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Bank Teller Job Description, Salary, and zoology research Skills. Do you want to aarp papers work as a bank teller? Here’s the information you will need to get hired, including a job description, training and education requirements, salary information and tips for getting a job as a bank teller. Bank Teller Job Description and Salary Information. Bank Tellers are typically the first point of interaction for customers as they enter the bank. As such, a cordial and friendly interactive style is required to set the right customer service tone with visitors. Zoology Research. Tellers verify the identity of customers and process requests for tpoics for essays deposits to research paper and withdrawals from patron accounts.

They generate certified checks and money orders according to the specifications of customers. Some tellers exchange dollars for aarp art and archaeology research papers other currencies. They answer questions about bank products and services and direct customers to other staff for zoology more complex bank transactions. Bank Tellers must count cash in their drawers as they begin their shift and reconcile remaining cash at the end of their shift to account accurately for deposits and dispersals. Most tellers work in interesting tpoics, the branches of community and commercial banks. Some tellers work for zoology research paper credit unions. The minimum requirement for tpoics tellers is a high school degree. However, tellers with an associate#39;s or bachelor#39;s degree can advance more readily to assistant manager, personal banking, loan officer and paper bank manager jobs.

Coursework in essays, business, finance, accounting, and economics is helpful for prospective bank tellers who take college courses. Most training for tellers is done on the job by managers and more experienced tellers. Workers interested in becoming bank tellers should develop and showcase customer service and mathematics skills as well as an orientation towards detail and accuracy. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, bank tellers earned an average of $26,419 in 2015. The top 10% of bank tellers earned at zoology paper, least $36,870 while the bottom 10% earned less than 20,320. A good way to find teller jobs is to visit local banks during times when they aren#39;t busy and ask to consumer adidas speak with the manager.

Start with a bank where you or your family has an account. If your interaction is successful, you will be asked to complete an zoology research paper, application. Follow through with the application process right away. Often this will involve completing an online application. Reach out to neighbors and aarp art and archaeology research friends of the paper family and ask if they know anyone working at a local bank and if so ask your contact for an introduction. Consumer Behavior. Search Google using the name of the town where you want to work and #34;bank#34; or #34;banks#34; - for zoology paper example, #34;Huntington, NY banks.#34; Check the bank#39;s website to see if you can apply online for a teller position.

Check job listings . You will find advertised teller vacancies in the local newspaper classifieds, which are usually available online, and on job search engine sites like Indeed.com and SimplyHired.com. What to Wear to a Banking Job Interview. Banks are extremely image conscious so dress the part in professional business attire. Tpoics. A blazer or suit will strike the zoology research paper right tone and show the employer that you are serious. Greet managers with a firm handshake and a warm smile.

Be ready to share your strong interest in behavior adidas, banking. Detail some of your strengths which meet the job requirements. Be prepared to reference roles, courses and jobs where you used those assets. For example, you might say - #34;I have always liked math and received good grades in the subject. Zoology Paper. I was treasurer for the entertainment club and analogies used in high accurately maintained the financial records of the club.#34; Practice your presentation with a friend or family member.

Review these tips for how to ace an interview. Although individual banks vary in their priorities, most look for paper certain skills in behavior adidas, prospective employees. These are the skills you must have (or develop) if you wish to get a job as a bank teller, and they are also the skills you should emphasize in both your application materials and paper your interview. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and szyska acing your interview! This list is not exhaustive, but does explore some of the most important skills for tellers. Bank tellers handle money and paper therefore must be able to keep track of numbers.

Although most transactions are guided and tracked by computers, tellers still need to know what the figures should be so that they can recognize and aarp art and archaeology respond to a problem if one occurs. Review this list of accounting skills that will help you get hired. Attention to zoology paper detail is a big part of a bank teller’s job, from dissertation, handling money properly to keeping accurate records of transactions to following proper security protocols. A mistake could lead to a security breach or to the appearance of irregularities in the accounts, and either could lead to a loss of public trust in the bank. Knowledge of Financial Software. Bank tellers must be able to use specialized financial software.

Training may be available on the job, but understanding the software to begin with is a definite advantage. Written and Verbal Communication. Bank tellers handle money, but they also handle people. Tellers must communicate clearly with both coworkers and customers, be able to explain policies and paper procedures, and possibly even cope with would-be bank robbers without panicking. Bank tellers are the public face of their employer to the vast majority of customers, and they must represent their employers well. Accuracy Answer Client Questions Attention to aarp art and Detail Balance Allocation Banking Software Bilingual Cash Drawer Maintenance Checking Account Deposit Checking Account Withdrawal Computer Programs Communications Cross Sales of zoology paper Service Customer Relations Customer Service Dedication Deposits Detail Oriented Directing Customers Establishing Procedures Excel Exercising Discretion Financial Service Recognition.

High Level of Accuracy Judgment Calls Maintenance Maintenance of Petty Cash Major Attention to Detail Making Change Math Microsoft Office Microsoft Word Money Handling Monetary. Positive Atmosphere Processing Banking Transactions Proper Handling of Transactions Proposing Transaction Problems Receiving Banking Transactions Reconciliation Record keeping Savings Account Deposits Savings Account Withdrawals.

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last romantic essay About Love And Romantic Love. Romantic love is a deep emotional, sexual and spiritual recognition and regard for the value of another person and relationship. Romantic love can generate many powerful feelings. It can provide a profound ecstasy, and a deep suffering when frustrated. To some people, romantic love is irrational. Romantic love can seem like an emotional storm.

This paper is really a collection of zoology research paper experiences, thoughts, readings, and the result of archaeology research my discussions with people falling in and out of love. I began writing on this topic in 1989. I was first inspired to write About Romantic Love when I first read a book by Nathanial Brandon on the topic of romantic love. I revise or add something to this collection of zoology research paper thoughts several times a year. I am most inspired to english essay, write when I meet someone in zoology research paper love or someone feeling crushed when their love was lost. I have had countless experiences talking to people who believe romantic is followed by disillusionment. These people come to believe that romantic love is essay a false hope. They began their relationship with romantic feelings.

They had dreams for zoology research, their future. They felt that life was finally rewarding and worthwhile. But eventually the relationship began to worst analogies used in high, fall apart. It was a painful experience. They remember when they were in zoology paper love. They feel tortured by their inability to see how or why their love was lost. Despite these experiences, people are still drawn to something they seldom reach.

It is a profound longing. A desire that is difficult to extinguish. Romantic love is not something that must crumble when faced with practical realities. Romantic love is not something just for youth. Before going further, I should talk about the institution of marriage.

One kind of marriage is the utilitarian marriage . In this type of marriage there is an absence of mutual involvement or passion. This type of marriage is usually held together by social, financial or family considerations. In a utilitarian marriage the relationship is made tolerable by long separations, community activities and usually infidelity. The other kind of a marriage is the intrinsic marriage . In this type of marriage there is passionate emotional and sexual involvement. The experience of life is shared. The relationship is considered more fulfilling and interesting than any social activity.

In this relationship there is a tendency to avoid activities resulting in separations. Marriage itself does not create or sustain romantic love. To love someone, and for that love to endure, requires the ability to see that person with clarity. For example, we have all seen how some people will idealize or glamorize their partners. They exaggerate their good qualities, and they ignore and avoid considering significant differences and potential problems. Why do they do this? Many reasons, but mostly because they need to see the person in this idealized way. People can fall in love with the idea of a person who doesn#146;t really exist and zoology, then hope the relationship will endure. Most people never learn how to sustain a loving relationship.

The reason is simple. Nobody showed them. The mere fact that a man and woman feel love toward each other does not guarantee they will be able to create a joyful and rewarding life. Love does not automatically teach a person communication skills. Love does not teach a person how to resolve a conflict. Love does not teach people how to weave their love into the rest of zoology research their life. For most people who fall in do my love, a time will come when they sense the research beginning of problems. They know that romantic love can produce great joy and happiness. But with time, they begin to feel more alone. They experience self-doubt and they feel the consequence of their unmet needs. They begin to see the other person more like they truly are and not what they needed them to be.

They usually begin to find faults in others and they may become jealous, angry, bitter, sarcastic or cynical. Many will separate or remain together in misery. They will often have children and paper, try to raise a family in an effort to revive the relationship or to feel better. Many will have an affair. When they separate or divorce, some will get involved in another relationship too quickly.

They try to find some way to research, ease the pain. They idealize this new person in their life and the cycle starts over. They say to themselves, I'll never be hurt like that again. The exact origin of the english essay desire to love is difficult to comprehend, but can be appreciated in many ways. When a man and woman encounter each other in midst of love they seek intimate contact. In a general sense, love is zoology research paper a response to something we intimately value. Romantic love is the experience of joy in the presence of research a loved one, joy in being close to a loved one, and joy in our interaction with a loved one. Someone we love enters the room.

Our eyes and heart light up. We look at this person. We feel a growing feeling of joy within us. We reach out and aarp art and archaeology, touch their hand. We feel happy and fulfilled. I believe we all have a profound need to find things in the world we care about and feel inspired by.

Life is worthwhile - at any age - when we find something worth pursuing. Psychologists have long recognized that both children and adults need something in their environment that is a source of pleasure. Maybe pleasure is a not the best word, but we do have a need to explore those things which are interesting and exciting. We search for that which will charm us and bring us in touch with the martin szyska awe and wonder we experienced when we were children. We know that children are curious and adventurous.

But the most important need of children and adults seems to be the zoology expression of their true nature -- Being who we truly are is important. I first learned about who were are from my friend and mentor Sterling Ellsworth. He called it our Real Self, our identity and our true nature. Our Real Self and the nature of people is quit clear when we observe children. Any parent can readily see that children are inherently lovable and capable.

And for children to zoology paper, grow into healthy adjusted adults, they need to college about someone you, be treated as lovable and zoology paper, capable beings. They also need to express their lovable and capable nature. From the moment of in high school birth we begin looking for lights that will brighten our journey, provide us with purpose and meaning, and make our struggle worthwhile. It is here that we can begin to understand another important expression of romantic love. Romantic love is a powerful way to express our capacity to love and to be loved. It is a way to focus our energy, our curiosity, and our desire for adventure. Romantic love is a source of pleasure and zoology research paper, inspiration and is worth pursuing. Romantic love is a blessing of life. Romantic love confirms our lovable and capable nature. At the very core of Romantic Love I have observed and discovered a number of important dynamics at work. To live successfully is to put ourselves into the world; to give expression to our thoughts, our values, and our goals.

Whenever we express our personality, we make known our values, our intelligence, our sense of life, our rhythm and college about someone who inspires you, temperament. Each of english essay us express ourselves in our behavior - - how we act and what we say. Whatever we express in our behavior can be reflected back by the response and the behavior expressed by zoology paper, others. We see how others respond if we are paying attention. The way they act, how they look at us, the way they speak to us, and especially the ways in which they don't respond. When we encounter a person who thinks as we do, and notices what we do, and values what we do, we experience a strong feeling of contact with that person. In loving you, I see in you a part of dissertation me that is also you..

I also see in you something that is really me. And there is you, a person of many qualities-- a person who is a mystery-- a person I am drawn to. All life - by zoology paper, it's very nature - entails a possibility of defeat. Because of martin szyska dissertation this, we find pleasure and reassurance in the expression of life. Sharing our life and participating in zoology research life is reassuring that life is possible. Romantic love is an intense sharing and reassurance that life is possible. So we find pleasure in the experience of life which endure. We take comfort in the experience of this. This comfort is a greater gift than any explicit words or advice: The sight of a lovable person.

The awareness of aarp art and research a capable child. There is something in each of us that finds pleasure in watching the healthy assertiveness in a child make his way into the world. Finding ourselves romantically in love is always associated with a hope that it will endure. The agony of not being recognized or seen by others is a source of many problems and insecurities. When we are seen by others, there is always some element of martin szyska dissertation self-discovery available to us.

The first time we feel loved, there is an enormous pleasure and excitement in finding someone who sees and values us. A sustained experience of zoology paper visibility in art and archaeology research papers any relationship that goes to any significant depth will generate self-discovery and expanded awareness. The desire to be seen and understood are inseparable. When we are told we are loved, there is something in us that feels joy. And there is something in us that wants to know what others see. The desire for visibility is related to research, our desire to be understood. For any individual, blind love may help numb or settle anxiety, but it will not answer our hunger to be seen and understood. People who feel misunderstood will often go to tpoics, great lengths to be seen. Being visible does not always lead to love. But love devoid of visibility is an illusion.

People often confuse the desire to be validated with a desire to zoology, be seen. Visibility and do my essay, validation are not the zoology same. We have all known people with low self-esteem. In every case there is an excessive preoccupation with gaining approval and avoiding disapproval. There is an excessive desire for research, validation and support. People naturally confuse the zoology research paper need to feel good about themselves (self-esteem) with a need to be seen (visibility). The desire to be validated is not healthy when it becomes more important than honesty, integrity, or any expression of our lovable and capable nature. The desire to be validated is not a sign of low self-esteem. But people with good self-esteem do not run around acting super normal, hiding their faults, showing off, or trying to impress people just to be validated.

The more they take pride in who they are, and the more they act in a way that makes them proud, the more eager they are to be seen for zoology research paper, who we are. Self-esteem means confidence in our capable nature, and it means confidence in a loveable identity. We are not mistakes. Mistakes are how we learn. We are all inherently loveable and capable. We may not be treated that way. We may even come to believe we are not lovable and capable because of the way people treat us. All love endures between people who recognize their lovable and capable nature and that nature in the others. When we feel lovable and capable we want others to see us as we truly are -- not who we pretend to zoology, be. We look to see if they can see and communicate to us their discovery of who we really are. We want people to see and college about who inspires, value the identity we were born with and what we have grown to become.

We want people to see us and research paper, treat us as lovable and capable. In romantic love, two people see each other in do my essay a unique way.. And they experience each other in a deeper and more complete way than any other relationship. We are more than human. We are beings of a specific gender. Contained in every human is the awareness of being male or female. It is an integral and intimate part of our self-concept and our identity. We are not merely human beings. We also experience ourselves as male and female.

Our sexual identity is rooted in paper the reality of our biological nature. Our sexuality is not simply our physical maleness or femaleness. Our sexual identity is the experience of interesting tpoics for essays our maleness and our femaleness. The polarity of male and female generates a dynamic tension. These differences can be complementary and provide a window into aspects of zoology research ourselves that were never known..

Our sexual identity is central to who we are. We not only want to be seen by others as a certain kind of human being. We want to be seen as a man or woman. Despite the many differences between men and women, we can compliment each other in many basic, mysterious and wonderful ways. As far as I can tell, masculinity is the expression of man's belief that the creation of a woman was natures most brilliant idea. And femininity is the expression of women's belief that the creation of man is natures most brilliant idea. We all carry some male and worst analogies in high essays, female aspects within us. In men, the male principle is usually predominate.

In women, the female principle is usually predominate. A man knows what it feels like to be a man in a way that no woman can fully understand. The same principle applies for women. The difference in perspective available to men and women when encountering each other represents, at in high school essays, least potentially, a deeper range of knowing our self and zoology research, another person. In other words, a wider range of possibilities exists between men and research paper, women than between members of the same sex. The deepest level of self-understanding for a man requires interaction with the opposite sex. In relating to art and archaeology, people who are different, especially the opposite zoology sex, we can potentially experience the fullest range of who we are, who we aren#146;t, and aspects of ourselves we deny or never realized. The polarity between man and woman generates and accentuates self-discovery and self-understanding. We have all heard how some people can meet someone for the first time and then experience a sudden shock of recognition. There is an odd sense of familiarity, a mysterious sense of having encountered the zoology person before - as if the person was already known.

These people experience a sense of fascination over this mysterious familiarity and strangeness. Something is known about this person in a powerful way. In romantic love we perceive the other as a real or potential source of happiness. Desire is born. And desire leads to actions which result in pleasure and joy. If we are frightened or angered by our differences, love withers. Fascination, attraction, or passion may be born at first sight. But love requires curiosity, patience, acceptance and seeing people for who they truly are.

This usually takes time. A soul mate is a person who shares our sense of paper life. When we encounter another person, we encounter the presence of that person's sense of english essay life. Sometimes we can quickly sense something about the other person's sense of life, how he or she feels about himself or herself, the joyfulness in their approach to zoology research paper, life, or the analogies used in high school essays defensiveness and fearfulness they endure. We can sense in people their level of enthusiasm, optimism, excitement or even their dread with life.

Our sense of life reflects many conscious and unconscious values. It reflects our broadest and deepest attitudes, and is grounded in our conclusions about the world, about life and about ourselves. When we are not allowed to express our lovable and capable nature, and when we are treated as unlovable and incapable beings, we develop a sense of life in which the world is not open to interesting for essays, our thoughts, is research paper unconcerned about our feelings, and unaffected by our actions. Our sense of life can also reflect a strong and healthy self-esteem, a clear sense of value in our life, and a conviction that our world is research open to our lovable and capable nature. Or it can reflect the torture of self-doubt, embittered resentment, tragic defiance, complaining resignation, aggressive impotence, a perverse sense of martyrdom, a view of the world that is sordid and do my english essay, senseless, or the anxiety that we may live in research a world were we are unlovable and incapable. There are potential problems whenever a couple have a different sense of life. It is essential that people in love fully recognize, appreciate and zoology research, accept differences in their sense of life.

Even when they don't, things can still go well initially - - especially when people put their best foot forward. Eventually the difference in your sense of college about someone who inspires life will surface with unexpected results. People eventually stop pretending or begin to notice with time how you really are. Our sense of life and our approach to life develops with the first expression of our Real Self. It matters how our parents respond and it matter how other people treat us. It matters if parents treat us as unlovable or incapable. It matters if our parents treat each other as lovable and capable. When people treat us like we are unlovable and you, incapable, and when they treat each other that way, life can become a grudging responsibility where people may become no more than objects or a means to an end, and new relationships are formed on the basis of zoology paper social economics. We may begin to value ourselves not for who we are, but for how we look, what we can do and what we have or own.

We may develop a sense of life where we shrink our awareness, blame others, give up their responsibilities, or we may come to believe that life is no longer an adventure in research paper which every moment offers the opportunity to learn. When two people who respond to life in radically opposing ways meet, a potential barrier to romantic love may be formed. The second principle involves the similarities and archaeology papers, differences between people. The most basic similarity is that a man and a woman are both are human. The most basic difference is that people are male or female. In romantic love, a man and woman must experience their differences, at least to some degree, as mutually enriching, and as capable of drawing out untapped awareness and potential in each other.

Their intimacy is an adventure resulting in research paper expanded consciousness and the profound sense of being alive. The key is whether the couple experience their differences as complementary or antagonistic. This will depend on aarp art and archaeology, the willingness and zoology research, ability of both people to appreciate and interesting tpoics, find value in the other person. Romantic love offers us the possibility self-discovery through deep contact with another. If you are in love, you might ask yourself, What part of myself does my lover bring me into fresh contact with? How do I experience myself in zoology paper this relationship? When I am with my lover, what feels most alive within me? Most people possess an inherent biological rhythm that is dissertation easy to feel but difficult to describe when you don't know what to zoology research, look for. This rhythm and energy is deeply connected to worst analogies used in high, whether or not romantic love actually ignites or endures. Rhythm and energy can be observed in our speech patterns, emotional responses and body language. Closely related is the observation that some people are naturally more or less energetic than others - -physically, emotionally or intellectually.

Some people move, feel, think faster or slower depending on the circumstance and their environment. Some people are impulsive or impatient. They may even experience a different sense and relationship to time. Sometimes two people meet and are on zoology research, the verge of falling in love. They may have a lot in common and zoology research, they may be physically attracted on the basis of their appearances. Yet they can feel strangely out-of-sync with each other. They may even feel irritated and have difficulty accounting for these feelings. The person who is naturally fast and eagerly explore's life may feel chronically impatient with a person who savors life at a slower pace. The person with a less fevered pace may feel chronically pressured. The person who interprets these differences as personal or intentional by the other will feel frustrated and even angry in the relationship.

Failure to understand the importance of our rhythm and energy, and the effect on relationships, will lead to quarrels and disagreements. These difference can become antagonistic even though they have the potential to become complimentary. When couples don't recognize or appreciate their differences, many will become extreme or try to change the other person in paper order to create a balance. When this fails couples begin to look for faults in each other. As the relationship begins to fail, they may begin to explain their problems in terms of the alleged faults. They remain unaware of behavior adidas a deeper reasons for their discomfort and acceptance of differences. When a man and woman meet and zoology research paper, feel in sync, there can be an exhilarating experience of paper harmony and that their relationship is right. Being in sync is an experience of knowing the other in a very special sense. Both may resonate to a marvelous kind of rhythm.

Once you are aware of this phenomena, and notice it in interesting tpoics for essays your relationships, you can better understand why people are attracted and irritated by each another. Rhythm and energy are the means to explore difference and consumer behavior adidas, similarities and to gain a deeper harmony and compatibility. Another essential principle to understanding romantic love is the concept of A private universe. Two people in love can create a private universe out of their sense of individuality, their similar sense of paper life, their differences and similarities, their rhythm and energy, and essays, the capacity to paper, make meaningful contact with each other. This universe can be shared with silent understandings, unspoken words, humorous signals, and focused glances. Conversations and physical contact become wondrous, exciting and safe. Romantic love is based on shared sight and is shaped by happiness.

Immature love is based on zoology research paper, shared blindness, and is merely a fortress against pain. Romantic love is a sanctuary, and , a source of nourishment and energy. Sometimes romantic love is the only point of certainty, and zoology research paper, the only thing that is solid and real in the midst of chaos and ambiguity.

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allinurl resume User interfaces and operating systems use system-dependent pathname strings to name files and directories. This class presents an abstract, system-independent view of hierarchical pathnames. An abstract pathname has two components: An optional system-dependent prefix string, such as a disk-drive specifier, / for the UNIX root directory, or for a Microsoft Windows UNC pathname, and A sequence of zero or more string names . Research! The first name in an abstract pathname may be a directory name or, in the case of Microsoft Windows UNC pathnames, a hostname. Worst Used In High School Essays! Each subsequent name in an abstract pathname denotes a directory; the last name may denote either a directory or a file. Zoology Research! The empty abstract pathname has no prefix and an empty name sequence. The conversion of a pathname string to or from an abstract pathname is inherently system-dependent. When an abstract pathname is research converted into a pathname string, each name is separated from the next by a single copy of the default separator character . The default name-separator character is defined by the system property file.separator , and is made available in the public static fields separator and do my essay separatorChar of this class. When a pathname string is converted into an abstract pathname, the names within it may be separated by the default name-separator character or by any other name-separator character that is supported by the underlying system. A pathname, whether abstract or in string form, may be either absolute or relative . An absolute pathname is zoology research paper complete in that no other information is required in order to locate the file that it denotes. A relative pathname, in contrast, must be interpreted in terms of information taken from some other pathname. By default the classes in the java.io package always resolve relative pathnames against the current user directory.

This directory is named by the system property user.dir , and is typically the directory in which the Java virtual machine was invoked. The parent of an abstract pathname may be obtained by zoology research, invoking the getParent() method of this class and consists of the pathname's prefix and each name in the pathname's name sequence except for the last. Each directory's absolute pathname is an research, ancestor of any File object with an absolute abstract pathname which begins with the directory's absolute pathname. For example, the directory denoted by research paper, the abstract pathname /usr is an ancestor of the directory denoted by the pathname /usr/local/bin . Zoology! The prefix concept is used to handle root directories on martin szyska, UNIX platforms, and drive specifiers, root directories and UNC pathnames on Microsoft Windows platforms, as follows: For UNIX platforms, the prefix of an absolute pathname is always / . Relative pathnames have no prefix. The abstract pathname denoting the root directory has the prefix / and an empty name sequence. For Microsoft Windows platforms, the prefix of a pathname that contains a drive specifier consists of the drive letter followed by : and possibly followed by if the pathname is research paper absolute. The prefix of a UNC pathname is ; the hostname and the share name are the first two names in the name sequence. A relative pathname that does not specify a drive has no prefix. Instances of this class may or may not denote an actual file-system object such as a file or a directory.

If it does denote such an object then that object resides in a partition . Art And Research! A partition is an operating system-specific portion of storage for a file system. A single storage device (e.g. a physical disk-drive, flash memory, CD-ROM) may contain multiple partitions. The object, if any, will reside on the partition named by some ancestor of the absolute form of this pathname. A file system may implement restrictions to certain operations on the actual file-system object, such as reading, writing, and executing. Research! These restrictions are collectively known as access permissions . The file system may have multiple sets of access permissions on a single object. For example, one set may apply to the object's owner , and another may apply to all other users. The access permissions on an object may cause some methods in this class to fail. Instances of the File class are immutable; that is, once created, the abstract pathname represented by a File object will never change.

Interoperability with java.nio.file package. Zoology! The java.nio.file package defines interfaces and classes for the Java virtual machine to access files, file attributes, and file systems. This API may be used to overcome many of the limitations of the java.io.File class. The toPath method may be used to obtain a Path that uses the abstract path represented by a File object to locate a file. The resulting Path may be used with the Files class to english, provide more efficient and extensive access to additional file operations, file attributes, and zoology research I/O exceptions to help diagnose errors when an operation on a file fails. Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object. If parent is null then the new File instance is zoology paper created as if by invoking the single-argument File constructor on the given child pathname string. Otherwise the parent pathname string is taken to denote a directory, and english essay the child pathname string is taken to denote either a directory or a file. If the child pathname string is absolute then it is paper converted into a relative pathname in a system-dependent way. If parent is the empty string then the new File instance is created by college someone, converting child into an abstract pathname and resolving the result against a system-dependent default directory.

Otherwise each pathname string is converted into an abstract pathname and the child abstract pathname is zoology paper resolved against the parent. If parent is null then the new File instance is created as if by invoking the single-argument File constructor on art and archaeology, the given child pathname string. Otherwise the parent abstract pathname is taken to denote a directory, and the child pathname string is taken to denote either a directory or a file. If the child pathname string is absolute then it is converted into a relative pathname in a system-dependent way. If parent is the empty abstract pathname then the new File instance is created by converting child into an abstract pathname and resolving the result against a system-dependent default directory. Otherwise each pathname string is converted into an abstract pathname and the child abstract pathname is research resolved against the parent. The exact form of a file: URI is system-dependent, hence the transformation performed by this constructor is zoology research paper also system-dependent.

For a given abstract pathname f it is guaranteed that new File( f . College Essay Someone Who Inspires You! toURI ()).equals( f . getAbsoluteFile ()) so long as the original abstract pathname, the URI, and the new abstract pathname are all created in (possibly different invocations of) the same Java virtual machine. This relationship typically does not hold, however, when a file: URI that is created in a virtual machine on one operating system is converted into an abstract pathname in a virtual machine on a different operating system. The parent of an abstract pathname consists of the pathname's prefix, if any, and each name in the pathname's name sequence except for the last. Consumer! If the name sequence is zoology research paper empty then the pathname does not name a parent directory. The parent of an abstract pathname consists of the pathname's prefix, if any, and each name in the pathname's name sequence except for the last. Do My English Essay! If the name sequence is paper empty then the pathname does not name a parent directory. If this abstract pathname is already absolute, then the pathname string is simply returned as if by the getPath() method. Szyska! If this abstract pathname is the empty abstract pathname then the pathname string of the current user directory, which is named by the system property user.dir , is returned. Otherwise this pathname is resolved in a system-dependent way. On UNIX systems, a relative pathname is made absolute by resolving it against the current user directory.

On Microsoft Windows systems, a relative pathname is made absolute by resolving it against the current directory of the drive named by the pathname, if any; if not, it is resolved against the current user directory. Research Paper! A canonical pathname is both absolute and used essays unique. Zoology Research Paper! The precise definition of canonical form is system-dependent. This method first converts this pathname to absolute form if necessary, as if by invoking the getAbsolutePath() method, and then maps it to its unique form in a system-dependent way. This typically involves removing redundant names such as . and .. from the pathname, resolving symbolic links (on UNIX platforms), and converting drive letters to a standard case (on Microsoft Windows platforms). Interesting Tpoics For Essays! Every pathname that denotes an existing file or directory has a unique canonical form.

Every pathname that denotes a nonexistent file or directory also has a unique canonical form. The canonical form of the pathname of a nonexistent file or directory may be different from the canonical form of the same pathname after the file or directory is created. Similarly, the canonical form of the pathname of an existing file or directory may be different from the canonical form of the same pathname after the file or directory is someone who inspires deleted. Zoology! The exact form of the URI is system-dependent. If it can be determined that the file denoted by this abstract pathname is a directory, then the resulting URI will end with a slash. For a given abstract pathname f , it is paper guaranteed that new File ( f .toURI()).equals( f . getAbsoluteFile ()) so long as the original abstract pathname, the URI, and the new abstract pathname are all created in (possibly different invocations of) the same Java virtual machine.

Due to the system-dependent nature of abstract pathnames, however, this relationship typically does not hold when a file: URI that is created in a virtual machine on research paper, one operating system is converted into an abstract pathname in a virtual machine on a different operating system. Note that when this abstract pathname represents a UNC pathname then all components of the UNC (including the server name component) are encoded in the URI path. The authority component is undefined, meaning that it is college essay you represented as null . The Path class defines the toUri method to encode the server name in the authority component of the resulting URI . The toPath method may be used to essay, obtain a Path representing this abstract pathname. Where it is zoology required to distinguish an I/O exception from the case that the file is not a directory, or where several attributes of the same file are required at the same time, then the Files.readAttributes method may be used. Where it is required to distinguish an analogies used school, I/O exception from the case that the file is not a normal file, or where several attributes of the same file are required at the same time, then the Files.readAttributes method may be used. Where it is required to distinguish an college essay about someone who inspires, I/O exception from the case where 0L is returned, or where several attributes of the same file are required at the same time, or where the time of last access or the creation time are required, then the Files.readAttributes method may be used. Where it is required to distinguish an I/O exception from the case that 0L is returned, or where several attributes of the same file are required at the same time, then the Files.readAttributes method may be used. Note: this method should not be used for file-locking, as the resulting protocol cannot be made to work reliably. The FileLock facility should be used instead. ! Note that the Files class defines the delete method to throw an IOException when a file cannot be deleted.

This is useful for error reporting and to diagnose why a file cannot be deleted. Once deletion has been requested, it is not possible to cancel the request. This method should therefore be used with care. Note: this method should not be used for file-locking, as the resulting protocol cannot be made to work reliably. The FileLock facility should be used instead.

If this abstract pathname does not denote a directory, then this method returns null . Otherwise an array of strings is returned, one for each file or directory in the directory. Names denoting the directory itself and essay someone who inspires the directory's parent directory are not included in the result. Research Paper! Each string is a file name rather than a complete path. There is no guarantee that the name strings in the resulting array will appear in any specific order; they are not, in particular, guaranteed to appear in alphabetical order. Note that the Files class defines the newDirectoryStream method to open a directory and iterate over the names of the files in the directory. This may use less resources when working with very large directories, and may be more responsive when working with remote directories.

If this abstract pathname does not denote a directory, then this method returns null . Otherwise an array of File objects is returned, one for each file or directory in the directory. Pathnames denoting the directory itself and the directory's parent directory are not included in the result. Each resulting abstract pathname is constructed from this abstract pathname using the File(File, String) constructor. Therefore if this pathname is papers absolute then each resulting pathname is absolute; if this pathname is relative then each resulting pathname will be relative to the same directory. There is no guarantee that the name strings in the resulting array will appear in any specific order; they are not, in particular, guaranteed to appear in alphabetical order. Note that the Files class defines the newDirectoryStream method to open a directory and iterate over the names of the files in the directory. This may use less resources when working with very large directories.

Many aspects of the behavior of this method are inherently platform-dependent: The rename operation might not be able to move a file from one filesystem to another, it might not be atomic, and it might not succeed if a file with the destination abstract pathname already exists. Tpoics For Essays! The return value should always be checked to make sure that the rename operation was successful. Note that the Files class defines the move method to move or rename a file in a platform independent manner. All platforms support file-modification times to the nearest second, but some provide more precision. The argument will be truncated to paper, fit the supported precision. College Essay About Who Inspires You! If the operation succeeds and no intervening operations on the file take place, then the next invocation of the lastModified() method will return the (possibly truncated) time argument that was passed to this method. The Files class defines methods that operate on file attributes including file permissions.

This may be used when finer manipulation of file permissions is required. An invocation of this method of the form file.setWritable(arg) behaves in exactly the same way as the invocation. The Files class defines methods that operate on file attributes including file permissions. Paper! This may be used when finer manipulation of file permissions is required. An invocation of this method of the form file.setReadable(arg) behaves in exactly the same way as the invocation.

The Files class defines methods that operate on zoology, file attributes including file permissions. This may be used when finer manipulation of file permissions is required. An invocation of this method of the form file.setExcutable(arg) behaves in exactly the same way as the invocation. A particular Java platform may support zero or more hierarchically-organized file systems. Each file system has a root directory from , which all other files in that file system can be reached. Windows platforms, for example, have a root directory for each active drive; UNIX platforms have a single root directory, namely / . The set of available filesystem roots is affected by various system-level operations such as the insertion or ejection of removable media and the disconnecting or unmounting of physical or virtual disk drives. This method returns an array of File objects that denote the root directories of the available filesystem roots.

It is guaranteed that the canonical pathname of any file physically present on the local machine will begin with one of the roots returned by this method. The canonical pathname of a file that resides on some other machine and is accessed via a remote-filesystem protocol such as SMB or NFS may or may not begin with one of the roots returned by this method. If the pathname of a remote file is syntactically indistinguishable from the pathname of a local file then it will begin with one of the roots returned by this method. Thus, for example, File objects denoting the root directories of the mapped network drives of a Windows platform will be returned by this method, while File objects containing UNC pathnames will not be returned by research, this method. Unlike most methods in this class, this method does not throw security exceptions. If a security manager exists and its SecurityManager.checkRead(String) method denies read access to a particular root directory, then that directory will not appear in the result. The returned number of unallocated bytes is a hint, but not a guarantee, that it is martin dissertation possible to use most or any of these bytes. The number of unallocated bytes is most likely to be accurate immediately after this call.

It is aarp art and papers likely to be made inaccurate by any external I/O operations including those made on the system outside of this virtual machine. This method makes no guarantee that write operations to this file system will succeed. The returned number of available bytes is a hint, but not a guarantee, that it is possible to paper, use most or any of these bytes. The number of unallocated bytes is most likely to be accurate immediately after this call. It is likely to be made inaccurate by any external I/O operations including those made on the system outside of this virtual machine.

This method makes no guarantee that write operations to this file system will succeed. Creates a new empty file in the specified directory, using the given prefix and suffix strings to generate its name. If this method returns successfully then it is guaranteed that: The file denoted by the returned abstract pathname did not exist before this method was invoked, and Neither this method nor any of its variants will return the same abstract pathname again in the current invocation of the virtual machine. This method provides only part of a temporary-file facility. To arrange for worst analogies in high, a file created by this method to be deleted automatically, use the deleteOnExit() method. The prefix argument must be at least three characters long. It is recommended that the prefix be a short, meaningful string such as hjb or mail . The suffix argument may be null , in which case the suffix .tmp will be used. Paper! To create the new file, the prefix and consumer the suffix may first be adjusted to fit the limitations of the underlying platform. If the prefix is too long then it will be truncated, but its first three characters will always be preserved. Research! If the suffix is too long then it too will be truncated, but if it begins with a period character ( '.' ) then the period and the first three characters following it will always be preserved. Once these adjustments have been made the name of the new file will be generated by concatenating the prefix, five or more internally-generated characters, and the suffix.

If the directory argument is null then the system-dependent default temporary-file directory will be used. Interesting Tpoics For Essays! The default temporary-file directory is specified by the system property java.io.tmpdir . On UNIX systems the default value of this property is typically /tmp or /var/tmp ; on Microsoft Windows systems it is typically C:WINNTTEMP . A different value may be given to this system property when the Java virtual machine is zoology invoked, but programmatic changes to this property are not guaranteed to have any effect upon the temporary directory used by martin szyska dissertation, this method. Zoology! The Files.createTempFile method provides an alternative method to create an szyska, empty file in the temporary-file directory. Files created by that method may have more restrictive access permissions to files created by this method and so may be more suited to security-sensitive applications. The first invocation of this method works as if invoking it were equivalent to zoology paper, evaluating the expression: Subsequent invocations of this method return the same Path . If this abstract pathname is the empty abstract pathname then this method returns a Path that may be used to access the current user directory. For further API reference and developer documentation, see Java SE Documentation.

That documentation contains more detailed, developer-targeted descriptions, with conceptual overviews, definitions of terms, workarounds, and working code examples.

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essay image virtue Native Americans and the Land. Wilderness and American Identity. The Use of the Land. Native Americans and the Land Essays. American Indians: The Image of the Indian.

Nature Transformed is made possible by grants from the Arthur Vining Davis Foundations. American Indians: The Image of the zoology paper, Indian. Department of History. University of Victoria, British Columbia. National Humanities Center. An early twentieth-century elementary school textbook quizzed pupils on their grasp of the lesson devoted to American Indians. It was a time of aarp art and archaeology research, unblushing certainty about the superiority of zoology research, civilization to “savagery.” “In what three ways were the Indians different from the white men,” the school text asked, and “What did the interesting tpoics for essays, white people think of the paper, Indians?” Judging from related questions, the correct answer was that the Indians were strange : What was one of the behavior adidas, strangest things that the Indians did? What strange things did the Indians believe about spirits?

What strange things did the Indians do to zoology drive the evil spirits away? Today it is difficult even to talk about the racial stereotypes once so confidently assumed. Stereotyping as a subject for study may be historical, but the emotions it arouses are eminently present day. Whether we use terms like image, stereotype or construct, we are talking about the same thing: ideas about a particular group that serve to characterize all the individuals within that group. Certain ideas entrench themselves as fundamental, and the rule of thumb is zoology research, that such ideas are invariably self-servingthey promote the interests of the behavior, group that holds them, and they form the reality upon which that group acts. It is a given today that the research paper, idea of the interesting tpoics for essays, American Indian has been historically significant.

It shaped the zoology, attitudes of aarp art and archaeology research papers, those in the nineteenth century who shaped Indian policy. Paper. Indian policybe it removal of the Eastern tribes in the 1830s, reservation isolationism beginning in the 1850s, or allotment of aarp archaeology research, reservation lands and zoology research paper, assimilation in the 1880scannot be understood without an awareness of the ideas behind it. Literature and worst analogies used school essays, the visual arts provide revealing guides to nineteenth-century assumptions about the zoology paper, Indian. Traditionally, Indians were divided into two “types”: noble and ignoble savages. The Indian woman was either a princess or a drudge, the aarp art and research, Indian man an admirable brave or a fiendish warrior. These venerable images, dating back to the earliest European contact with American natives, found their most influential literary expression in James Fenimore Cooper’s 1826 novel Last of the Mohicans . Cooper personified good and bad by zoology paper, tribe and individualthe noble Delawares Uncas and his father Chingachgook, the evil Hurons Magua and his “bloody-minded hellhounds.” Lasting influence? Students might be encouraged to watch the aarp art and research papers, 1992 Daniel Day-Lewis movie Last of the Mohicans a very free adaptation of Cooper’s novel. Better yet, have them watch Dances with Wolves . It won the zoology paper, Academy Award for Best Picture in 1990, and about someone who inspires you, was a crowd favorite. Besides a sympathetic white hero in line with Cooper’s own Natty Bumppo, it starkly contrasts “good” Indians (the ever-so-noble Lakotas) and “bad” Indians (the villainous Pawnees, with their roach-cuts and face paint making them look like English “punks” on a rampage).

The stark contrast between the noble and ignoble savage obscures their common denominator: savagery . Savagery referred to a state of zoology paper, social development below civilization and, in some calculations, below an intermediate step, barbarism. Since savagery was inferior to civilization, the reasoning went; a savage was naturally inferior to worst used in high school a civilized person. The noble savage might be admired for certain rude virtues, and the ignoble savage deplored as brutal and bloody-minded, but the fate of each was identical. In time, both would vanish from the face of the earth as civilization, in accordance with the universal law of research, progress, displaced savagery. . The ending of Dances with Wolves echoes this sentiment as an admirable culture, unaware of inexorable fate, is about to be swept away by zoology research paper, a more progressive but less admirable one. Swept away.

Such was the theory of the Vanishing American. Do My English. It held out no long-term hope for Indians, noble or ignoble, unless they could be civilized . Research Paper. Sadly, many Americans in the first half of the nineteenth-century concluded, they could not. For there was another law at work when civilization met savagery, the law of vices and virtues. In confronting white civilization, the reasoning went, Indians lost their savage virtuesindependence, hospitality, couragewhile retaining only their savage vices; worse yet, they added civilization’s vices to the mixture, ignoring civilization’s virtues. Worst Used School Essays. This lethal combination of savage vices and civilized vices ensured the Indians’ extinction. The artist George Catlin (17961872), who based his entire body of workincluding over 500 paintings done in the 1830s and several books recounting his travelson the theory of the Vanishing American, provided a vivid description of the process at work: In traversing the immense regions of the Classic West , the mind of zoology, a Philanthropist is filled to the brim with feelings of admiration; but to reach this country, one is obliged to descend from the someone, light and glow of civilized atmosphere, through the different grades of civilization, which gradually sink to the most deplorable vice and darkness along our frontier; thence through the most pitiable misery and wretchedness of savage degradation, where the genius of natural liberty and independence have been blasted and destroyed by the contaminating vices and dissipations of civilized society. Through this dark and research, sunken vale of wretchedness one hurries as through a pestilence, until he gradually rises again into the proud and heroic elegance of savage society, in a state of pure and original nature, beyond the reach of used school essays, civilized contamination Even here, the predominant passions of the zoology, savage breast, of treachery and cruelty, are often found, yet restrained and frequently subdued by the noblest traits of honor and magnanimity,a race of men who live and enjoy life and research, its luxuries, and practice its virtues, very far beyond the usual estimations of the world From the first settlements of our Atlantic coast to the present day, the research, bane of this blasting frontier has regularly crowded upon them, from the northern to the southern extremities of our country, and, like the fire in a mountain, which destroys every thing where it passes, it has blasted and sunk them, and all but their names, into oblivion, wherever it has traveled. Pigeon’s Egg Head (The Light) going to. and returning from interesting, Washington.

Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Institute Alcohol symbolized the fatal exchange: it turned once noble savages into “the poor, degraded, and humbled specimens which alone can be seen along our frontiers.” Resistance was futile. Should the Indians accept the inevitable and paper, embrace civilization, they would be destroyed by dissertation, its vices; should they resist civilization and go to zoology paper war, they would be destroyed by its avenging sword. Not everyone accepted such a grim prognosis. Missionaries always rejected the notion of a race created for extinction, and insisted that substituting good example for bad would find the Indians’ gratefully embracing civilization’s virtues and spurning its vices. Even Catlin held out hope. “The protecting arm of government,” he insisted, “could easily shield them from vices, and zoology research, civilize them (if necessary) with virtues.” Nevertheless, the thrust of popular opinion, like his own, cleaved to the notion of a vanishing race. “This wild, but noble and unhappy race, is english, rapidly becoming extinct,” a New York newspaper editorialized in paper 1837:

They are rapidly sinking into behavior, the stream of oblivion, and soon nothing of them will remain but the memory of their past existence and glory. Where are now the zoology research, descendants of Powhattan, the father of Pocahontas, or Tamenend and of Pontiac? Alas! They are blotted from the face of the behavior, earth, or swallowed up in the remnants of other tribes. Science buttressed popular understanding of the Indian. In the middle of the nineteenth century, polygenesisthe theory of multiple creation of zoology, human “types”provided a race-based explanation for permanent differences in racial capacity, thereby reinforcing notions about the incompatibility of savagery and civilization. However, polygenesis clashed with religious orthodoxy, which denied the english essay, separate creation of races. All humans shared an innate capacity for improvement; no race was intended for extinction.

Later, evolutionary theorists, in paper advancing the do my english essay, case for survival of the fittest, gave new credence to research the tradition of the Vanishing Indian, since there had to be losers as well as winners in martin dissertation the struggle for survival. JH Colton, New York, 1855. Ruderman Antique Maps Inc. Artists after Catlin also doted on this theme. One popular motif showed the vanguard of civilization scattering Indians and wild animals before its irresistible advance; another placed Indians on a bluff gazing down with melancholy resignation on the thriving civilization below. Progress had made them outcasts in their own land. As for the contrasting images of noble and ignoble savage, expansion rendered the paper, former something of an Eastern monopoly, the latter a Western one, while the Vanishing American subsumed both.

from Harper’s New Monthly. Magazine , June 1867. Courtesy of Cornell UniversityThus, ambivalence marked Indian imagery at the end of the nineteenth century. In the long struggle for mastery of the consumer, continent, the research paper, image of the bloody savage had always qualified any regret occasioned by the passing of the interesting tpoics for essays, noble savage. Research Paper. After the frontier moment ended, however, Americans could look upon their native peoples with sentimental regret. It was a short step from celebrating the heroic white pioneers who “won the West” to mourning the losers who, once resistance was over, served as poignant symbols of the cost of progress. James Earle Fraser in 1894 translated popular sentiment into a sculpture of lasting appeal.

End of the Trail shows a mounted Plains Indian, head bowed, shoulders slumped, his spear pointing at the ground, resigned to his fate, which was that of college someone you, his race. This was the nineteenth century’s legacy to the twentieth, fusing the noble savage with the Vanishing American to create a timeless Indian symbolizing a past already receding into pure nostalgia. Guiding Student Discussion. Racial stereotyping is a minefield, and entering it for purposes of classroom discussion requires a carefully thought out strategy. The truth is that students are often impatient with the past. They cannot see why people “back then” got everything so wrong, and they tend to judge them, rather than attempt the more difficultand, we historians like to think, more rewarding!task of understanding why people were the way they were, and why they thought the way they did. In order to discuss historical stereotypes, you have to introduce students to paper them. This runs the consumer adidas, risk of zoology, coming across as advocacy. Do My. Indeed, in raising anything historically unpleasant, you may be held responsible for the resulting unpleasantnessit would not exist had you not mentioned it! Having introduced stereotypes, you are left to deal with them. Outright condemnation is easy, since it conforms to what students already think.

Anything more challenging runs even greater risks. Let me (literally!) illustrate the problem. You want to paper talk about stereotypes of African Americans and American Indians, so you show your class a cartoon of an African American eating watermelon and a photograph of a cigar store Indian. If your point is worst used, simply that these images prove the ignorance of EuroAmericans in the past, then you will have no controversy. If you introduce the same images to probe the underlying values of a society that considered them acceptable, then you invite controversy. Why did EuroAmericans stereotype African Americans as servile and American Indians as stoic freemen? And to zoology paper what ends? What use did the worst analogies in high essays, EuroAmerican majority have for each race? The labor of one, of course, and the land of the other. How would those different uses shape stereotypes? In short, what can stereotypes teach us that would make them valuable in the classroom?

What can they tell us beyond the obvious? Students may remain un-persuaded. When it comes to research paper a sensitive issue like ethnic stereotyping, it’s just easier to dismiss past beliefs as racist. What else is there to say? Why study the attitudes of another age if, by essay, our standards today, they were deplorable? The answer is in that qualifier“ by our standards today .” It is essential to recognize that people in the past were as confident of the validity of zoology, their views as we are of do my english essay, our own. Moral certainty underlay their actions, too. Far from being illogical, they were, according to zoology paper their lights, entirely logical! And that’s a good departure point for discussion. Zoology Research. In talking about past values, students should be encouraged to examine their own values.

How are attitudes formed? How do we know what we know? How does experience shape our views? More than thatand hardest of allstudents must be challenged to understand that their most cherished beliefs will one day, too, be part of history. People not yet born will study us and analyze our valuesand they just may find us wanting.

Far from making us feel superior, then, history should chasten us. The past has been described as a foreign country. We must visit it with open minds and all due respect for its customs, eager to learn, not simply to judge. Thus Bryan Le Beau, writing about the Salem witch trials, reminds us “the people of essay, seventeenth-century New England believed in zoology research witchcraft not because they were Puritans, but because they were men of their time.” And James McPherson, reviewing a book condemning Abraham Lincoln as a racist, observes that Lincoln “shared many of the racist convictions of his time,” but considered slavery “morally wrong” and college someone who inspires you, was able “to transcend his prejudices and to preside over zoology paper, the greatest social revolution in worst American history, the research paper, liberation of four million slaves.” People from the past will never conform to present-day standards; if we would understand them, we must grant them their own worldview in order to evaluate their actions and to draw the critical distinctions that are the heart and soul of history. Other, more narrowly focused issues will also probably emerge in any class discussion of the image of the Indian.

Students like to distinguish “good” from consumer, “bad”. Initially, they may consider all stereotypes bad because they conceal something good, the zoology research paper, real Indian. Two lines of questioning suggest themselves: First, what was/is the “real” Indian? Do we define an Indian racially, by “blood quantum”? Or by an allegiance to martin traditional culture? Or by federal status (reservation/nonreservation)? How do we define a “real” Indian? Second, are some stereotypes more acceptable than others?

That is, are positive stereotypes better than negative onesthe noble savage more acceptable than the zoology research, ignoble savage? It’s here that Dances with Wolves can be helpful. Besides engaging students in a discussion about the longevity of old stereotypes, it raises another issue: Aren’t the Lakotas in do my english the film just updated noble savages, representing the socially acceptable values of the 1990s grafted onto the latest version of the Vanishing American? Just because the Lakotas get to be the good guys in zoology Dances with Wolves , is research papers, it okay to stereotype them-or to see them off with tear-dimmed eyes at movie’s end as, faithful to the tradition of the vanishing race, they await the destruction of their way of life? Class discussion of Indian images may also pursue another line of questioning. Granted stereotypes like the zoology research, noble and ignoble savage and the Vanishing American, who, in particular, believed themand how do you show that they believed them? Citing a few heavyweight thinkers proves little, and smacks of elitism. How about ordinary people? What did they thinkand how do we know? Here the popular culture of any given period is relevant.

Today we would look at the electronic media, films, music, etc.; in studying the nineteenth century, students might examine folk tales and humor, newspapers, popular fiction, Currier Ives prints, advertising cards, sermons, etc. At the very least, the sheer pervasiveness of the major Indian stereotypes in popular culture will be a revelation to most students. Students may then want to know how the public’s belief in noble and szyska, ignoble savages and paper, the Vanishing American mattered historically. Given that people held certain views about Indians, So what? How do we prove that those views caused anything in particular to happen in a specific situation? This is the same challenge that has always faced intellectual historiansestablishing the link between idea and martin, action.

It is useful to remind students at zoology research paper, the outset that ideas are as real as any other historical data. Essay. Since history itself is paper, a mental exercise, the historian can hardly deny people in the past a fully active mental life of their own. As a general proposition, what people believe explains what they do. When, for example, Congressmen in the nineteenth century debated Indian affairs and art and archaeology, referred to the bloody savage to promote an aggressive policy, or talked about a noble race that had been dispossessed to advocate a humanitarian policy, we can see a belief system at work with direct, practical consequences. To sum up, historians do not defend what was done in the name of past beliefs.

They are not apologists or advocates. Zoology Research Paper. But historians must labor to understand past beliefs if they would understand what happened in the past. Ideas are often self-fulfilling prophecies: historically, they make happen what they say will happen. And historical stereotypes of the American Indian have done exactly that. Almost fifty years ago, Roy Harvey Pearce, a literary scholar, in you his book The Savages of America: A Study of the Indian and the Idea of Civilization (1953; rev. Zoology Research. ed., Savagism and Civilization: A Study of the Indian and the American Mind , 1965), stated the assumption still fundamental to any examination of the image of the American Indian. In talking about Indians, he wrote, white Americans “were only talking to themselves about themselves.” Stereotypes, in short, tell us more about the perceiver than the , perceived. Every historical study of Indian images since has worked a variation on Pearce’s premise, be it “the white man’s Indian” (Robert Berkhofer, The White Man’s Indian: Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present [1978]), “the Vanishing American” (Brian W. Zoology Paper. Dippie, The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S.

Indian Policy [1982]), “the invented Indian” (James Clifton, ed., The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies [1990]), “the imaginary Indian” (Daniel Francis, The Imaginary Indian: The Image of the Indian in Canadian Culture [1992]), or “the constructed Indian” (Elizabeth S. Bird, ed., Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture [1996]). Overviews of Indian stereotyping in the nineteenth century should be supplemented with case studies such as Sherry L. Smith’s The View from , Officers’ Row: Army Perceptions of Western Indians (1990) and Reimagining Indians: Native Americans through Anglo Eyes, 18801940 (2000) and John M. Research Paper. Coward’s The Newspaper Indian: Native American Identity in the Press, 182090 (1999). All go to prove the pervasiveness of James Fenimore Cooper’s influence in the nineteenth centuryand since. Many Westerners (and some army officers), for example, fancied themselves realists when it came to Indians, and routinely denounced Cooper’s Uncas and dissertation, the whole sentimental tradition of the zoology, noble savage as a palpable fictioneven as they embraced Magua and the ignoble savage as unvarnished truth! Historians have given particular attention to essay about you the “So what?” questionthat is, to correlating attitudes and their practical consequences, often through policy developments. As can be seen, they have had much to say on zoology research paper, the subject of martin szyska dissertation, Indian stereotyping. But because of the zoology research, seminal influence of Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans in giving memorable form to the noble savage, bloody savage and the Vanishing American, students of American literature continue to lead the way in consumer behavior adidas probing Indian stereotypes.

A readable, accessible book is Louise K. Barnett’s The Ignoble Savage: American Literary Racism, 17901890 (1975). It, and zoology research, Richard Slotkin’s seminal work fusing literature and history, Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 16001860 (1973), point the way to recent “cultural studies” offering sometimes imaginative, sometimes tendentious readings of literary texts that advance the behavior adidas, “postcolonialist” critique of American culture. For those who want to test the waters, a number of titles come to mind: Lucy Maddox’s Removals: Nineteenth-century American Literature the research, Politics of martin szyska dissertation, Indian Affairs (1991), Robert S. Tilton’s Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative (1994), Cheryl Walker’s Indian Nation: Native American Literature and 19th-Century Nationalisms (1997), Susan Scheckel’s The Insistence of the zoology research, Indian: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-century American Culture (1998) and Renee L. Bergland’s The National Uncanny: Indian Ghosts and do my, American Subjects (2000). Martin Barker and Roger Sabin’s The Lasting of the Mohicans: History of an American Myth (1995) documents the growth industry created by one novel over the years, while Alan Trachtenberg’s Shades of Hiawatha: Staging Indians, Making Americans, 18801930 (2004) uses the most famous Indian poem ever written, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s Hiawatha (1855), as a launching pad for a broad-gauged investigation of Indian and immigrant stereotypes in the twentieth century. The image of the Indian in art has been comparatively neglected. Two illustrated essays provide different interpretations. Julie Schimmel’s “Inventing ‘the Indian,’” in William Truettner, ed., The West as America: Reinterpreting Images of the martin dissertation, Frontier (1991), stresses the construction of the “Indian” in nineteenth-century art, while Brian Dippie’s “The Moving Finger Writes: Western Art and the Dynamics of Change,” in Jules Prown, et al., Discovered Lands, Invented Pasts: Transforming Visions of the American West (1992), focuses on visual representations of the fate of the Indian. Two well-illustrated exhibition catalogs examining relevant issues are Jehanne Teilhet-Fisk and Robin F. Nigh, comps., Dimensions of Native America: The Contact Zone (1998), and Sarah E. Boehme, et al., Powerful Images: Portrayals of Native America (1998). Paper. Steven Conn’s History’s Shadow: Native Americans and Historical Consciousness in the Nineteenth Century (2004) includes a chapter on “Indians in American Art.”

There has been a growth industry in Edward S. Curtis’s romantic, turn of the twentieth-century photographs of American Indians. Barbara Davis’s Edward S. Curtis: The Life and Times of a Shadow Catcher (1985) is the most substantial of the many Curtis picture books, and english, students always enjoy looking at his work. However, Curtis’s role in perpetuating the myth of the zoology, Vanishing American has also generated criticism. Christopher M. Lyman’s The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: Photographs of Indians by Edward S. Curtis (1982) fired the opening salvo by documenting the ways Curtis manipulated his subjects to create images of the timeless Indian. Paula Fleming and Judith Luskey’s Grand Endeavors of American Indian Photography (1993) is useful for placing Curtis in context, while Mick Gidley’s Edward S. Curtis and interesting tpoics, the North American Indian, Incorporated (1998) analyzes Curtis’s commercial strategies in producing his photographic record of the Western tribes. A critical approach to zoology paper the Curtis photographs permits access to worst analogies essays the ideas behind them.

Not surprisingly, the zoology paper, noble savage and college someone who inspires you, the Vanishing American lurk just beneath their appealing surfaces. The perpetuation of research, Indian stereotypes in the twentieth century will naturally arise in any classroom discussion of nineteenth-century stereotypes. Students invariably turn to film, television, and interesting for essays, music as sources for their own ideas, and zoology paper, I have already mentioned the usefulness of a film like Dances with Wolves in stimulating interest. Essay About Someone. Consequently, the zoology research paper, literature on college about, cinema as a source for Indian stereotypes may prove relevant. The most recent studies (with up-to-date bibliographies) are Peter Rollins and John O’Connor’s Hollywood’s Indian: The Portrayal of the research paper, Native American in Film (1998), Jacquelyn Kilpatrick’s Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film (1999), and worst in high school essays, Armando José Prats’ Invisible Natives: Myth and zoology paper, Identity in the American Western (2002). More broadly, twentieth-century popular culture and analogies in high school essays, the Indian figure into the Elizabeth Bird anthology Dressing in Feathers , as well as Rennard Strickland’s Tonto’s Revenge: Reflections on zoology research, American Indian Culture and Policy (1997), Ward Churchill’s polemical Fantasies of the Master Race: Literature, Cinema, and the Colonization of worst in high school essays, American Indians (1998), and zoology research, Philip J. Deloria’s engaging exposé of stereotypes, Indians in Unexpected Places (2004).

But in bringing the subject of Indian stereotypes in literature and art up to consumer adidas the present, it seems to me useful to end with something elsethe contemporary American Indian voice. Zoology. Besides the gritty, realistic novels of aarp art and archaeology, such esteemed Native writers as N. Scott Momaday, Louise Erdrich, James Welch and Leslie Marmon Silko, I recommend Sherman Alexie’s The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven (1993), a collection of short stories that keep an zoology research eagle eye on some of the absurdities of Indian stereotyping, and martin szyska, that served as the basis for Smoke Signals (1998), another film your students should see. A final recommendation: Thomas King’s Medicine River (1989), a sly, amusing novel thatbeginning with its protagonist, a Native photographersends up many of the hoary stereotypes of the American Indian. Brian W. Dippie is Professor of History at zoology research paper, University of Victoria, British Columbia, and past president of the Western History Association. He is the author of Custer’s Last Stand: The Anatomy of an American Myth (1976), The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Aarp Art And Archaeology Research. Indian Policy (1982), Catlin and His Contemporaries: The Politics of Patronage (1990), and paper, The Frederic Remington Art Museum Collection (2001). He has also contributed to martin numerous other volumes and edited or co-authored several volumes on the art and artists of the American West.

Address comments or questions to Professor Dippie through TeacherServe “Comments and Questions.” Dippie, Brian W. “American Indians: The Image of the Indian.” Nature Transformed, TeacherServe®. National Humanities Center. Zoology Research Paper. DATE YOU ACCESSED ESSAY. http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nattrans/ntecoindian/essays/indimage.htm 7 Alexander Drive, P.O. Box 12256. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. Phone: (919) 549-0661 Fax: (919) 990-8535.

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