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Annie Dookhan pursued renown along a path of lies. Buy Business? Going back to her days on coursework section mq, the Boston Latin Academy track team, Annie Dookhan relentlessly pursued prestige. In the exacting world of chemical analysis, soft-spoken chemist Annie Dookhan or “Little Annie” as she was sometimes called was a dream employee. Consider her performance at the vaccine manufacturer where she worked for nearly two years before taking a job at the state drug lab. Buy Business? Most days, Dookhan arrived at work in the dawn’s dim light. When her boss left in the evening, her small frame was still hunched over the bench performing tests. She leapt at argumentative writing essay overtime hours and routinely got results in a fraction of the time it took others. What’s more, she was smart. Dookhan said she was working on a master’s degree, and buy business reports just one year later announced that she had completed the work for a doctorate from Harvard University.
A banner reading, “Congratulations, Annie,” went up on a cabinet. The problem was that much of what she said was not true. Dookhan had neither a master’s nor a doctorate. How she managed to get results so fast, no one is quite sure. “Our turnaround time on gay marriage pros, a sample was two weeks,” said Anthony Parham, Dookhan’s supervisor at buy business reports the time. “Annie would get results in about half that time. I figured she was working so hard because she wanted to of data research paper, make her mark.” Dookhan, 35, has most assuredly done that.
Now at the center of the state drug lab scandal, she has confessed to altering tests results and mishandling evidence in some of the thousands of criminal cases she handled. But her trail of deceptions, large and small, goes well beyond that. Dookhan, who has pleaded not guilty to all but one of the 27 charges on reports, which she has been indicted, may go down as one of the most prolific liars in public life. Her actions have not only raised questions about the reliability of evidence used in argumentative 34,000 criminal cases, but have already resulted in the release of 286 offenders, some of whom are drug dealers, to communities throughout Massachusetts. Buy Business? In earlier years, her fabulations had much less devastating effects. For Kinesthesis Are Located In? She claimed honors she did not receive and in conversation gave her parents jobs they did not have. Buy Business? She inflated her salary and gave herself grandiose job titles, referring to argumentative, herself in an e-mail as “an on-call supervisor for buy business chemical and biological terrorism.” And while she conducted an pros and cons essay, online flirtation with one prosecutor for years, indicating at the start that she was a divorcee yearning for love, she simultaneously rattled off a succession of chatty e-mails to her husband. As investigators continue to assess the full scope of the damage she has done, the question that hovers over buy business it all is why. Part of the answer seems simple: to make herself seem more important.
A petite 4 feet 11 inches and a native of Trinidad, Dookhan appeared determined even as a young immigrant girl to outrun expectations and the perceived anonymity of for kinesthesis, her circumstances. Notably intelligent, “Little Annie” Dookhan was going to make sure that she would never be overlooked. Barry Chin/Globe Staff. “Annie’s dedication was far greater than her ability. . Reports? . . She just wanted to coursework mq, try. Buy Business? It was amazing because she not only argumentative writing did it, thanks to her the buy business, team won first place. That girl never quit,” said coach Ray Behenna, who coached Dookhan on gay marriage and cons, the Boston Latin Academy girls’ track team. For a long time the little white lies largely embellishments to her personal narrative seemed to work. But in 2009 several developments, including a second miscarriage and a court ruling that changed the rules for buy business reports chemists and for kinesthesis are located in threatened her astonishing productivity, seemed to buy business reports, shake her profoundly. It was then that Dookhan began telling a much different kind of for kinesthesis are located in, lie as she groped for control over circumstances both at home and at work that threatened to overwhelm her. “Most people would describe me as little Annie, always with a smile and always there and willing to buy business, help. For Kinesthesis Are Located? I definitely put others over myself,” Dookhan wrote in buy business reports an e-mail to a prosecutor in 2009. “My way of dealing with this situation is just ‘bottling’ it all in . . . I will not allow people to see me cry.” Running from behind. In the early 1990s, the Boston Latin Academy girls’ track team was enjoying a triumphant spell, twice winning the city’s track championship. The Lady Dragons were an eclectic group of fiercely competitive runners.
But one of them, a thin girl with long dark hair named Annie Khan, as Dookhan was known until she married, often struggled to write an admission essay 30 minutes, keep up. Coach Ray Behenna remembers her well, partly because she was not very fast, or as he puts it: “Annie’s dedication was far greater than her ability.” But Behenna still marvels at her determination, for Khan practiced relentlessly and her teammates rallied to her effort. At one meet, a runner in the mile relay came up lame. Khan leapt to fill in, never mind that she had never run such a race before. “She just wanted to try,” recalled Behenna. “It was amazing because she not only did it, thanks to her the team won first place. That girl never quit.” It was her dedication, in part, that won her a seat in the seventh grade at BLA, one of reports, Boston’s exam schools, in 1990. Robert? The only buy business child of Samdaye and Rasheed Khan, Annie Sadiyya Khan was born in pros and cons essay San Fernando, Trinidad, in buy business reports 1977, according to her marriage license, and was much doted upon by are located her parents. Buy Business Reports? While it is unclear when the family moved to the United States, their names appear in school and how to an admission state motor vehicle records beginning in 1989. Rasheed Khan, described by neighbors as a man as amiable as he was ambitious, launched a deleading and heating company in Dorchester in 1990, the same year that his wife got a job as a data analyst with what is now called Partners HealthCare.
The following year the couple bought a trim two-story home on Stoughton’s busy Park Street, according to town records. Although the buy business reports, Khans provided Boston school officials with a Boston address, which all students are required to have in order to attend, at least one Stoughton neighbor recalls Annie Khan returning home after school. “I remember when they moved in, she was in high school,” recalled Frank Clark of Brockton, whose mother lived in the house next door at the time. Argumentative Essay? “The parents were very proud of Annie’s academic achievements, you could just tell. Annie always smiled and waved when she came home, but she did not say much.” Annie Dookhan on the Boston Latin Academy girls’ track team. Buy Business Reports? Classmates recall “A.K.,” as she is dubbed in the 1996 yearbook, as exceptionally quiet, if they recall her at writing all.
But Khan was an active participant in a host of school activities. In addition to competing on the track team, she was a member of the yearbook staff and the National Junior Classical League. Chemistry teacher Richard Russo remembers her as an A student with a “very good scientific mind. She was zealous in observation and conclusion.” But the woman who would come to buy business reports, fame as Annie Dookhan was surrounded by shame other equally ambitious classmates, a number of whom also came from low-income immigrant families. “There were a lot of us from foreign homes, and we all wanted to do well,” said Shante Williams, who was on the track team with her as a student. “It was always a competition in that school because we all knew you had to do well to get a job.” At some point after she graduated in 1996, Dookhan decided to give herself a bit of an edge in that larger competition and wrote on her resume that she had graduated “magna cum laude.” But BLA’s headmaster Emilia Pastor says no such honor is conferred by the school. Reports? Bright, shy, and boastful. The fall after she graduated, Dookhan enrolled at Regis College in Weston. But after 2½ years she left, for reasons that are unclear. Argumentative Writing? Citing privacy concerns, a Regis spokesman would confirm only that Dookhan had attended the reports, school but left in for kinesthesis December 1998. Dookhan continued her studies at the University of Massachusetts Boston where she majored in biochemistry and graduated cum laude with a bachelor of science degree in 2001. John Warner, then a professor of buy business, biochemistry at the university, remembers her as one of his brightest students. “In a class of ninety students, she was in the top five,” said Warner. “I remember her as a very hard-working student who got As.
She was really quite driven.” Several classmates remember Dookhan, who was a member of the Chemistry Club and Pre-Med Society at UMass Boston, as notably shy. When she did talk, said classmate Nicole S. Lee, “you had to listen hard because she was so quiet. She was nice, but not a particularly memorable person.” But at least some classmates remember Dookhan quite differently. Another student in pros and cons essay Warner’s class recalls her saying that she had been an undergraduate student at Harvard University and had left to attend UMass “for financial reasons.” The classmate, who declined to be identified for fear of buy business reports, reprisal by Dookhan, said Dookhan also said that her mother was a doctor at Massachusetts General Hospital and that her father was also a physician. A spokesperson for Mass General says that it has no record of employing a Samdaye Khan since 1990, the most recent period for analysis of data which records are readily available. “Her attitude in general was that she was better than the rest of buy business, us, very pompous,” said the classmate, who is a product manager in Wisconsin. “In the higher-level courses she was like, ‘Oh, this is so easy. I finished my homework two weeks ago.’ Well the rest of us didn’t think it was so easy. Her attitude was just that this was all too low for her, UMass, the essay, work, all of it.” Like many other UMass students, Dookhan worked while she was an buy business, undergraduate. About a year before she graduated, she got a job at Brigham and studies Women’s Hospital as a unit coordinator in the cardiac surgical unit, according to her resume, and she remained there for several months after graduating.
She also worked at buy business reports the hospital during several summers as a laboratory aide and tumor registry assistant. Coursework Mq? A hospital spokesman said she could not confirm an individual’s past employment at buy business reports the hospital without an individual’s consent. By the spring of 2002, Dookhan had landed a job as a quality control analyst at MassBiologics Laboratory, a manufacturer of argumentative, vaccines and other biological products located in Jamaica Plain. The job entailed the testing and analysis of raw materials used to make tetanus and diphtheria vaccines, among others. Reports? Dookhan was one of a number of young chemists who worked in a large open laboratory, according to Aaron Weagle, then a quality control supervisor at in MassBiologics, which is reports operated by the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Tamir Kalifa for The Boston GlobE.
Dookhan worked at the William A. Hinton State Laboratory. “Annie was smart,” Weagle said. And Cons? “She understood chemistry well and buy business reports she was clearly ambitious. Essay Polito? If there was a new test to buy business, assay, a new raw material, she volunteered to do that. I remember her as ambitious.” Anthony Parham, her immediate supervisor, considered Dookhan one of the hardest workers in the lab. Often when he arrived in the morning, she was already hard at work, and when he left at the end of the day she was still there. Parham, who worked closely with Dookhan, felt she was driven by a desire not for material gain, but for “personal prestige.” “She wanted to be able to say that she was an accomplished person,” said Parham, who is African-American and now lives in for kinesthesis are located Maryland. “Annie is buy business a person who is write an admission 30 minutes not very tall. . . Buy Business Reports? . Argumentative? She grew up very isolated, without many people of her background around her. I understand what it is like to be a minority in America. I think that experience reinforced her determination to show that she was just as good, or even better.” At the time, Parham did not find it suspicious that Dookhan got results in half the buy business reports, time it took others. But in light of coursework section, her confession to state police that she often identified drug evidence in the state lab without testing it known as “dry labbing” Parham says he is reports now less sure. “It does make me wonder,” said Parham. “Could she have done it in our lab? It is not impossible.” Mark Shelton, associate vice chancellor of communications for UMass Medical School, said that there is no indication that Dookhan did anything improper. He said the Food and Drug Administration keeps records of every vial of for kinesthesis are located in, vaccine manufactured by MassBiologics and there has been no problem with the company’s product. Parham recalls that Dookhan and another chemist in the lab had a fierce argument related to reports, her work.
While Parham cannot summon the specifics of the disagreement, he remembers that Dookhan was very angry, saying, ‘‘ ‘I will never forget this. Never.’ I think that was part of the essay shame robert polito, reason that she left.’’ Parham and some others with whom Dookhan worked are also now reconsidering her academic credentials. Although she did not claim a master’s degree when she applied for the MassBiologics job, she apparently was emboldened by her success at the lab and buy business reports began to shame robert polito, embellish her achievements while there. She told Parham and several others in the lab that she was working toward a master’s at UMass. In fact, Dookhan requested an application for reports the UMass master’s program but never took any additional courses after she graduated, much less earn an writing, advanced degree. Buy Business? A supervisor at the state drug lab later noticed that Dookhan had changed her curriculum vitae from analysis research paper, saying she was working on a master’s degree to claiming that she possessed the degree. When the supervisor, Elizabeth O’Brien, confronted her, Dookhan removed the buy business reports, degree. But O’Brien told State Police that Dookhan “at times sent her curriculum vitae out argumentative, with a master’s degree on buy business reports, it.” Among the many charges Dookhan faces, one is pros essay a misdemeanor count for reports lying about her degree.
Somewhere along the way, she also gave herself a retroactive raise. Dookhan claimed on at least one resume to have earned $40,000 at are located MassBiologics, but company records show her salary was $32,800. One MassBiologics employee said Dookhan even claimed to buy business reports, be working toward a doctorate at section Harvard. Michael Gennaco, a quality control analyst at the time, said she announced during her second year that she had completed her dissertation. Buy Business Reports? “People were excited about that, saying what a genius she was, and someone put up a banner congratulating her,” said Gennaco. Essay Shame Polito? “Annie let it be known that she was the best. She was superproductive and reports supercompetitive and she took on research paper, a lot of responsibilities.
She was going to run the lab. Reports? Well, we all got fooled, didn’t we?” Miffed that she was not promoted more quickly at MassBiologics, Dookhan began to how to write an admission 30 minutes, look around for another job. In November 2003, she landed a job as a chemist at the William A. Hinton State Laboratory Institute. At the time the state drug lab, one of eighteen laboratories housed in the towering eight-story concrete building overlooking the Arnold Arboretum, was grappling with a backlog of buy business, drug samples and delays in testing that had plagued it for a couple of years. The new pair of hands was most welcome. John Tlumacki /Boston Globe. Gay Marriage And Cons Essay? Annie Dookhan was arrested at her Franklin home in September.
Little Annie, dream employee, roared in like a lion. In 2004, her first full year on the job, Dookhan tested 9,239 drug samples, more than three times the buy business, number typically tested by pros and cons essay the other chemists in buy business the lab, according to figures provided by the state Department of Public Health. For Kinesthesis In? The following year her numbers were downright staggering. Dookhan performed a total of 11,232 tests, nearly double the second-most productive chemist in buy business the lab who tallied a total of 6,053 tests and coursework four times the buy business reports, mean for the lab’s nine other chemists. If some of her colleagues were mystified by Dookhan’s output, few openly raised questions until years later. Supervisors apparently chalked up her productivity to the fact that the energetic Dookhan never took breaks for of data paper lunch or snacks and routinely took paperwork home with her, according to interviews with staffers by buy business reports State Police. What’s more, Dookhan routinely worked overtime hours for which she did not charge extra.
After her first full year on the job, Dookhan was promoted to Chemist II. Another chemist began to refer to studies section mq, her as the “superwoman” of the reports, lab. “My colleagues call me ‘superwoman’ and say that I do too much for the lab and everyone else, in general,” Dookhan wrote in an e-mail to one assistant district attorney. “I am not a workaholic, but it is just in my nature to assist in any way possible.’’ Dookhan’s personal life was also blossoming. In the summer of 2004, she married Surrendranath Dookhan, a slender engineer and the youngest of three brothers who grew up playing cricket in Trinidad before coming to the United States, according to how to 30 minutes, a cousin in buy business reports Trinidad. Dookhan reveled in being part of a larger family, and the couple moved into write an admission essay 30 minutes a red-shuttered house in Franklin a few doors down from one of her new brothers-in-law. The couple’s delight with their first pregnancy ended abruptly when Dookhan miscarried, according to an interview by Department of Public Health officials with Julie Nassif, the lab’s former director of buy business, analytical chemistry, who was dismissed in how to write the wake of the Dookhan scandal. Reports? Although supervisors were concerned that Dookhan returned to work too soon, Dookhan was not to be deterred. “I have chocolate and studies section work, and that is reports my way of gay marriage and cons, dealing with it,” Dookhan said, according to Nassif. Reports? Dookhan soon became pregnant again, and in 2006 she gave birth to a baby boy, Branden. Thrilled, she eagerly shared photos with her colleagues. “She was over the roof about the baby,” recalled Weagle, her former colleague at MassBiologics.
Dookhan’s extraordinary lab performance declined somewhat after her son’s birth. Research? But others in the lab were nonetheless growing increasingly suspicious of reports, her productivity. Peter Piro, a Lab Supervisor I, suspected as early as 2007 that Dookhan was not doing all the tests she said she was. Piro later told State Police that he never saw Dookhan in studies front of buy business reports, a microscope and gay marriage essay that she was often away from her bench. Piro said a disproportionate number of samples Dookhan identified as cocaine turned out to be heroin when retested, long before the scandal broke. Once, Piro noticed Dookhan had not performed a lab procedure correctly but had “made up test numbers that were within the acceptable range.” In another incident, a chemist in the lab reported to buy business reports, Piro that Dookhan had forged his initials on a control sheet. When Piro confronted Dookhan, “she did not respond, but took it back and resubmitted it correctly.” JESSICA RINALDI /Reuters. Dookhan, who was arraigned in of data Brockton last week, has pleaded not guilty to all but one of the 27 charges on which she has been indicted. One Saturday morning, when Piro came upon Dookhan in the lab, he noticed that she had not checked the accuracy of her scale.
Piro told State Police that he had “had enough of Dookhan.” Piro marched over to her bench and placed the balancing weights on her scale. The two chemists, he said, “stared at each other and Piro felt that Dookhan got the message.” Piro told police that he reported his concerns to lab supervisor Charles Salemi. Buy Business? But Salemi informed him that it was Julie Nassif’s job, not his, to discipline Dookhan. Nor was Piro the only one with doubts about Dookhan long before she was found out. Gay Marriage And Cons? Chemist Michael Lawler told State Police that he was “staggered” by Dookhan’s test numbers in buy business 2010. Lawler started watching the number of slides used to argumentative, test cocaine in buy business her discard pile, although he did not count them. Gay Marriage And Cons? Everyone in the lab, he told State Police, “had discomfort with Annie Dookhan’s monthly numbers. People were worried on a personal level that their supervisor didn’t value them because they were not producing numbers as high as Dookhan.” In fact, Dookhan’s numbers had resumed their steady and suspect rise one year earlier, in reports 2009. In June of argumentative, that year, the buy business, Supreme Court issued a ruling known as Melendez-Diaz that required chemists testing drug samples to testify about their findings in court. Because the chemists were consequently spending less time in the lab, the coursework section mq, number of tests they performed dropped off notably. But Dookhan’s numbers kept on climbing.
By the year’s end she had run 6,321 tests, compared with a mean for the other chemists of 1,981. Dookhan, however, had more on buy business reports, her mind than tests. Supervisor Elizabeth O’Brien told State Police that Dookhan had suffered another miscarriage in 2009. Of Data? Dookhan, she added, was going through “personal problems, then court, and Melendez-Diaz was tough at first on her. Buy Business Reports? . . . Perhaps she was trying to how to write an admission, be important by being the go-to person.” Dookhan may have been feeling stressed, but she managed keep her test numbers high by simply not doing some of the tests. Dookhan admitted to the State Police last August that she had “dry labbed” for buy business two or three years, beginning in around 2009. Essay? As she explained it, she identified cocaine and heroin samples according to buy business reports, what they were suspected to be and tested only pros and cons a few of them as well as the “unknown” samples. Buy Business Reports? A few times, when a sample was returned to her after a retest revealed it was not what she said it was, she contaminated it, “to make it what I said it was.” Dookhan confessed that she dry labbed in order to “get more work done.” At the time of her confession, Dookhan said that she was going through a long divorce. Argumentative Writing Essay? However, there is no apparent record of any divorce proceeding in court. Buy Business? One of Dookhan’s brothers-in-law, a pharmacist who asked not to be identified for fear it would negatively impact his business, said that he was aware that the couple had had some difficulties but that family members believed they were “moving on.” “The miscarriages seemed to put some stress on the relationship,” he said in an interview. “Annie is argumentative writing a very private person. Buy Business? We were all there for her, but she did not discuss any of it with us.
From what we could tell they were OK.” Close to prosecutors. Dookhan had long had a close relationship with prosecutors who often called her on shame, her cellphone in violation of lab procedure, according to State Police interviews of several lab staffers. But in mid-2009, she became particularly friendly with Norfolk Assistant District Attorney George Papachristos, with whom she exchanged a series of flirtatious e-mails. Once she sent him a copy of an e-mail in which she said she needed “someone to buy business reports, love me and make me laugh.” Papachristos has denied that the two had an affair but resigned last fall after the Globe disclosed their friendship. The e-mails, which continued for two years, suggest that Dookhan held herself above her colleagues, much as she had in college. Pros And Cons Essay? Not long after they met, Dookhan e-mailed Papachristos, “My work ethic is very different from my co-workers, I give 110 % in everything I do . . . I work hard.’’ About a month after the two began corresponding, Dookhan, who had started using her maiden name, confided in Papachristos that “she was having problems with her husband,” Papachristos told State Police in an interview. Shortly, afterward, Papachristos said he got a series of text messages from Dookhan’s husband, Surren, on his cellphone saying, “This is Annie’s husband do not believe her, she’s a liar, she’s always lying. Buy Business? She is looking for sympathy and attention.” Not long afterward, however, Dookhan and Papachristos resumed their chatty communication.
She sent him friendly cards and gay marriage once, after she had apparently not heard from him in buy business reports awhile, e-mailed him in writing essay the evening, “Georgeeee. ” On learning that he had been ill, she exclaimed, “OMG. I am glad you are doing better. Would ya take it easy, man! :) If there is buy business reports anything you need or I can do, just ask. . ” At the same time she exchanged e-mail jokes with her husband, attended neighborhood barbecues with him, and planned a family trip to Aruba, according to write essay, her e-mails. Beginning of the buy business, end. By the end of coursework studies, 2010, Dookhan’s test numbers were through the roof. By year’s end she claimed to have performed 10,933 tests, almost five times the mean of buy business, 2,230 tests done by the other chemists. By then, several staffers had taken their concerns to Salemi, the lab supervisor, who conducted an audit of Dookhan’s work. Salemi, who is now facing disciplinary action, reviewed only Dookhan’s paperwork and did not retest her samples. The conclusion of the audit: Dookhan’s work was just fine. For Kinesthesis In? As Dookhan’s numbers continued their relentless climb in 2011, several supervisors met to discuss the situation. Buy Business? Julie Nassif, the for kinesthesis in, former director of analytical chemistry, decided to give Dookhan a special project, “to try and slow her down,” according to buy business reports, a State Police interview with Salemi.
It didn’t slow her much. Then, in June, Dookhan was found to have removed 90 drug samples from the evidence room without authorization. It was the beginning of the end. Two days after Dookhan confessed to State Police last August, Lieutenant Robert M. Irwin, one of two detectives who had questioned her, called her in the morning to make a “well-being check.” Irwin also wanted to let her know that there was going to be a press conference related to the case that afternoon. Dookhan sounded composed, according to Irwin’s report, saying that, under an agreement she had made with the Department of Public Health when she resigned under pressure in March, her name would not be given out. At 3:28 p.m., Dookhan called Irwin, now upset.
Reporters and photographers were swarming around her house and she did not understand why. Irwin explained that the gay marriage, lab had been closed and that reporters were pursuing the story. Dookhan thanked Irwin for his honesty and hung up. Buy Business Reports? At 4:45 p.m., Dookhan called again. This time she was crying. “Not hard, more of a whimper,” Irwin wrote. “She was despondent and looking for for kinesthesis advice.” Reporters were still at buy business her door. Dookhan asked what she might be charged with.
Irwin suggested that she should be with family members at a critical time like this, but Dookhan just cried harder. When Irwin asked her if she ever considered harming herself, she said “no.” “I advised Dookhan that my phone is always on how to essay 30 minutes, and she could call me at buy business any time,” Irwin wrote. “She said she didn’t want to how to write, be a pest. Reports? I told her it was OK.”
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a good person essay We all want to be good, but it's not easy. If you ask an evil person and reports, a good person the same question: Are you a good person?, who do you think is more likely to say, I'm good? The good one or the evil one? The evil one! He could kick his own mother in the stomach and still think he's good.
You say, That's terrible! How could you do such a thing? He rationalizes and how to an admission essay, says, You don't understand. She asked me to take out the reports, garbage. If I do it, who knows what else she'll ask for next? This could go on forever! As for the good person, he takes out the garbage.
But if you would then tell him, I see you're a good person, he says, No, I'm really not so good. Didn't you notice that while I was taking out the garbage I kicked my mother in the stomach? What are you talking about? I was watching and you didn't kick your mother in the stomach! Well, I didn't actually kick her. But I was grumbling as I carried out the coursework studies mq, garbage. I wanted my mother to feel bad. I was in the middle of a good book, and buy business, if I don't register my protest, who knows she might ask me to argumentative do it again tomorrow!
Do you see the difference? The evil person will always say he's right. He doesn't bother trying to be good, so he never feels a struggle. He just assumes he's good. Whereas the person who really tries to be good knows how tough the buy business reports, job is. And he's always striving for a higher level. There's a third type: The fully righteous person, the Tzaddik. He takes out the garbage and says, It's my pleasure, Mom. You work so hard to polito take care of us. So thank you for the opportunity to express my appreciation! The struggle to do good stems from the two conflicting inclinations in every human being.
A person has two hearts: one that loves to do the right thing, and one that prefers to be selfish. Buy Business Reports! You need to develop an awareness of the struggle going on inside you. For example: • You want to use your time effectively, versus you feel like procrastinating. • You want to eat healthily, versus you feel like chocolate cake. • You want wisdom, versus you feel like watching TV. Gay Marriage Pros And Cons Essay! One heart loves to reports do the right thing. The other prefers to be selfish. For Kinesthesis! Want is for permanence. It is rooted in reality.
Desire is for the moment, with little regard for buy business reports future consequence. Writing! It is an buy business reports escape. This conflict is between your body and your soul. Your eternal soul seeks permanence. It wants to do all the right things: to love humanity, seek justice, be altruistic, sensible, honorable and responsible.
Your soul strives to fulfill its potential. Meanwhile, your body, which is destined for the grave, seeks satisfaction for and cons the moment. Drawn by comfort and buy business, effortlessness, it wants to eat, to for kinesthesis are located sleep, to lust. Buy Business Reports! You know it's not right to refuse to take out the garbage, and your heart really wants to essay shame polito be good. But your other heart, the heart of desire, would rather stay inside where it's warm, reading a book in comfort. Buy Business Reports! Even as you're reading this, your soul is nudging you: Pay attention this will make me great! But your body contradicts: All this hard work and concentration is shame robert polito too painful. I was doing just fine the reports, way I was before! With every decision, the two hearts clash and create a dilemma. With every decision, the two hearts clash and create a dilemma.
To be triumphant in write essay 30 minutes, the battle to be good, you have to focus on your innate desire to be good. Remind yourself each morning that you want to be good, and don't let that consciousness lay fallow. Make it part of your mindset, and reports, you'll see an observable effect throughout your day. You'll make more mature and effective decisions. Distinguish Between the Two Hearts. It can be very confusing to sort out that which we desire from how to write an admission, that which we want. Ask someone: Which is more important to you happiness or money?
I'd rather be happy. Just give me basic food, clothing and shelter and then I'll gladly take a lot of happiness! After all, what kind of fool wants to be a miserable millionaire? Okay, give me a week and I guarantee to show you how to be happy. Well, that's an buy business interesting offer.
Maybe one day I'll consider it. Okay, I'll make you a deal: After one month, if you've increased your happiness, I'll give you a bonus of $10,000. Now watch that guy run to you! Why? Which is more important to for kinesthesis in him happiness or money? Of course, happiness is more important. But that's just the buy business reports, intellectual understanding of the soul. On the other hand, the body is distracted by the sight of those green stacks of bills! Bodily desire confuses our thinking.
Materialism can look so attractive that we become deluded into thinking that's what we really want! Unless you make the effort to of data paper distinguish between your wants and your desires, and to clarify which aspect is influencing your actions, then you're likely to lose valuable opportunities to accomplish your goals. Get in touch with what the buy business, conflict is by asking two simple questions: What do I want to do, versus what do I feel like doing? What you want to do is usually the right thing, whereas what you feel like doing is often what is the most comfortable thing. The alarm clock goes off in the morning.
You want to get out of bed and start your day. But you probably feel like hitting the argumentative writing, snooze button, and sleeping late. It's a tug of war. Getting out of buy business bed becomes a moral dilemma! Whether you win and or lose depends upon which voice is the coursework studies section, loudest at the moment of decision: the voice of want, or the voice of buy business desire. How To Write! Once you're aware of the conflict and remember that you're struggling, you're able to listen more carefully to the voice of the good heart, and buy business, dismiss the voice of the selfish heart. Argumentative! A proper definition of good is the starting point of buy business reports everything you do in life. Obviously you can't just invent your own definition of what good is. You have to investigate reliable sources, and then analyze which one best describes the human condition and reality.
Be careful! If you don't work out the definition for yourself, you'll end up with someone else's idea of good! You don't want to essay shame be 20 years down the reports, road and realize you bought a bad package. Unless you work out the definition, you'll end up with someone else's idea of good! In Gaza, the definition of good may be someone whose willing to mq strap a bomb to his belly and detonate it in buy business reports, a crowded Israeli market. A common Western definition of good is financial success. Studies! People become pulverized by depression because they're not successful.
What's wrong with me, I can't get a job! I must be bad. Reports! Get me a therapist! This feeling carries into the way we consume. Our CD collection, our carpets, our fancy cars are one part convenience, two parts status. We want to show off that we fit society's idea of good. (Politely, of course, so people shouldn't think we're barbarians!) Always ask yourself: Am I defining good as that which looks good to the fast-food-Internet-Hollywood segment of society, or am I defining good as that which has real meaning, a deep message, and makes a valuable contribution to society? If we don't keep up our guard, then we could end up like those rich-and-famous who are hooked on drugs and plagued by depression. Why is the typical image of coursework studies mq a movie-star one who is embroiled in reports, legal disputes, can't keep a marriage together, and spends countless hours in psychoanalysis? In Judaism, the definition of good is found in the Torah. How To An Admission Essay! It spells out how a good person acts toward his friends, family, and society as a whole.
So keep your definitions straight. And be careful. Society's definition could end up being your death sentence. Stand By Your Definition. Once you get your definition down, then you have to stick with it wherever you go, no matter what you do. Others will always try to change your definition of buy business reports good, especially when it makes them feel bad about themselves. But you must stand by your own definition, even when others mock you for coursework section doing so.
Why does someone play Russian roulette? Because he's afraid of being jeered, of being called a coward. But who's the real coward? The one without the courage to stand up to those jeers! In the end, instead of living as a coward, he dies as a coward! The ultimate irony: perception defeats reality! Don't let go of what you know. Being Good Is More Important Than Life Itself. Imagine you're a successful surgeon.
You're famous, you're rich, you have a beautiful spouse and buy business reports, marvelous kids. You're president of argumentative writing essay your synagogue, and you've just been nominated to receive an honorary doctorate from Harvard University. Life is grand! Now you're traveling through the Far East with some friends. One night, while your friends are out at a movie, the Secret Police come to your hotel room and say, Your friends have been identified as dangerous spies. Buy Business Reports! Tell us where they are or we'll kill you! Uh-oh. What do you do? Of course, turning over of data, your friends is a terrible thing to do. Buy Business! On the other hand, you don't want to die and essay shame polito, nobody will ever know you finked on your friends. (The Secret Police certainly won't advertise the episode!) You can still be a successful surgeon, still have your beautiful family, still be rich and famous and still make it home in time for the Harvard graduation!
Nobody will ever know you finked on your friends. Now let's up the buy business reports, ante. What if the shame robert polito, Secret Police asked you to kill 1,000 children? Kill 1,000 children and you can go back to the States to buy business reports your beautiful life. Do you think you'd ever be able to do such a thing? No. We simply don't have what it takes to be evil. (And even if you could bring yourself to kill the children. you'd probably go back home and essay, shoot yourself.) This scenario reveals something very deep in the makeup of buy business reports every human being: Being good is so important that we'd even be willing to die for argumentative it. Even though this scenario is a bit extreme, it elucidates a crucial principle: If you are willing to give up your life to be good, then there can be no higher goal in living than being good! Now go out and live for it!
Harness that force within you! Pursue wisdom to understand how to buy business reports be good. Essay! Make goodness your goal in living. Be willing to buy business give up everything. Others might call you a fool, but you always win when you do the right thing. You're not doing anyone any favors by being good, you're simply doing what the inner you wants. Every Human Wants to be Great. Our desire to be good is really just the tip of the iceberg.
Actually, all of us strive to go beyond good and are located in, become great. Nobody wants to be average. Try saying, I want to be a mediocre. You can't get the words out! Because we want to be great, not just good.
Would you want to buy business reports be the person to of data paper discover the cure for cancer or eliminate the threat of nuclear war? Of course! We would all love to buy business rid the world of how to write an admission it's problems and unite humanity in peace and harmony. That is the Jewish concept of the buy business, Messiah. He will put the world back together. I once asked a class, Tell me honestly.
In the secret, innermost part of your heart, do you harbor the write, desire to be the Messiah himself? The entire class raised their hands. Now here's a deep spiritual secret: The soul, the divine spark within each of buy business reports us, craves to be united with the source of all life the Almighty God. Analysis! And for that reason, every human being, underneath it all, would not even feel satisfied being the Messiah. Our soul desires to be like God Himself.
So why don't we aim for it? Not because we don't want to change the world. But because the effort seems too great. The Torah, our Instructions for Living, provides a way to work toward this. One of the 613 mitzvot is to be like God, to emulate His ways. We each have the potential to make a significant contribution to buy business reports society. The Sages teach that everyone is supposed to say, The whole world was made for me! This does not mean that you can plunder the analysis, property of buy business reports others. Rather, every individual is responsible for the world.
Act accordingly you're here to straighten it out. It's a lot hard work. But it's what we truly seek. And in the process, you're going to become not just good, but great! What Can I Do About It? Ask any young person today: What are the studies section, chances of a worldwide atomic war within the next 20 years? You'll get a range of buy business reports answers.
Some will say 90%, some 20%. So what are you going to do about it? Me? What can I do about it? The president is in charge! But I'm only are located one person. Who am I? In Judaism, we say that if you knew the Almighty Himself was helping you, what would you do about it? Well, here's good news: God is behind you.
God says, If you try, I'll help you. I want you to straighten out the world. Reports! Judaism says it's an argumentative writing essay obligation to buy business reports become great. That is our national mission of Tikkun Olam, of argumentative essay repairing the world. If we shirk our responsibility, we'll have to answer for buy business reports it one day. In Judaism, there's no giving up. You want to be great, you can be great, and you have to be great. So get out analysis of data research there and buy business reports, slug. Harness your powerful desire for greatness. It's leading you whether you like it or not. Essay Shame Robert! Make the right effort, and God will certainly help you achieve.
January 11, 2000. Rabbi Noah Weinberg, of blessed memory, was the buy business, dean and founder of Aish HaTorah. For 50 years, his visionary educational programs brought hundreds of thousands of in Jews closer to reports their heritage. More Articles by Rabbi Noah Weinberg: How to Really Grow During the Month of Elul. No one can help you grow unless you take responsibility for yourself. Understanding why and robert, how prayer works.
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40 mm OQF Marks I, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, NI and reports, NI/I. Probably the best heavy MG AA weapon of World War II, Bofors guns of this type remained in service long after the argumentative writing, war ended. This weapon was used on almost every major USA and UK warship of World War II and was a very potent AA gun. Buy Business? The Germans used Norwegian-produced Bofors guns which they designated as the 4 cm/56 Flak 28 and write an admission 30 minutes, the Japanese copied a British Army air-cooled Bofors captured at Singapore to produce their 4 cm/60 Type 5. This weapon traces its roots back to a 1918 Krupp design - the Bofors Company was partly owned by German interests until 1930 - but the finished product was entirely a Bofors design owing little or nothing to Krupp influence. The first Bofors prototype was finished late in the summer of 1930 and the first automatic shots were fired on 17 October 1930. These initial trials were unsuccessful and it was not until 10 November 1931 that automatic salvos were fired. Official trials for the Swedish Navy took place on 21 March 1932. The weapon was further refined and the Model 1936 was adopted for production. The British Army first showed interest in these guns in 1933 and placed an buy business, order for 100 of analysis of data paper them in 1937. First Royal Navy shipboard use of air-cooled guns was in late 1941 aboard the buy business reports, battleships Prince of Wales and shame robert, Nelson and on the cruisers Manchester and Erebus, although some ships had earlier been temporarily armed with Army air-cooled guns that had been rescued during the evacuation of the Norway invasion forces in 1940.
The British water-cooled version was developed by copying the Dutch Hazemeyer mounting which had arrived in reports Britain in 1940 aboard the Dutch minelayer Willem van der Zaan . The first issue of locally produced water-cooled Bofors guns was to the Black Swan class sloop HMS Whimbrel in November 1942. The total number of air-cooled guns built by Australia, Britain and Canada is not accurately known but was somewhere between 2,100 and coursework section mq, 2,800 plus about 200 to 400 guns supplied from the United States. Water-cooled guns are better documented with 442 Mark IV and 342 Mark XI in service at the end of the war plus 786 water-cooled guns supplied by buy business reports the USA. These USA weapons had been sent to Britain as a part of Lend-Lease or else were installed on ships refitted in USA shipyards. The US Army was also interested in this weapon and tested a single air-cooled model in 1937.
In 1940 the Chrysler Corporation agreed to begin manufacturing air-cooled guns utilizing British blueprints. The USN acquired many of these during the war, although the quantity used was far less than that of the water-cooled guns. The US Navy had a good deal of for kinesthesis pre-war interest in this weapon and BuOrd purchased a sample of an buy business, air-cooled twin version from Bofors in early 1940. This arrived in New York from Sweden on 28 August 1940. During the same month, the Dutch escort vessel van Kinsbergen demonstrated these weapons to USN observers in a test off Trinidad. BuOrd formally obtained Swedish licenses in June 1941, although some manufacturing actually started prior to that time. Terms of the license included $500,000 for the manufacturing rights plus $100,000 for two Bofors engineers to writing help set up production.
The two engineers were never sent, so as a result this $100,000 was not paid. Bofors delivered a complete set of reports metric drawings as part of their end of argumentative writing this contract. It should be noted that the USN considered the original Bofors Model 1936 design to be completely unsuitable for the mass production techniques required for buy business the vast number of guns needed to equip the ships of the US Navy. An Admission? First, the buy business, Swedish guns were designed using metric measurement units, a system all but unknown in the USA at that time. Worse still, the dimensioning on argumentative writing, the Swedish drawings often did not match the actual measurements taken of the buy business reports, weapons. Secondly, the Swedish guns required a great deal of hand work in order to make the finished weapon. For example, Swedish blueprints had many notes on them such as file to fit at coursework section, assembly and drill to reports fit at essay shame polito, assembly, all of which took much production time in order to implement - there is a story that one production engineer supposedly remarked that the buy business, Bofors gun had been designed so as to eliminate the unemployment problems of the Great Depression. Third, the Swedish mountings were manually worked, while the USN required power-worked mountings in order to how to essay attain the fast elevation and training speeds necessary to engage modern aircraft. Reports? Fourth, the Swedish twin gun mounting supplied to coursework studies section the USA for evaluation was air-cooled, limiting its ability to buy business reports fire long bursts, a necessity for most naval AA engagements. Finally, the an admission essay, USN rejected the Swedish ammunition design, as it was not boresafe, the fuze was found to reports be too sensitive for for kinesthesis are located normal shipboard use and its overall design was determined to be unsuitable for mass production.
US manufacturers made radical changes to the Swedish design in reports order to minimize these problems and as a result the guns and mountings produced in the USA bore little resemblance their Swedish ancestors. Are Located In? For example, all but the earliest US guns were built to buy business reports English measurement units rather than to metric units. To give one additional example of the how to write essay 30 minutes, design differences made for USA produced weapons; the reports, Chrysler Corporation redesigned ten components to suit mass production techniques and this was claimed to how to write essay have saved some 7,500,000 pounds (3,402,000 kg) of material and 1,896,750 man hours during a year's production, as well as freeing up 30 machine tools for the production of other components. For ammunition, the fuze designed and produced in Britain was adopted as an interim measure by buy business reports the USA, but this was considered to be of an unsafe design and unsuitable for mass production techniques. Fortunately, this fuze was almost immediately replaced by one designed by R.L. Are Located In? Graumann of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory. This fuze was simple in design and ideally suited to mass production. The new fuze, designated as the Mark 27, was found to be 99.9 percent efficient in ballistic acceptance tests, a record not equaled by any other fuze of the time. Reports? Both the robert polito, US Army and the British adopted this fuze for reports their own production lines. Pros And Cons? The USN estimated that the adoption of the Mark 27 saved some $250,000,000 during the war. One firm rule adopted early in reports the redesign process was that any new Allied munition for these weapons needed to be completely interchangeable with existing designs.
This allowed ammunition produced by any American or British ordnance manufacturer to be used with any weapon produced by either country, thus greatly simplifying the essay polito, logistics problems of buy business a world-wide war. The first USN pilot twin was completed in January 1942 and the first quad in April 1942. Coursework Studies Section? The first shipboard quad installation was on reports, the gunnery-training ship (ex-battleship) USS Wyoming (AG-17) on 22 June 1942, and the first twin installation was on the destroyer USS Coghlan (DD-606) on 1 July 1942. The USA started a massive production program for mq these weapons and by buy business reports December 1942 a monthly production rate of 1,600 Army guns and 135 Navy twin-barrel guns was achieved. A total of about 42,895 guns were built by the end of the how to 30 minutes, war, distributed as 23,897 for the Army, 10,019 for the Navy and Coast Guard, and 8,979 for export to other nations. Even so, the demand was not fully met until well into 1944. By that time, the pre-war 1.1 gun had been almost totally replaced by Bofors guns. To illustrate how many of these weapons were produced by the USA, note that out of the more than 400 destroyers built for the USN between 1934 and 1946, only the four destroyers of the buy business, pre-war Gridley class (DD-380) and those destroyers sunk early in the war did not receive at least some Bofors guns. Late in World War II, the USN started replacing 20 mm Oerlikon guns with the studies section mq, Bofors 40 mm guns, as the smaller weapon was found to be ineffective against Japanese Kamikazes. However, even the Bofors was determined to be inadequate against suicide attacks by early 1945, and as a result Bofors guns were in reports turn replaced during the late 1940s and studies section, 1950s with the buy business reports, new rapid fire 3/50 (7.62 cm) designs. It should be noted that although the are located, Bofors gun was probably the best anti-aircraft heavy machine gun of World War II, the USN considered it to reports be a front-line weapon for only six years.
It did remain in service in the USN until the 1970s on auxiliary and non-modernized ships, primarily because the 3/50 RF (7.62 cm) replacement program was never fully funded. Early versions of the twin mounting used friction-coupled drives, which quickly wore out on essay shame polito, naval ships due to salt contamination. Later versions used hydraulic-coupled drives which eliminated the problem. The development of the reports, Mark 51 director system gave the research, USA weapons greatly improved accuracy. Buy Business? For example, half of all Japanese aircraft shot down between 1 October 1944 and 1 February 1945 were credited to writing the Bofors/Mark 51 combination. See the article on the Mark 51 director on the Technical Board for additional information. The USN Mark 1 and Mark 2 Bofors guns were both water-cooled and buy business reports, were used for all twin and quad mountings.
The Mark 1 was a left-hand weapon while the Mark 2 was a right-hand weapon. Writing Essay? Except for buy business reports the barrel assemblies, the components were not interchangeable. These weapons could be fired in single-shot or automatic mode via a selector switch on the side of the slide. The M1 was an air-cooled version originally produced for the US Army. The barrel assemblies for the M1 were interchangeable with those of British and Canadian produced air-cooled weapons. All USN single mountings used a modified version of the Army M1. These guns are recoil operated and use a monobloc barrel with a detachable breech ring, breech casing and automatic loader. For Kinesthesis Are Located In? Breech block is a vertical sliding type.
Although often listed as being 60 calibers long, all of these guns except for the Japanese version were actually 56.25 calibers in length. Additional information on guns produced by all nations may be found in buy business the Mount / Turret Data section at the bottom of this page. Germany: 4 cm/56 (1.57) Flak 28. Japan: 4 cm/60 (1.57) Type 5 (Model 1945) Official Designation: 60 caliber Type 5 4 cm Gun. UK: 40 mm/56.3 (1.57) QF Marks I, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, NI and NI/I. USA: 40 mm/56 (1.57) Mark 1, Mark 2 and analysis of data paper, M1. UK - Almost all major UK warships of World War II.
Germany - Cruisers and S-Boats. Japan - Not in service. Japan: Not in buy business service. Japan: 1,018 lbs. Gay Marriage And Cons Essay? (462 kg) [air-cooled] UK: 1,120 to 1,163 lbs. (508 to 528 kg) [depending upon Mark] [water-cooled] USA Mark 1 and Mark 2: about 1,150 lbs. (522 kg) [water-cooled] USA M1: 1,036.5 lbs. (470 kg) [air-cooled] UK: 145.3 to 145.5 in buy business reports (3.691 to are located in 3.696 m) [depending upon Mark]
USA: 148.8 in (3.780 m) Japan: 94.5 in (2.400 m) UK: 88.578 in (2.250 m) USA: 88.6 in (2.250 m) Japan: 78.8 in reports (2.000 m) UK: 75.85 in (1.927 m) USA: 75.85 in for kinesthesis in (1.927 m) Japan: (16) 0.0098 in deep (0.25 mm) UK: (16) 0.0236 in deep x 0.220 (0.60 x 5.59 mm) USA Mark 1 and Mark 2: (16) 0.0236 in deep x 0.220 (0.60 x 5.59 mm) [water-cooled] USA M1: (16) 0.0225 in deep x 0.220 (0.057 x 5.59 mm) [air-cooled]
UK: 0.0892 in (2.66 mm) USA: 0.0892 in (2.66 mm) Japan: Uniform RH 1 in reports 30. UK: Increasing RH 1 in 45 to 1 in 30. USA: Increasing RH 1 in 45 to 1 in argumentative writing 30. USA: 28.3 in reports 3 (0.464 dm 3 ) (see Notes 2 and 7) 140 to 160 rounds per minute when firing horizontal (gravity assist) The official designation for British guns was Ordnance, Quick Firing (usually abbreviated as OQF) 40 mm Mark (whatever). For Kinesthesis? For example, OQF 40 mm Mark IX was the reports, designation of the analysis of data research, gun used in the Mark V mounting.
A modification kit was produced around 1970 which increased the rate of fire to buy business 180 rounds per pros, minute and the magazine capacity to 20 rounds by using a banana feeder fed by standard four-round clips. USN Mark 1 guns fed from the left while the buy business, Mark 2 guns fed from the right. Manually loaded M1 guns fed from the left. The standard automatic loader holds two four-round clips. When the gay marriage pros, first four-round clip is inserted into reports the feeder, the clip itself is stripped off and falls out onto the deck (the clip chute is a cut out just below the loader; left side for a left gun and right side for for kinesthesis a right gun). Buy Business? The second clip is then dropped into argumentative the loader and pushed down so that it forces a round through the loader star wheels and onto the rammer tray. This first round only reports, had to be manually pushed through when the gun was initially loaded, the loader will automatically feed rounds from new clips.
The second clip does not drop out until the first two rounds (of eight) are fired. Robert? The gun loader feed guides normally held eight rounds (two clips), although ten rounds could be loaded with two loose rounds between clips. To get the gun ready to fire the first round, a cocking lever is reports, used to manually move the rammer to how to write an admission essay 30 minutes the cocked position, rotate the star wheels a quarter turn and lower the breech block. If no rounds are in the autoloader, then two clips must be inserted as described above to push the bottom round onto reports, the rammer tray. Unlike most weapons, triggering the gay marriage and cons essay, Bofors gun by depressing the firing foot pedal does not actually fire the weapon. Instead, it starts the loading cycle which once in progress made the entire firing and loading operations completely automatic. At the start of this cycle, the spring-powered rammer is released, pushing the round on the rammer tray into the breech which automatically closes when the cartridge case rim strikes the actuator. The breech closing actuates the firing sequence which ends when the firing pin strikes the primer cap in the base of the cartridge case and fires the weapon. Recoil then opens the breech block, pushes the rammer back into buy business reports the cocked position and the extractor arms pull the cartridge case out and back over the rammer tray and are located in, down a semi-circular chute that guides the spent case out under the gun barrel. As the breech block moves forward during counter-recoil, it causes the star wheels in the autoloader to make a quarter turn which drops the next round onto the rammer tray. In automatic mode, this cycle will repeat as long as the firing pedal is depressed and at least two rounds of ammunition remain in the autoloader.
Most Bofors guns, including the USN Mark 1 and Mark 2 guns, had a loader interlock which automatically halted firing when there were only two rounds remaining in the weapon, one on the rammer tray and one in the autoloader. This allowed firing to be quickly resumed when a new clip was dropped into buy business reports the loader. USN M1 guns differed by having a selector switch on the back of the loader at the center, bottom rear. This switch could be set to disable the interlock such that the M1 could fire all eight rounds in the autoloader or it could be set to stop the paper, gun when only two rounds were remaining, similar to other Bofors guns. If all rounds were fired, then the first loader would have to buy business reports start from the beginning to essay polito drop in two clips and push on buy business, the top so that the bottom round would rotate through the loader star wheels and drop onto the rammer tray. The gun would then resume firing when the pointer pushed his foot pedal. As noted above, most Bofors guns stopped firing when there were two rounds remaining in the weapon or when the foot pedal was released. Unloading these two or more rounds at cease fire involved pointing the studies section mq, weapon up at a 30 degree angle, working the cocking lever to eject the round on the loader tray and then using special tools to remove the remaining rounds from the autoloader. It was up to reports the second loader to an admission 30 minutes properly orientate each clip when he handed it to the first loader so that all the first loader had to do was drop it into the feed lips of the reports, autoloader.
Since the Bofors gun cycled between 120 to 160 rounds per minute (one clip every 1.5 to 2 seconds), the first loader had to do a quick pick up, turn, and drop action in coursework studies section mq order to keep up with it. Buy Business? If the clip was not orientated properly during the hand-over, then the first loader would have to juggle it in order to position it properly before it could be dropped into the autoloader, thus slowing down the loading cycle. Being too slow would interrupt the firing cycle - hence the reason for write 30 minutes the loader interlock. The British considered that skillful loaders could keep a gun firing for about 24 rounds (six clips) without a pause. Perhaps unusually for US guns, the bores of these weapons were not chromium plated. Ammunition was percussion fired in all models. In US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2 it is buy business, stated that the Japanese in copying a captured British air-cooled gun 'increase[d the] barrel length from 2160 mm (85.1) to 2400 mm (94.57)'. This dimension is usually taken as being the overall barrel length in most references (see for example Naval Weapons of World War Two). However, this dimension cannot be the overall barrel length, as British-built Bofors guns had a bore length of 88.578 in (2.250 m) - 56.3 calibers, while their overall length was about 145.3 in (3.691m). Argumentative Writing Essay? As the rifling length given in O-47(N)-2 for buy business reports the Type 5 is significantly longer than that for the British Bofors, I believe that the dimensions given in studies section O-47(N)-2 for barrel lengths must actually be for the bore lengths and use this assumption in constructing this data page.
German Naval Guns: 1939 - 1945 by reports Miroslaw Skwiot says that the rifling in argumentative German Bofors guns consisted of sixteen grooves, each 41.2 mm wide. These figures are mathematically impossible. Buy Business Reports? It is an admission, possible that the author (or the translators) made an order of magnitude error and that the actual width was 4.12 mm wide, but this dimension would still be significantly narrower than the grooves in UK and reports, US guns which were identical to the original Bofors design. (see Notes 2 and 3) AB 40 mm L/60 HE-T - 2.05 lbs. (0.93 kg) HE Mark 1 Mods 1 to 24 - 1.985 lbs. For Kinesthesis Are Located? (0.900 kg) HE Mark 2 Mods 1 to 35 - 1.985 lbs. (0.900 kg) AP M81A1 and M81A2 - 1.960 lbs. Buy Business? (0.889 kg) HE - 1.970 lbs. (0.894 kg)
SAP - 1.970 lbs. (0.894 kg) AP - 1.970 lbs. (0.894 kg) HE - 2.105 lbs. Essay? (0.955 kg) HE - 2.21 lbs. (1.002 kg) UK - 4.88 lbs. Buy Business Reports? (2.21 kg) USA - 4.75 lbs. Coursework Mq? (2.15 kg) Germany - 4.6 lbs. (2.1 kg) HE-T - about reports 0.150 lbs. (0.068 kg) TNT. Bofors (modern day) HE-T - 0.20 lbs. (0.092 kg) Hexotonal.
USA (World War II) HE Mark 1 - 0.148 lbs. For Kinesthesis In? (0.067 kg) Cast TNT. HE Mark 2 - 0.150 lbs. Reports? (0.068 kg) Cast TNT. AP - None (Solid Bullet) Britain (World War II) HE - 0.150 lbs. (0.068 kg) Cast TNT or BRX/BWX (BWX = Beeswax) USA AP M81A1 - 6.19 in write essay 30 minutes (15.7 cm)
Germany - 7.2 in (18.4 cm) USA HE - 17.62 in (44.75 cm) Britain HE - 17.65 in (44.83 cm) Britain AP and SAP - 17.58 in (44.65 cm) Germany - 17.8 in (44.7 cm) Mark 2 - Brass, 40 x 311R, 1.89 lbs. (0.86 kg) Mark 3 - Steel, 40 x 311R, 1.53 lbs. (0.69 kg) USA - 0.694 lbs. (0.314 kg) NC 025.
USA - 0.661 lbs. (0.300 kg) SPDN. UK - 0.547 lbs. (0.248 kg) Cordite W. UK - 0.719 lbs. (0.326 kg) FNH/PO22. Germany - 0.668 lbs. Buy Business Reports? (0.303 kg) Str PC/38N. Japan - 0.617 to 0.661 lbs. Shame Robert Polito? (0.280 to 0.300 kg) USA HE w/NC 025: 2,890 fps (881 mps) UK HE: 2,800 fps (853 mps) with Cordite W. UK HE: 2,890 fps (881 mps) with FNH/PO22. Germany Flak 28: 2,801 fps (854 mps) Japan Type 5: 2,953 fps (900 mps)
UK - 19.68 tons/in 2 (3,100 kg/cm 2 ) USA - 19.5 tons/in 2 (3,070 kg/cm 2 ) UK - 10,000 Rounds. Germany - 10,000 Rounds. Admiral Hipper and Prinz Eugen: 2,000 rounds. S-Boats: 500 rounds. HMS Vanguard: 1,269 rounds (including 34 practice)
Standard outfit for most ships was 1,564 rounds per gun. Most ships: 2,000 rounds. Ammunition for most guns is buy business, held in four-round aluminum clips. The feed guides atop each gun can hold two clips at a time. Two loose rounds can be inserted between clips. Mq? A four-round clip weighs about 19.0 lbs. (8.6 kg). The many Mods of USN ammunition were primarily bookkeeping designations used to indicate the manufacturer.
USN AP had a windscreen. USN HE ammunition was issued in HE-T/SD, HE/SD, HE-I-T/SD and HE-I/SD forms. Plugged forms for training purposes were also manufactured. There was also a Mark 3 HE round that did not contain a tracer, but this was used only for a brief time during World War II and was replaced in buy business 1945 by Dark (non-luminous tracer) and Dark Ignition (delayed ignition tracer) ammunition. Dark Tracer was issued only in HE/SD and HE-I-T/SD forms.
Dark Ignition ammunition was issued only in HE-I-T-SD form. By 1941 Britain was producing forty-one marks of HE and essay shame, HE-T, nine marks of SAP, five marks of reports AP, twenty-four marks of TP and TP-T, six marks of proof ammunition, four marks of barrel-cleaning rounds, five marks of break-up ammunition for analysis of data paper training and gun checking, and a single mark of buy business reports paper shot ammunition. This plethora of types threatened to overwhelm the logistical system and a rationalization program reduced the numbers down to are located in three HE and HE-T marks by 1945. Gilding metal for driving bands was substituted for copper as a cost-savings measure and buy business, these rounds had a T after the mark number, such as HE Mark 6T. HE and HE-T rounds were painted a buff color while SAP rounds were painted black with a white tip. AP rounds were painted black with a white tip and a white body ring. Tracer rounds added a red body ring. USN tracer burned out at 5,000 yards (4,570 m) horizontal, 15,000 feet (2,740 m) vertical. USN bourrelet diameter was 1.570 inches (39.88 mm).
German rounds were HE with tracer and argumentative essay, self-destruct. Reports? Tracer ignited about 330 yards (300 m) from the muzzle and the self-destruct was set for 10.5 seconds. Modern ammunition: Bofors introduced a 40 mm PFHE proximity round during the 1980s similar to and cons those developed for their larger guns. Bofors claims a maximum effective bursting radius of reports 18 feet (5.5 m) against aircraft size targets with automatic sensitivity control to reduce the burst range to six feet (2 m) against missiles flying at low altitudes. Muzzle velocity is 2,820 fps (860 mps) and the total shell weight is 2.16 lbs. Essay Robert Polito? (0.98 kg) including 3.2 oz (90 gms) of octol explosive. Buy Business? Bofors currently produces HET, PT and APHC-T (armor piercing high capacity - tracer) rounds for these weapons. The APHC-T round is unusual in that it carries an armor-piercing slug within an argumentative, aluminum body.
Bofors claims that this round penetrates some 30% deeper than the earlier APC-T round and that the aluminum body has an incendiary effect on the target. In US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2 it is stated that the muzzle velocity of the Japanese weapon was 2,822 fps (860 mps) before the barrel was lengthened and the propellant charge increased. However, I must question if the working pressure given in this document - 16.50 tons/in 2 (2,600 kg/cm 2 ) - is correct, as it seems to be much lower than that found for other nation's weapons. The Mark and Mod, manufacturer's initials or symbol, and lot number are stamped around the body of the projectile. Color photographs of some of these projectiles may be seen below. USA produced HE-SD ammunition was set to buy business reports detonate at 4,000 - 5,000 yards (3,700 - 4,570 m) so as to minimize problems due to pros and cons essay friendly fire.
HE and AP rounds that did not self-destruct were also manufactured. Time of flight for 1.985 lbs. (0.900 kg) HE shell with MV = 2,890 fps (881 mps) 4,200 yards (3,840 m): 8.5 seconds. 4,500 yards (4,110 m): 10.5 seconds. British rounds normally self-destructed at 3,000 - 3,500 yards (2,700 - 3,200 m), but this was increased to 7,000 yards (6,400 m) in some ammunition types. German rounds self-destructed after 10.5 seconds. The USN attributed this low effective range to poor fuze design. It is unclear as to how the fuze design affected the effective range, but I would assume that this meant that the fuze was of poor aerodynamic shape. Self-destructing ammunition was not used. Armor Penetration with AA Common Shell.
Estimated for Class B Homogeneous Armor. Note: This data is from buy business Battleships: United States Battleships 1935-1992 and is based upon the USN Empirical Armor Penetration formula. Paper? Although not stated as such, I believe that the penetration values would be for 90 degree impacts. Mount/Turret Data - Sweden/Bofors-built Weapons and Mountings. Prior to the start of World War II Bofors had produced 182 Land-Service guns for buy business the Swedish Army and 295 for export.
Bofors also produced 11 Naval guns for the Swedish Royal Navy and 61 for export. During World War II Bofors produced at least 320 guns for the Swedish Royal Navy. For Kinesthesis? Thirty-eight additional guns were built post-war until 1954 when production of the buy business, L/60 was halted. Guns were of analysis both air-cooled and water-cooled types and at least fifteen different single, twin and submarine mounting types were in service. Some of the twin water-cooled mounting types had integral 1.25 m or 2.0 m Hazemeyer rangefinders.
(10,524 - 10,796 kg) (10,340 - 11,137 kg) Mark 3 single mounts used air-cooled guns, which were modified versions of the US Army M1 Bofors gun. Three versions of the reports, Mark 3 were used on surface ships, the Mod 0, Mod 4 and Mod 9, while submarines used the wet mount Mod 5 and Mod 6. Mod 0 was the basic Army mount and weighed 2,440 lbs. (1,107 kg) including gun and sighting mechanisms. The Mod 0 lacked power drives and so was manually trained and elevated. Crew for the Mod 0 was usually five to six men. Mod 4 added 1 hp power drives for training and essay shame polito, elevation and had the same crew size as the Mod 0. Submarine Mods 5 and 6 were manually worked mountings.
Most single mount shipboard installations had safety rails around them to keep the reports, gun crews from accidentally firing into the ship. The Mark 3 Mod 9 was a much later design using rebuilt M1 guns. Coursework Studies Section? The Mod 9 was designed for use on river and buy business, coastal patrol craft and for one man operation - crew was actually a pointer-trainer and a mount captain. This mount used integral train and elevation power drives and for kinesthesis are located, was stabilized. Reports? Weight increased to writing 4,200 lbs. (1,905 kg). Reports? This Mod was installed aboard 17 PB Mark III Sea Spectre patrol boats during the mid-1980s. Section? Originally, Mod 9 used a large 48-round drum magazine, but this was not often used as it interfered with vision from the pilot house. Buy Business Reports? This drum looked something like the ones used on 20 mm Oerlikons but, of essay course, much larger.
During the 1980s Tanker War in the Persian Gulf, it was also reported that the reports, drum did not feed reliably, so it was removed and the crews went back to manual loading. All USN twin and quad mountings used water-cooled Mark 1 and Mark 2 Bofors guns. Any mod of the Mark 1 or Mark 2 Bofors guns could be used in any mod of write an admission 30 minutes USN twin or quad mountings; these USN guns were designed to be completely interchangeable in that regards. Twin mounts consisted of a left-hand gun (Mark 1) and a right-hand gun (Mark 2) joined together. The gun axes were 9.568 in (24.3 cm) apart. Elevation and training motors were 3 or 5 hp. Reports? In twin mounts, when the firing pedal is pushed down, one gun in the pair fires as described above. Are Located In? When this gun recoils, it trips a lever which allows the buy business, other gun to fire, thus ensuring that the guns do not fire together. For twin and quad mounts, the crew consisted of a Mount Captain, Pointer, Trainer, a 1st Loader for each gun and then however many ammunition passers it took to get back to the ammunition supply point. In addition to studies mq the guncrew, there was normally a Mark 51 (or later) Director crew consisting of reports a Pointer and gay marriage pros and cons, a Range Setter.
Quad mounts were basically two twin mounts joined together, with each pair having a left-hand gun (Mark 1) and a right-hand gun (Mark 2). Buy Business? The gun pairs axes were 60.0 in (1.524 m) apart. Elevation motors were 5 hp and training motors were 5 or 7.5 hp. As noted above, hydraulic drive gear was used on most units. Although both pairs of guns elevated together, in some Mods the pairs could be uncoupled in case of for kinesthesis damage. There were many Mod numbers assigned to the twin and quad mountings, with most having to do with details of the reports, power drives. An asterisk (*) indicated that the mount included a radar antenna and robert, was used with the Mark 63 director. The Mark 4 quad mount was a low-weight version that used a lighter amplidyne generator mounted below deck and a GE RPC system.
This mounting had much faster training and elevation speeds than earlier mounts, but only 100 had been delivered by buy business the end of the war. US ships carried large quantities of this weapon with USS Saratoga CV-3 probably having the most with 23 quad mounts and two twin mounts for a total of 96 guns. Essex class carriers carried between 10 and 18 quad mounts and most Iowa class battleships carried 20 quad mounts. The USN built more than 2,300 quad mounts, just under 10,000 twin mounts and more than 10,000 single mounts during the war. This mass production gradually reduced the write 30 minutes, costs during the war, with quad mounts dropping from $86,000 down to $67,250 and twin mounts dropping from $62,300 down to $43,640. As noted above, the USA supplied 8,979 guns to other nations as part of Lend-Lease. This is broken down as follows: United Kingdom and Commonwealth: 2,834. Free French Forces: 448. American Republics: 4. Serious British interest in this weapon was first shown by buy business reports the Army in 1933 and gay marriage and cons, was followed by an order for 100 guns in 1937.
Later, a manufacturing license was purchased from buy business Bofors. The British version is officially listed as 56.3 calibers long. In spite of the many different Mark numbers, all Bofors guns used by coursework the Royal Navy were basically similar. They were recoil operated with a monobloc barrel and detachable breech ring, breech casing and automatic loader with a vertical sliding breech block. The air-cooled Marks I, I* and buy business reports, III differed in and cons essay details of the automatic loader and were primarily derivatives of buy business Land Service (LS - Army) guns. The Canadian-built models were given a C suffix as in the Mark IC and Mark I*C. The Austrailian-built Mark I* was identical to the British-built gun of that designation. Coursework Studies? The water-cooled Marks IV, VIII, IX, X, XI and post-war NI and reports, NI/I all had water jackets with circulating pumps and differed only in regards to coursework studies section mq the mounting they were to be used on. Single shots could be fired in all but the Mark VIII, IX, X and probably the NI and NI/I guns. Buy Business Reports? Unlike USN practice, the left and right versions of these weapons were not given separate Mark numbers but had Type letters added (see below).
This large number of variations of how to an admission essay 30 minutes British Bofors guns compared to the three produced for the USN would seem to buy business show once again the lack of interest by the Royal Navy in weapon standardization during the World War II period. Essay Shame Robert Polito? The British considered the Bofors to be at least twice as effective as their own 2-pdr against torpedo bombers, but not much better than that weapon against kamikazes. Details on the guns: Marks I, II and III: Air-cooled, LS guns, some of which were converted to naval use. See Note 3 below.
Mark IV and IV/I: Water-cooled. Reports? Designed for use on the twin-gun Mark IV Hazemeyer mountings. Produced in left and right versions, with Type D being the left gun and Type E the right gun. Many of these guns were later converted to coursework studies section the Mark XI standard for buy business reports use on the Mark V mountings. A total of 484 guns were produced with 442 in service by 1945. See Note 4 below. Mark V: Project abandoned. Mark VI: Army gun issued to Crusader AA tanks. Mark VII: Air-cooled, no-trunnion guns intended for use on an early version of the STAAG Mark 1 mounting.
400 guns were ordered from Vickers-Armstrong, but the polito, project was canceled and the Mark X took its place. Mark VIII: Water-cooled, this weapon was produced for the Buster mounting and eight guns were finished before the project was canceled. Left and right guns were produced and reports, these guns did not have a single-shot provision. See Note 12. Mark IX: Air-cooled guns for the for argumentative writing essay the Mark VI six-gun mounting.
Left and right guns were produced and these guns did not have a single-shot provision. See Note 6. Mark X: Water-cooled guns for the STAAG Mark 2 mounting. These guns had trunnions and were produced in left and right versions with no provision for single-shot operation. See Note 11. Mark XI: Water-cooled guns for the Mark V mounting. Buy Business? Many of these were converted from the Mark IV and Mark IV/I. Total of 342 in paper service by 1945. The USA provided 393 each of their Mark 1 (left-hand) and reports, Mark 2 (right-hand) guns to the Royal Navy.
These were used in British RP Mark I (Twin) and for kinesthesis in, RP Mark II (Quad) mountings. The twin mount was first used on the Lend-Lease Attacker class escort carriers in January 1943. The quad mount was first installed on reports, HMS Phoebe in June 1943. The USA also supplied air-cooled guns which were used mainly on LSTs. The Mark III series of are located hand-operated single mountings were the Army design adapted for Naval use and were widely used, with some 500 in service by the end of World War II. Usually designated as LS Mark III (Land Service). The following mountings do not appear to have entered naval service, although they do appear on naval gun lists: Mark III* (hand operated with gyro sights for buy business reports layer and trainer), RPLS Mark III (Remote Power Land Service) and writing, Toadstool (joystick controlled power operation using Army components). Elevation limits for the Mark III were -5 to +90 degrees. As of June 1942, 314 Mark III mountings were in service, of which 301 were on DEMS. By May 1945, there were about 1,392 in service with 568 on DEMS.
Those Army mountings modified at least somewhat for naval service were designated as Mark III CN and there were 500 of these in service at the end of the buy business reports, war, with 291 on DEMS. Mounting weight for the LS Mark III including the gun was 1.2 tons (1.22 mt). Coursework Mq? The Mark IV twin mounting was derived from the Hazemeyer triaxial mounting which had its origins in the 1940 arrival in Britain of the buy business reports, Dutch minelayer Willem van der Zaan . The Mark IV was a self-contained twin mounting that had its own rangefinder, radar and analog computer on the mount. This mounting used Mark IV water-cooled guns and utilized a track and pinion system for elevating and analysis research, training which was powered via a Ward-Leonard system for automatic target tracking. The Mark IV was probably too advanced for its day and proved to be somewhat delicate for use on destroyers and sloops. The later STAAG and Buster designs were more robust, but very much heavier. According to service notes, the Mark IV was apparently used more often in manual mode than in power mode.
Elevation was -10 to +90 degrees with cross-level of +/- 14 degrees with control cutting out at +/- 12 degrees. Buy Business Reports? Maximum elevating speed was 25 degrees per second with the manually controlled joystick, but training and elevation via automatic control was limited to little more than 10 degrees per how to, second. Weight was 7.05 tons (7.16 mt). The later Mark IV* mounting had a more robust radar attachment and buy business reports, differed in details of the controls and gyros. The following description taken from for kinesthesis in Destroyer Weapons of World War 2 is buy business, of interest: 'The 7-ton Haslemere, as it was generally known, was a brilliant concept, but unfortunately it needed more advanced technology than then existed.
It cannot claim to have been the most popular of weapons but at least it provided a little light relief on coursework, occasions. Buy Business Reports? When stationary in coursework studies section mq the power-off mode during maintenance, a combination of training, depression and cross-roll made it look for all the world as though it was about to fall off its gundeck. Observations like I see the Haslemere is ill again were common.' The design of the Mark V twin was based upon the USN Mark 1 twin mounting adapted to use British components including some components of 2-pdr mountings and RPC gear from the reports, 4.5 (11.4 cm) Mark V. Also known as Utility, this mount used the Mark XI gun and was first introduced on the Hunt class destroyer HMS Meynell on 3 February 1945. The Mark V was power operated with elevation limits of -15 to +90 degrees and weighed 6.4 tons (6.5 mt) with 12 four-round clips carried on mount. The Mark V proved quite popular in service and was retained long after the more sophisticated STAAG was retired.
Its largest drawback was the lack of essay shame robert a blind fire capability. The RP50 Mark V had a maximum training speed of buy business 35 degrees per second and elevating speed of polito 28 degrees per second. The RP50 Mark VC (Canadian) had a maximum elevation speed of 35 degrees per buy business, second. The Mark VI was a sextuple mount using the air-cooled Mark IX gun and in, used a 36-round ammunition tray for each gun rather than the usual four-round clips. Trays had an automatic feed mechanism which was operated by the recoil of the guns. Trays needed to be reloaded manually with the mount elevated to +25 degrees. Reports? Left and right versions of the guns were produced and the guns did not have a single-shot capability. Training and research paper, elevating speeds of the reports, RP50 Mark VI mounting were both 30 degrees per second. This mount did not enter service until after the shame polito, war. Weight was 21.24 tons (21.58 mt).
This was a large weapons platform intended to be fitted primarily to battleships and fleet carriers with three hundred-twenty four being completed. The first battleship fitted was HMS Vanguard and she eventually carried a total of buy business ten mountings although this number was rapidly reduced during her career. Gay Marriage And Cons? Aircraft carriers HMS Eagle and buy business, HMS Ark Royal carried eight. Essay Shame? On some ships and some mountings, the lack of working space meant that the guns could only be reloaded at certain fixed bearings while on other ships the reports, reloading could occur with the essay robert polito, guns traversing at an automatically slowed rate. The Mark VII was an adapted Army single mount with a weight of buy business 1.40 tons (1.42 mt). Write? Production orders for buy business these were not placed until 29 May 1945 although one prototype was ordered on 17 March 1945. Similar in design to the Boffin mounting, described below, but able to elevate to +90 degrees and could train continuously as it used a slip ring for electrical power.
The Mark VIII was an unsuccessful variation of the Mark VII using battery power and did not enter service. The Mark IX was an upgraded Mark VII mount with electric drive. The Mark IX mount used the Mark NI gun and had six ready-use clips on mount. Mark IX was used successfully during the Falklands War, with guns on HMS Fearless and HMS Intrepid shooting down an argumentative, Argentine A-4B Skyhawk on 27 May 1982, probably the last aerial victory scored by the 40 mm/56. This success stimulated renewed interest in reports automatic weapons in the Royal Navy, eventually leading to the purchase of newer 20 mm and 30 mm weapons. The Boffin mounting was a twin 20 mm Oerlikon Mark V or Mark VC mounting modified to argumentative essay take a single Bofors 40 mm gun. Elevation was -10 to buy business about +70 degrees.
These used an oil hydraulic system and were fitted with a gyro gunsight. Elevation was restricted compared to other Bofors mountings as the position of the are located in, elevating trunnion axis was lower, due to the smaller nature of the buy business reports, Oerlikon guns. Some of these were still being used by the Canadian Navy in gay marriage pros 1990 during the reports, Persian Gulf war. The post-war STAAG Mark II twin mounting (later designated as Mark 2) using the type 262 radar was very accurate, but also very unreliable. Part of this unreliability appears to have been a result of the decision to mount the radar equipment directly to the gun mount, thus exposing it to argumentative a high level of vibration. At 17.5 tons (17.8 mt), it was also quite heavy for only a twin weapon. Used the Mark X gun. The hydraulically powered Mark II was called a pseudo-triaxial mounting and was unusual in that the third axis was a lateral deflection movement instead of being cross-roll. Training and buy business, elevating speeds were both 35 degrees per for kinesthesis in, second.
STAAG was found to be overly complicated and difficult to maintain and did not enjoy a long service life as a result. As noted, the type 262 radar was very accurate and there are stories of guns in action against towed targets where after shredding the sleeve the radar would track up the buy business, tow wire and the tow plane would escape only by cutting the wire. Nylon rope was eventually substituted for the wire as a remedy. The Mark I was the prototype single mounting. Analysis? The twin barrel Mark 2 was the prototype for the Mark 2* which used DC electrical drives. The Mark 3 used AC drives. The Mark 2** had no radar in buy business reports the mounting and was used for training. The Buster (Bofors Universal Stabilized Tachymetric Electric Radar) twin was another World War II attempt at essay, a self-contained mounting, but at buy business, approximately 20 tons (20.3 mt) this weighed far too much for only a twin arrangement and the project was canceled.
Used the Mark VIII gun. Gay Marriage Pros Essay? Toadstool was a post-war attempt to convert a Land-Service gun to reports naval operation with joystick control. Research? Extensively tested but did not enter service. Australia uses the buy business reports, British Mark VII mounting fitted with a locally designed upgrade package on Fremantle patrol boats. Elevation was -5 / +90 degrees and train was 360 degrees. Pros And Cons Essay? Powered by a low-pressure, oil/hydraulic system and entered service in 1980. Training speed of 20 degrees per buy business, second and elevation speed of 40 degrees per second. Designated as 40/60 AN.
A small number of section these mountings were sold to Thailand. Mount/Turret Data - Republic of Korea. The Republic of Korea has developed a modification kit for the USA Mark 1 twin mount which adds a stabilization system both to buy business the gun mount and to the Mark 51 FCS. Robert Polito? This kit improves their effectiveness against surface targets. These modified mountings are used on FRAM destroyers and locally built corvettes. Mount/Turret Data - Netherlands Hazemeyer Weapons and Mountings. Hazemeyer was a Dutch subsidiary of Siemens Halske. Prior to buy business World War II, this firm developed a very advanced triaxial mounting together with a tachymetric control system. As noted above, upon the Dutch defeat in 1940, this mounting was brought to Britain where it was immediately copied and for kinesthesis are located, introduced into production. Guns intended for naval use were manufactured at the Norwegian Kongsberg Arsenal.
The Arsenal started license production of this weapon for the Royal Norwegian Navy in the 1930s and was kept in buy business reports limited production throughout the mq, war. Buy Business? Introduced into how to write an admission essay 30 minutes German naval service about late 1943 and was used to arm the cruisers Admiral Hipper and Prinz Eugen as well as some Schnellbootes. As far as is known, only single mountings were ever used on warships and reports, only HE tracer was issued. Research Paper? The Kriegsmarine received 578 guns for use on ships with an buy business, additional 247 guns delivered as coast-defense weapons. Naval Flak 28 mountings were set on a rotating ring attached to how to write essay a round base plate that was fixed to the deck. Buy Business? Elevation was -6 / +90 degrees and how to write an admission, training was 360 degrees. The Type 5 (Model 1945) originated from the capture at reports, Singapore in argumentative essay 1942 of 24 British Bofors single air-cooled guns in working condition and another 56 made serviceable after repairs. One of these was used to produce a Japanese copy and this underwent prototype firing trials in 1943 at the Torigasaki range of the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal. Limited production began in that year, but the gun was never perfected and reports, it did not go into general service use.
However, some 5 to 7 weapons a month were being produced in late 1944, apparently for service evaluation purposes. The main alteration from the British Bofors design was to increase the bore length to 94.49 in shame robert (2.400 m) - 60 calibers - and to add Rhienmetall-style flash suppressors, which proved unsatisfactory. Production was at buy business, the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal and at the Hitachi Manufacturing Company. Used only in manually-worked single mountings, which had an elevation range of -10 / +95 degrees and a weight of 1,870 lbs. Writing? (850 kg). Buy Business Reports? Recoil was 8.5 (21.6 cm). Major problems found by for kinesthesis are located the USN after the surrender were that poor manufacturing practices and lack of quality control caused improper seating of rounds and jamming of buy business reports parts and that the star wheels and extractors were frequently mismated. Nomenclature Note: Although the Japanese designation is normally described as the Type 5 (Model 1945), US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2 at are located in, one point (page 16) describes the Mechanism designation as Type 5 (1943), which cannot be correct as the numbers do not match. This error may imply that the designation would actually be Type 3 (Model 1943) which would seem to be more in keeping with the actual Japanese design date of 1943. However, it should be noted that the Japanese Model number system, normally based upon the year the breech design was started, became very chaotic towards the end of World War II, with new weapons having Type years that had no relationship to the actual year that the buy business reports, breech design was started. So, this weapon may indeed have been designated as Type 5.
1. Type 262 Radar (3 cm) 2. Essay? Radar Operator's Panel. 3. Buy Business? Control Officer's remote radar display 40 mm STAAG mounting being shown to Australian Naval Officers and munitions workmen. State Library of Victoria Image H98.105/3203. British Bofors Mark VI Sextuple Mounting under construction at the Scotswood Works in 1946. Studies Section? Photograph copyrighted by buy business reports Tyne Wear Archives Museums. German 4 cm/56 Flak 28. This picture was taken on the Prinz Eugen in Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Note the 10.5 cm/65 SK C/33 in the background. USN Photograph. Twin 40 mm Bofors on analysis research paper, Brazilian Barroso (ex-USS Philadelphia CL-41) in March 1951. USS Tuscaloosa CA-37 in background. U.S. Historical Center Photograph # 80-G-708174. USN PB Mk III fitted with 40-mm automatic cannon with 48-round drum magazine. Photograph copyrighted by buy business reports Giorgio Arra and how to an admission essay, used here courtesy of Robert Stoner of Warboats.org. USN 40 mm projectiles of buy business reports World War II. Note that the AP M81 does not have a boattail and write, that the windshield apparently forms the bourrelet.
Diagonal Stripes represents the body and body walls, small dots represent the tracer elements, dense dots represent the incendiary elements, other dots represent explosive (HE) burster elements. Explosive, incendiary and tracer elements were loaded in increments, as shown in the above sketches. Reports? Cutaway view of USN M81A1 AP Round. British 40 mm HE Projectile Image courtesy of Steve Johnson of Cyberheritage. Cutaway sketches of gay marriage essay 40 mm ammunition.
The Design and Construction of British Warships 1939-1945: Volume I edited by D.K. Brown. Naval Weapons of buy business reports World War Two by John Campbell. Joining the War at Sea by Franklyn E. Dailey Jr., Capt. USNR (Ret.) The Illustrated Encyclopedia of studies mq 20th Century Weapons and reports, Warfare by Bernard Fitzsimmons. US Battleships: An Illustrated Design History, US Naval Weapons and argumentative essay, The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems 1991/92 all by Norman Friedman. German Warships 1815-1945 Volume I and Volume II by reports Erich Gröner. The Bofors Gun and Small Arms, Artillery Special Weapons of the Third Reich both by Terry J. Gander.
Jane's Ammunition Handbook: Ninth Edition 2000-2001 edited by Terry J. Gander and studies mq, Charles Q. Cutshaw. Destroyer Weapons of World War 2 by Peter Hodges and Norman Friedman. Radar at Sea by Derek Howse. Weapon Direction in the Royal Navy article by reports H.W. Pout in The Development of Radar Equipments for the Royal Navy, 1935-45 edited by of data F.A. Kingsley. U.S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance in World War II by Lt. Cmdr. Reports? Buford Rowland, USNR, and Lt. Section Mq? William B. Buy Business Reports? Boyd, USNR.
Champions of the Pacific articles in Warship Volume II by coursework Lawrence Sowinski. Iowa Class Battleships by buy business reports Robert F. Are Located In? Sumrall. German Naval Guns: 1939 - 1945 by Miroslaw Skwiot. German Cruisers of World War Two and German Coastal Forces of reports World War Two both by argumentative essay M.J. Whitley. Naval Ordnance and Gunnery - 1952: Navpers 16116-B by Department of the Navy. Ordnance Maintenance 40-MM Automatic Gun M1 TM 9-1252 by Department of the Army.
Ammunition: Instructions for the Naval Service: Ordnance Pamphlet 4 - May 1943 by buy business reports Department of the for kinesthesis are located, Navy. 40 MM Antiaircraft Gun, OP 820, 1943 by Department of the Navy. U.S. Explosive Ordnance: Ordnance Pamphlet 1664 - May 1947 by Department of the Navy. US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2: Japanese Naval Guns and Mounts - Article 2, AA Machine Guns and Mounts. Handbook for 40mm Bofors Twin R.P 50 Mark 5 Mounting - 1950: BR1919 by Naval Ordnance Department, Admiralty. Special help from Mark Fitzpatrick, Robert Hurst, Cliff McMullen, Robert Stoner and Vladimir Yakubov. 31 August 2008 - Benchmark.
23 September 2009 - Corrected typographical error, added comment about front-line service life. 11 June 2010 - Added cutaway photograph of complete M81A1 AP round. 01 November 2010 - Corrected range table for USN M81A1. 11 January 2011 - Added data reference. 14 January 2011 - Added cutaway sketch.
06 April 2011 - Added data reference and added photographs of British Mark V twin mounting. 07 June 2011 - Additional information about usage by Kriegsmarine. 14 July 2011 - Added crew information for USN Twin and Quad Mounts. 28 January 2012 - Added photograph of Polish twin mounting. 16 June 2012 - Added photograph of STAAG in Australia. 28 December 2013 - Minor additions and buy business reports, added photograph of HMS Sheffield.
15 July 2014 - Added photograph of Sea Spectre Patrol Boat. 09 October 2015 - Added photograph of Mark VI Sextuple mounting. 24 December 2015 - Changed Vickers Photographic Archive links to gay marriage pros point at Wayback Archive. 06 February 2016 - Additional details on how the gun fired, Lend-Lease distribution, added Bofors ammunition details and gun production, added information on British ammunition, mountings and weapons.