designs these days look more and more like websites with convergence of multiple media and modes in essay gatsby book movie those platforms. Remediation and media convergence therefore are the major phenomena characterizing the media and composition landscapes in this time of new resume sales, major technological change. As a tribute and response to this ongoing media and compare contrast great gatsby composition trend, in this unit, you will remediate your progression 2 print-based argument essay in a new medium. New Resume Sales! I encourage you to remediate it in a well-designed web site. The assignment is intended to give you an understanding of relationship among audience, medium, content and style. Upon completing the assignment, you will see, learn and experience how audience and medium shape the content and style of presentation.

It is great, up to you to decide what media assets you want to use for composition and design ranging from videos, songs, audio interviews, images, alphabetic text (from your argument essay or additional texts), graphics to animations. Good Man Is Hard! Only limitation is that all those assets and resources should be rhetorically (effectively) used to represent (remediate) your progression 2 essay, which is to contrast essay great gatsby, say that you should attempt to present similar argument that you made in erik freixas your alphabetic argument essay. Connected with the remediation project, you will also compose and post a 3-page long blog post on your profile in the course site about the rhetorical situation and compare gatsby movie composition style, audience factor and source and language variety choice, audience and document or web design, and media and composition patterns or forms. You must consider how the media shape the messages/contents or more explicitly, you must talk about what changed or did not change during your remediation of the unit 2 argument essay, and why. In other words, in your blog post you must engage the dynamics of meaningful writing, media and message, content and forms, audience and rhetorical choices. Compare Contrast Essay Gatsby! You should also explain your project’s targeted audience, context, and gay marriage pros essay purpose. Appendix 4: Unit 4 Documentary Production Assignments. A. Collaborative Documentary Film Project, and Presentation.

In this unit, you will work collaboratively in a group of 3 and produce 8 to 10 minutes of documentary film. You will choose a movement or event (current or historical) that you find relevant and compare essay great gatsby book movie interesting and that also connects with some aspect of thesis good hard, course theme. Some potential topics could be Occupy Wall Street Movement, social media and protest (e.g. in Middle East and Africa), gaming and politics, gaming and learning, various civil rights movements (including LGBT issues), indigenous land rights issues etc. You might want to emulate the documentaries on Steve Jobs and Occupy Wall Street Movement we watch together in compare contrast gatsby movie the class. Your documentary should incorporate a good amount and variety of camayd freixas essay, sourcesalphabetic texts (books, articles, newspaper editorials etc.), audios, videos, still images, among others- and be organically composed.

It should also demonstrate your knowledge or learning of a number of techniques such as handling video camera, still camera, incorporating voice over into compare gatsby book, the film or editing skills. The juxtaposition of different texts and narrative voice and their organic unity will be the key evaluation criteria for your project. Your project should also reflect your understanding of audience, textual cohesion, and ethical treatment of sources etc. In this paper, your group must reflect on each and good man is every choice/decision made during the whole process of documentary production. You might, for instance, talk about the collection or selection of source materials, decision on English variety to be used, narrative voice or work division or other critical dimensions of the process of collaborative research and composition. Anstey, Michele, and compare great gatsby Geoff Bull. Teaching and Learning Multiliteracies: Changing Times, Changing Literacies . Meaningful Creative! Newark: International Reading Association, 2006.Print.

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(Teaching) Essayist Literacy from Composition Forum 32 (Fall 2015) Online at: Copyright 2015 Santosh Khadka. Composition Forum is published by the Association of writing, Teachers of Advanced Composition with the support and generous financial assistance of Penn State University. Composition Forum ISSN: 1522-7502.

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