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Balancing Histone/Protein Acetylation: Gene Regulation and Cancer Therapy. By: Min-Hao Kuo , LSI Volume 7 Article 1. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. A highly sophisticated mechanism organizes the 2-meter long human genome within a 6-μm wide nucleus. War Essay! Up to 10,000-fold of compaction of the chromatin is achieved during mitosis, allowing faithful segregation of thesis generator for literary analysis mitotic chromosomes to daughter cells. Conversely, the interphase chromatin is much less compacted, more dynamic, and amenable for a variety of chromatin-based functions. For example, cellular transcription machinery gains access to specific loci for the cold war essay, constitutive or signal-induced gene expression. When committed to differentiation, those transcription programs designed for jury pros and cons, cellular proliferation are repressed, or uncontrolled division and malignancies may occur. Damage of DNA, hence potentially deleterious mutations, caused by who won the cold war essay, such factors as UV, free radicals, and active transcription, needs to be repaired before these mutations are passed to using daughter cells.
Lastly, V(D)J recombination specializes the the cold war essay, assembly of genes for immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. Thus, eukaryotic chromatin is a dynamic platform supporting a wide array of nuclear activities. Ap History Dbq Essays! The fundamental repeating units of chromatin are nucleosomes. Each nucleosome consists of about 150 basepairs of who won DNA and a histone octamer containing two of each core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Advantages Of Using! Linker DNA connects two adjacent nucleosomes, and the cold war essay is bound by case in research, linker histones, (e.g.
H1) that organize the 10-nm nucleosomal array into a 30-nm fiber. This 30-nm fiber is the predominant structure of interphase chromatin, but permits low accessibility and processivity for regulator proteins and enzymes. Conserved mechanisms regulate the war essay, structure and biophysical behaviors of chromatin in a way that selective loci become amenable for the activities of specific macromolecular assemblies. During development, and in different tissues, the profile of transcription is inherited epigenetically. The genetic code per se remains unchanged; whereas, locus-specific chromatin structures specifying the analysis, transcription status are inherited. These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms include covalent modifications of histones, ATP hydrolysis-dependent chromatin remodeling activities, substitutions of the core (major) histones with their related variant (minor) histones, and DNA methylation. There are many excellent reviews for different aspects of epigenetic control that are beyond the scope of this article [1-5]. This essay focuses on one well-studied epigenetic control, histone (de)acetylation, and the recent development of cancer therapy aiming at altering the who won the cold war essay, balance of master histone and protein acetylation. Acetylation of who won the cold histones occurs at the e-amino group of thesis generator analysis lysine residues within the peptide chain. This is different from the co-translational acetylation at the a-amino group of the first amino acid . Who Won The Cold! N-terminal acetylation is most likely related to the control of protein stability.
The internal e-acetylation of thesis histones (henceforth simply referred to as histone acetylation) exerts several functions. First, adding an acetyl moiety to the e-amino group neutralizes the positive charge. Who Won The Cold! The already bulky lysine side chain becomes bulkier. Since histone proteins are highly basic and can interact extensively with the negatively charged DNA, acetylation may weaken histone-DNA interactions, hence modulating the structure of the underlying locus. Ap History! Second, acetylation may create a new protein-protein interaction interface. The best-known module that interacts with acetyllysine is the bromodomain present in many transcriptional regulators. Furthermore, a recent genetic screen identified novel acetylated histone-binding proteins without the bromodomain , suggesting a broader repertoire of possible interaction targets for acetylated histones. Third, many histone acetyltransferases (HATs) act within multi-subunit complexes that commonly perform functions other than histone acetylation. For example, the yeast SAGA complex recruits TATA-binding proteins to the promoter, and also contains a ubiquitin hydrolase that facilitates the cycling of protein (de)ubiquitinylation [8-10]. Thus, histone acetylation may simply be a by-product of anchoring the who won, multi-functional HAT complexes to the target loci. Fourth, acetylation is mba essay, cleared by histone deacetylases (HDACs).
These enzymes are typically part of multi-component complexes that repress transcription. One counter-intuitive function of histone acetylation is to provide the substrate for HDACs. When HDACs are recruited, so are the associated negative regulatory factors for transcription. Furthermore, the acetylationdeacetylation cycle may be the basis for cyclic transcriptional (re)initiation that permits a swift response to the oscillation of the cold environmental stimuli . Finally, HATs and HDACs also use non-histone protein substrates .
An increasing number of pros and cons essay transcriptional regulators, chromatin components, and signaling factors have been shown to be regulated by acetylation, adding yet another level of control. Several families of HATs have been recognized: GNAT (Gcn5- related N-acetyltransferases); MYST (MOZ-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2- Tip60); p300/CBP, although the catalytic domains of p300 and CBP are very similar to those of the GNAT family HATs; nuclear hormone receptor coactivators; and TAF1 (formerly TAFII230 in who won the cold war essay, human and TAFII250 in Drosophila) [13,14]. Structural and kinetic studies of why study GNAT and war essay MYST families have been thoroughly investigated . An array of point mutations with highly specific effects on catalysis are available for molecular and functional studies of Gcn5, the founding member of the e government master writing, GNAT family HATs [16,17]. From yeast to mammals, many HATs form complexes with other proteins. In the who won the cold, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are several chromatographically distinct HAT complexes [18,19]. The SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetylase) and NuA3 complexes prefer H3, while NuA4 uses nucleosomal H4 as the predominant substrate. Mammalian HAT complexes are less thoroughly characterized. PCAF is thesis using neural, closely related to the yeast Gcn5 protein in many aspects. PCAF is also part of a complex whose composition is quite similar to that of who won the cold war essay SAGA . Both SAGA and PCAF complexes contain selective TBP-associated factors (TAFs) that play critical roles in transcriptional activation.
Figure 1. Summary of the molecular outcomes resulting from nucleosome acetylation and deacetylation. Histone acetylation may weaken the electrostatic interactions between DNA and jury and cons histones and recruit bromodomain-containing transcriptional coactivators and other chromatin modulating proteins/activities. War Essay! When histones are acetylated, the lysine residues become refractory to other modifications such as methylation and ubiquitinylation. Meanwhile, acetylated histones are substrates for deacetylases that are commonly present in multicomponent transcriptional co-repressor complexes. When HDACs are recruited to the acetylated loci, deacetylation occurs and consequently renders the unacetylated lysine residues available for other modifications, including re-acetylation, and binding of of using transcriptional repressor proteins. Who Won! In addition, unacetylated histones are known to advantages of using bind certain transcriptional silencing factors. Thus, the cycle of histone acetylation/deacetylation provides a means for who won the cold war essay, cells to rapidly control gene activities. p300 and CBP are highly similar to each other throughout the why study, entire length as both are about 2,400 amino acids long . While they commonly perform redundant functions, animal models and patient studies suggest non-overlapping roles as well . These two HATs are targets of the cold war essay many cellular and viral proteins . However, there is dbq essays, no evidence that p300 or CBP forms a stable complex with other proteins. SAGA, PCAF, and p300/CBP HATs are recruited to the target promoters by interacting with selective transcriptional activators .
In their catalytic domain, the MYST family of who won HATs possess an acetyl coA binding motif, and a C2HC zinc finger . In addition, some MYST family members contain a chromodomain; whereas, others possess the PHD (plant homeodomain) finger that might be important for protein-protein interactions. The chromodomain interacts with methylated lysines for transcriptional repression and silencing. Indeed, the Sas2 and Sas3 HATs promote transcriptional silencing in yeast. Thesis! Compared to the promoter-targeted action of SAGA complex, some of the MYST HAT complexes exert their activity across a much larger chromosomal locus. War Essay! For example, in Drosophila, the male has one X chromosome while the female has two. To compensate for the difference, male insects express X chromosomal genes twice as efficiently as each of the of using in research, two female X chromosomes. War Essay! This dosage compensation is achieved by MOF-mediated H4 Lys16 acetylation coating the entire male X chromosome .
HAT activity is also seen in jury and cons essay, nuclear hormone receptor coactivators, including ACTR and the cold SRC-1 . These co-activators interact with nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) such as glucocorticoid receptors. Interestingly, NRs control transcription by recruiting HATs, HDACs, and chromatin remodeling complexes. The observations that ACTR and SRC-1 are HATs represents another level of why study regulation of hormone signaling. Histone deacetylases are also grouped into different families . Each family is represented by a yeast HDAC: Class I, II, and III members are homologous to Rpd3, Hda1, and Sir2, respectively. Class I and II HDACs require a zinc ion and a water molecule at the active center for catalysis; whereas, Class III HDACs use NAD as the cofactor and are insensitive to many chemicals that effectively inhibit the activities of Classes I and II enzymes [28,29]. The Sir2-related Class III HDACs, because of their obligatory need of NAD for catalysis, have been linked to intracellular sensing of nutrient/energy status and senescence [30,31]. HDACs are best known for their ability to repress transcription.
Similar to HATs, HDACs are also recruited by DNAbinding transcriptional repressor proteins. Microarray and who won the cold war essay chromatin immunoprecipitation studies have shown that different enzymes function at selective loci . Case Studies! In addition, HDACs also collaborate with other enzyme activities, most notably histone and DNA methyltransferases such as Suv39h and Dnmt1, respectively [33,34]. For example, the NURD/ Mi2/MeCP1 complex contains both HDAC and methylated DNA-binding activities . The Cold! DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark for imprinting . The prevalent model suggests that HDACs are attracted to DNA methylated loci and jury system pros and cons essay deacetylate the local histones. Because acetylation and methylation on lysine residues are mutually exclusive (i.e., competing for the same e-amino group), the who won the cold war essay, action of HDACs generates a suitable substrate for subsequent histone methyltransferase activity. Generator For Literary! Methylated lysine residues then recruit and anchor repressors such as HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1) that create long-range transcriptional silencing. Non-Histone Proteins Controlled by Acetylation.
In addition to histones, a growing number of non-histone proteins have been shown to be controlled by acetylation. In fact, it is now well recognized that protein acetylation may be as important as protein phosphorylation in who won the cold, regulating a wide variety of cellular functions . Interested readers are directed to an excellent review article by Sterner and Berger . p53 is probably the best-known acetylated, non-histone protein. Mutations of p53 are found in jury pros essay, 50% of all human cancers. p53 acetylation is who won war essay, induced by DNA damage and has been shown to recruit other transcriptional co-activators . The acetylation of p53 is also enhanced by phosphorylation at certain residues . In addition, acetylation at the nuclear localization sequence of p53 may be a regulatory mechanism, determining the ap history dbq essays, intracellular distribution of p53 . War Essay! The key activator determining muscle differentiation is MyoD . MyoD can be acetylated by PCAF, which in turn stimulates its DNA binding affinity. In addition to being a target for acetylation, MyoD interacts with p300/CBP and generator analysis CARM1, an arginine methyltransferase and transcriptional co-activator . Class I HDACs also target their action on MyoD to who won the cold war essay inhibit myogenesis . Using! Signaling mechanisms cause hypophosphorylation of the cold Rb, which in turn strips HDACs from MyoD.
Consequently, myogenesis is permitted. E2F is required for cell cycle progression . PCAF-acetylated E2F shows stronger DNA binding affinity. Thus, acetylation has a positive role on E2F. Similarly, the function of the GATA-1 blood cell differentiation factor is also enhanced by p300/CBP-mediated acetylation. Recent data suggest that the replication factor, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), may be acetylated by p300, and that the acetylated PCNA may participate in DNA replication; whereas, its unacetylated counterpart may play a role in termination . HATs and and cons essay HDACs in Diseases and Development. Since the discovery of mammalian histone acetyltransferases, multiple cancer-related translocation mutations involving HATs have been reported. The most notable example of these is the MOZ protein, a MYST family HAT, that has been shown to be fused to the HATs including CBP, p300, and TIF-2, resulting in a variety of leukemias [45,46]. Furthermore, the MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) protein was also found to be fused to the cold CBP and p300 .
It is of using studies in research, possible that these translocations produce unregulated or misregulated HATs, which then alter the expression pattern of genes involved in cellular growth or differentiation, resulting in tumorigenesis . A variety of epithelial cancers, including breast, colorectal, gastric, and the cold pancreatic carcinomas are linked to missense mutations of p300 . Similarly, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is a developmental disorder associated with CBP mutations . Patients with the Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome have a 350-fold increased risk of developing cancer. There are very few pathogenic mutations of in research HDACs.
Aberrant activities of HDACs are, instead, caused by war essay, mutations of key transcriptional repressors that rely on HDACs for their functions, e.g. translocation and thesis writing fusion of who won RARa (retinoic acid receptor-a) to PML or PLZF causes leukemia [50,51]. RARa represses transcription by recruiting HDAC complexes. Of Using Case In Research! Retinoic acid displaces HDACs and, thus, relieves the repression created by RARa. When fused to PML or PLZF, the remnant RARa becomes insensitive to retinoic acid, leading to persistent repression of retinoic acid-responsive gene expression and blockage of hematopoietic differentiation . Practically all of the mammalian epigenetic regulators are conserved in the cold, the plant kingdom . The Gcn5 homolog in Arabidopsis , AtGcn5, and one of its interacting partners, Ada2b, are important for plant development, and appear to be involved in cold acclimation, an important trait of plants that enables them to deal with sub-freezing environments . Knocking down the expression of several Arabidopsis deacetylases by antisense RNA leads to advantages case studies developmental defects such as early senescence, delayed flowering and seed abortion [55,56]. Who Won! Even wildtype HATs and HDACs may become renegade when “bad influences” are present. Many viral proteins target their pathogenic actions at HATs and HDACs . The adenovirus E1A oncoprotein competes with PCAF for jury and cons essay, p300 and CBP. The HIV Tat protein is an RNA binding protein critical for viral gene expression.
Tip60, TAF1, p300, CBP, and PCAF are all direct interaction targets for Tat. The Herpes simplex virus immediate early gene activator VP16 has been used by many as a model to study eukaryotic transcriptional activation. VP16 hijacks p300, CBP, and PCAF to activate viral transcription. HDACs are also targeted by viral regulators. For example, the Papilloma virus E7 oncoprotein interacts with the NURD/Mi-2 complex to promote cell growth. The Epstein-Barr virus EBNA2 protein is essential for EBVmediated B-cell immortalization. EBNA2 interacts with HDAC2 and several other proteins associated with HDAC2 . Who Won! Such interactions are thought to system and cons counteract the action of a cellular transcriptional repressor CBF1. Similar scenarios are also seen in plants. Who Won! For example, the case studies, fungus Cochliobolus Carbonum produces HC-toxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide that selectively inhibits the host (maize) but not its own HDACs during infection .
In fact, the production of HC-toxin is an who won, indicator of virulence of this pathogenic fungus. In summary, perturbation of the balanced action of HATs and HDACs, arising either from germline or somatic mutations, or from pathogenic infection, may lead to deleterious consequences in different organisms. Indeed, the close link between cancers and thesis using neural dysregulation of histone acetylation led to the cold war essay the exciting discoveries that a variety of HDAC inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of cancer. For the dbq essays, remainder of the cold war essay this article, the use of ap history dbq essays small molecules that inhibit the HDAC activity in cancer therapy is reviewed. Who Won War Essay! Cancer Therapy with HDAC Inhibitors. One of the recurring mechanisms underlying the immortality of cancer cells is the why study mba essay, repression of genes encoding tumor suppressors and apoptotic factors .
Meanwhile, proteins that promote cell division are up-regulated. Both phenomena are frequently attributable by unbalanced acetylation. Molecules that inhibit HDACs may thus gear dividing cancerous cells to a halt, leading to differentiation or apoptosis. Indeed, in the 1970s, several reports showed that butyric acid, commonly produced by who won the cold, anaerobic bacteria, can stop DNA synthesis and cell proliferation . Furthermore, treating cultured erythroleukemic cells with butyric acid results in differentiation. Thesis Using Networks! Later, butyric acid was found able to induce histone hyperacetylation in HeLa and Friend erythroleukemic cells , marking the who won the cold, dawn of cancer treatment with HDAC inhibitors. The studies of HAT inhibitors are comparatively less advanced. Several synthetic bisubstrate analogs were reported to inhibit p300 and PCAF activities [61-63].
However, cells have very low permeability to these potential drugs. Networks! Two recent reports showed promising anti-p300 activity of curcumin, a major curcumanoid present in the spice trumeric [64,65], raising the hope that HAT inhibitors may soon catch up with their HDAC inhibitor counterparts. War Essay! To date, many naturally occurring and synthetic HDAC inhibitors have been shown to possess anti-cancer activity and are in clinical trials (see Figures 2 and 3 for representative compounds). A few comprehensive reviews of the HDAC inhibitors in clinical trials were recently published [66,67]. A brief summary is included herein. Different HDAC inhibitors are able to change transcription, both positively and thesis generator analysis negatively, for about 2% of total human genes. While this number seems to who won the cold war essay be small, common genes affected by these inhibitors are known to exert critical functions in controlling cell cycle and apoptosis .
One of the most notable among these genes is using neural, p21WAF1, which inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases and who won the cold arrests cell cycle. In addition, down-regulation of genes important for cell cycle progression, such as cyclin A and D, has been observed. Cell cycle arrest potentiates differentiation and apoptosis, both of which provide the required anti-cancer mechanism. For apoptosis, both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways have been shown to be affected by HDAC inhibitors. Mitochrondrial permeability can be increased by certain HDAC inhibitors, in particular the hydroxamic acid derivatives (see Figures 2 and 3), resulting in system pros and cons essay, the release of who won war essay molecules such as cytochrome c, Smac, and Omi, and leads to caspase-dependent apoptosis. Advantages Of Using Case In Research! For the extrinsic death signal-triggered apoptosis, Fas and the Apo-2L/TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5 have been shown to be up-regulated by these inhibitors . The potent effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by HDAC inhibitors make them promising anti-cancer drugs. Who Won The Cold! While these molecules may be structurally dissimilar, most seem to e government writing inhibit Class I and II HDAC activity by binding to the active site and the essential zinc ion . Who Won! On the other hand, the Class III HDACs are NAD-dependent enzymes that use a completely different mechanism for deacetylation.
New activators and inhibitors for system pros essay, these HDACs (a.k.a. sirtuins) were recently reported [72-75]. Sirtuin inhibitors include splitomicin derivatives and compounds with a 2-hydroxyl-1- naphthol moiety. Several polyphenolic compounds, including a red wine agent resveratrol, activate Sir2 class HDACs and increase the who won war essay, life span of the budding yeast . Thesis Generator Analysis! However, the who won the cold war essay, therapeutic potential of mba essay these compounds remains to be determined. Chemically, inhibitors of Class I and II HDACs can be divided into five major and one hybrid groups . Who Won War Essay! These include short-chain fatty acids (e.g. butyric acid, phenylacetate, and phenylbutyrate), hydroxamic acids (e.g. Trichostatin A, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, or SAHA, and oxamflatin), epoxyketones (e.g. Trapoxin, HC-toxin, amino-8-oxo-9,10- epoxydecanoic acid, or AOE), cyclic peptides (e.g. apicidin and depsipeptide), and master benzamides (e.g. Who Won The Cold War Essay! MS-275 and CI-994). The hybrid molecules are composed of moieties of a cyclic peptide conjugated to an aliphatic hydroxamate (e.g.
CHAP31 and CHAP50), or to an epoxyketone group (e.g. trapoxin and HC-toxin). E Government Master Thesis Writing! Several short-chain fatty acid HDAC inhibitors, such as phenylbutyrate and valproic acid, are under phase I and II clinical trials examining the who won, treatment of hematological and solid tumors . Effects of these inhibitors on cancer cells include proteosomal degradation of HDAC2, antiangiogenesis, induction of p21WAF1, apoptosis, and telomerase inhibition. And Cons Essay! These small molecules likely bind only part of the active center of HDACs at relatively low affinity. The hydroxamate derivatives are the broadest class of HDAC inhibitors with high affinity for the targets (sub-micromolar range). The Cold War Essay! These molecules usually contain three basic components: a hydroxamic acid moiety that chelates the for literary analysis, zinc ion; a hydrophobic spacer that helps span the who won war essay, entire active center; and a hydrophobic cap that covers the active center, thus effectively competing against the acetylated histone/protein substrates.
Other than butyrate , trichostatin was one of the first HDAC inhibitors to be identified , and has since been a highly valuable tool in studies of transcription and other acetylation-related molecular functions. System And Cons! This compound blocks proliferation and who won the cold can trigger apoptosis in different tissue culture and transformed cell lines. Other inhibitors in this class in clinical trials include SAHA, pyroxamide, and NVP-LAQ-824. The epoxyketone class of HDAC inhibitors may modify the active center with the epoxy group. The ketone group may also hydrogen bond with the target residues.
Several hybrid molecules are derived from the combination of epoxyketone and a cyclic peptide. Trapoxin and HC-toxin fall into this group. The presence of ap history dbq essays two functional moieties contribute to who won the cold war essay strong, nanomolar HDAC inhibitory activity. Another group of hybrid molecules have a cyclic peptide joining an dbq essays, aliphatic hydroxamate (e.g. CHAP31 and CHAP50).
Strong binding affinities are displayed by these inhibitors. The synthetic benzamide class of HDAC inhibitors, including CI-994 and MS-275, are generally less potent than hydroxamate or cyclic peptides. However, MS-275 shows antiproliferative activity in several cancer cell lines including breast, colorectal, leukemia, and others. Both MS-275 and CI-994 are in who won the cold, clinical trials, although their mechanisms of action remain unclear. In addition to administering each HDAC inhibitor alone, it is also promising to combine HDAC inhibitors with other anti-cancer reagents that target epigenetic regulation . For example, long-term transcriptional repression (i.e. silencing) requires the concerted action of histone deacetylation and advantages studies in research DNA methylation.
5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine is a potent inhibitor against DNA methyltransferases. Who Won War Essay! Combining trichostatin A with this DNA methylation inhibitor restores transcription of several key factors such as MLH1, TIMP3, maspin, and gelsolin , leading to anti-neoplastic effects. Maintaining the why study, balance of histone and non-histone protein acetylation is of tremendous importance for regulating transcription and who won war essay cellular development and differentiation. Mutations that cause dysregulation of HAT activities or recruitment of HDAC complexes result in devastating phenotypes in writing, animals and plants. Many pathogenic viruses and fungi target their action on the host (de)acetylation machinery. War Essay! The use of HDAC inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs has yielded promising clinical results. Combination of why study HDAC inhibitors and other drugs may further synergize the therapeutic efficacy. It is the cold, anticipated that the use of specific HDAC, and possibly HAT, modulators in the future will not only offer an effective cancer therapeutic strategy, but also critical insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. Min-Hao Kuo received his Ph.D. from the University of Rochester. He worked on a multifunctional transcriptional regulator, Mcm1, with Dr. Elizabeth Grayhack.
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How to who won the cold Write an Artist’s CV in 10 Steps. A CV or curriculum vitae is an mba essay overview of the cold war essay, your artistic professional history and achievements. Although it looks similar to a resume, it contains different elements which are only related to your artistic professional practice. One mistake emerging artists often make in writing their CVs is trying to oversell their work. Less is more. E Government Writing! Your CV should be neatly organized, and who won war essay only include information pertinent to why study mba essay your artistic career. What should you include on a CV? Here is the cold, where how to compose one in 10 steps: Often, more established artists will keep it simple. This is because their CV is e government master, usually referenced as a biography rather than a resume. Damian Hirst (b.
1965, UK) However, you can include contact information if you are sending out your CV to the cold war essay galleries in mba essay the hopes that they will reply: Damian Hirst, (b. 1965, UK) Either of these formats is who won the cold, appropriate for e government an artist’s CV. Just keep in mind that you should only include your website if it directly relates to your artistic practice. You may have attended post-secondary school for art, or you might be a self-taught, mentored, or otherwise educated artist.
Generally speaking, this section of a CV relates to institutional education specifically in the field of visual arts. If you do have post-secondary education in the arts field, include the school(s), the year(s) that you graduated, and the degree(s): University of British Columbia, Master of Fine Arts, 2009. Emily Carr University, Bachelor of Fine Arts, 2005. If you do not have a degree in the visual arts field, fear not. This section of the CV is not a pre-requisite for who won the cold exhibitions or gallery representation. Advantages Of Using! The only thing to note is that you should not put down any other type of education (high school graduation, degree in business management), unless it very directly relates to the artwork that you make.
Leaving this section off of your CV is perfectly acceptable. Beginning with your most recent, you should list your exhibitions in who won the cold a manner similar to this: 2011 Title of jury and cons essay, Show , Museum of the cold war essay, Modern Art, NY. 2010 I’ve been showing a lot lately , Galerie Espace, Montreal. If you have a large number of exhibitions, you can split them into two or more categories: solo exhibitions, group exhibitions, and even duo exhibitions. This helps define in what capacity your work was shown (you don’t want to undersell your solo show at the MoMA.) A method often used by artists is to list “selected” exhibitions, ie, the heading would read “selected group exhibitions”. Ap History Dbq Essays! This has benefits whether you have a lot of who won the cold war essay, exhibitions or not: if you have lots, you can weed out the exhibitions that are no longer relevant to your career. If you don’t have a lot of exhibitions, you are assuring the reader that they are not looking at advantages of using studies, a short list, but rather your most relevant history.
In this section of your CV, you can include any articles in which you or your art appeared. If it is an the cold war essay article, it should include the author, title, publication, volume, publication date, and page number: Coupland, Douglas: “Why I Love This Artwork”, Canadian Art Magazine, vol. Advantages In Research! 12, February 2011, p. 55-60. If your work appeared on the cover of who won war essay, a publication, you can format your information like this:
Canadian Art Magazine, Cover, vol. 12, February 2011. If writing about your artwork or your artwork itself appears in a book, the formatting should read: Schwabsky, Barry (Compiler), Vitamin P: New Perspectives in Painting , Phiadon Press 2004, p. 78. For further information and advantages of using other examples of MLA format, there any many resources online. As an example, here is SFU’s citation guide for MLA style . Once I entered a competition to paint banners for a small city’s Christmas celebration. I requested the banner be returned when the competition was over, but they refused to return it.
Now I put “City of _____” under the public collections section of my CV. We both win! Generally, the “collections” portion of who won, your CV is to list public institutions which own your artwork. This could be museums, corporate collections, or even municipalities or agencies. They can simply be listed under the heading collections: The Vancouver Art Gallery. The Canada Council Art Bank. The Colart Collection.
If you only have artwork in private collections and you wish to include this section on ap history dbq essays, your CV, you should not list the name of the war essay collector unless 1. they are well-known as important collectors of e government master, art, and 2. Who Won! have explicitly agreed to be listed on your CV in whatever venue it gets published (the web, etc). If several people own your artwork in networks private collections and you would like to note that, you can list them like this: Private collection, Calgary AB. Private collection, Vancouver, BC. Just don’t go to overboard with the who won the cold list– if you really have lots, you’ll look more understated and impressive by e government thesis inserting something like this: Works held in private collections in Canada, the United States, Germany, and who won New Zealand.
If you have any published writing relating to either your own practice or that of mba essay, others, you can list it here in proper MLA format: “This Artwork is Awesome”, Awesome exhibition catalogue, Vancouver Art Gallery, 2006. The above points are the most common and usually the most notable elements which artists include on their CVs. However, depending on your practice, there may be a number of other professional and artistic points of the cold war essay, interest to thesis neural networks list. Here are some examples: This is a space to who won the cold list any teaching positions you may have had, either as a faculty member or as a guest lecturer or speaker. Jury System Pros Essay! You should only war essay include those related specifically to your practice or to visual arts:
2009, Guest lecturer, Emily Carr University. 2007, Sessional instructor, SFU. If, as well as being an artist you have also undertaken curatorial projects (as so many artists seem to do now), you can list them simply as the thesis neural networks exhibition itself, or, add on a brief explaination: 2011, “Drawings”, Richmond Art Gallery. 2010, “Paintings”, Or Gallery, co-curated by who won war essay Damian Hirst. Some artists choose to list awards and / or grants they have received. If you decide to include this, the e government list should all be specifically related to your artistic practice, unless it is extremely notable, such as the Nobel Peace Prize:
2011, Canada Council grant. 2010, BC Arts Council grant. Artist’s residencies you may have attended are good to war essay include on for literary, your CV as they show a dedication to your practice and to your professional development: 2010, Studio residency, School of Visual Arts, New York. One of the best ways to start writing your CV is to see how other artists do it. War Essay! In addition to ap history the categories listed above, there are many different professional practices or ways of organizing your information. Many galleries or artist’s themselves post CVs on their website, so they are easily accessible. A few to who won war essay check out: 143 thoughts on “ How to Write an Artist’s CV in 10 Steps ” Thanks so much, great information. really great,, I was struggling on puting one together,
The information online is very conflicting when it comes to artists CV’s. thia article only applies to artists with sufficient experience and various accomplishments such that this article would provide no value, with no usefulness or relevance to thesis for literary analysis artists who are seeking advice on creating a resume. Hi Bradley– I’d be happy to give you other suggestions for your artist CV. The Cold War Essay! What kind of advantages case in research, artistic experience do you have, and what were you thinking of including on war essay, your CV? What would you reccommend to write in an unexperienced artist?s cv? I don?t even have shown my work in a gallery, do you think it is ap history, a must to do this? What would be the previous steps to writing a cv? I am interested in applying for a contest but I always end up not applying because of the cv. Wow. This blog is such a fantastic resource!
I am thrilled to have found it this afternoon! Cheers! If you are creating a resume for an art teacher position, do you still include all the the cold war essay info you pointed out? Or do you create more of a standard resume (objective, job history, etc.)? Do they want to writing see if your work has been in war essay galleries, etc? Hi Tanya, I would still use all the analysis info listed above, but perhaps pare it down to who won include only the thesis for literary analysis “highlights.” Then you can also include standard employment info from a regular resume, as well as references. The Cold! Cheers! Thanks for the info. Also, should I put experience first, then the highlights of why study, CV? Also, is their a max for the cold number of generator for literary, pages, because I know on who won the cold, my standard employment resume you shouldn’t have more than 2 pages. Apologies for the delayed reply!
I agree experience first and then CV highlights. Advantages Case! I’d keep it to the cold 2 pages if possible, but if the position you are applying for is prestigious or highly competitive, they would probably appreciate more information. For example, the analysis CVs of many scholars are pages and pages long! If you do not have a formal art degree but have taken collegiate courses, should you include the university and who won war essay disciplines under Education? I was originally enrolled in for literary analysis a 4 year art program and who won war essay due to a significant change in circumstances had to move and was forced to complete a 2 year general degree. My CV is thesis networks, really short, although I’m working on getting more exhibitions under my belt.
Hi Diana, yes, I would include these collegiate courses but keep them brief. I would list the who won the cold war essay general degree and highlight your original focus on thesis, the arts-related courses. What if you have no experience, have taken photography classes and have only shown in student shows? How can you put something together with practically nothing without making it look that way? Hi Lisa, you should list your photography courses under education and your student shows under exhibitions. If anyone owns your work (even if you’ve gifted them a work,) you can list them as a private collection (see step 5.) Those three items formatted nicely with your contact info should give you a decent 1 page CV. Don’t worry if it seems sparse to who won the cold war essay you, there’s nothing wrong with being an emerging artist! Also remember most people will look at your artwork before they look at master, your CV #128521; Thank you for who won the cold the information – it’s very helpful!
One other question – as far as publications is concerned: what if my art appeared in a [student] publication, but wasn’t reviewed? The book appears every spring and using neural networks consists of photos of who won the cold, various students’ work. Mba Essay! Should I put that on a CV or leave it out? Hi Lisa, definitely include it. Any time your artwork is published it’s worth including! A couple of questions: I have several exhibitions from the Navy, should they be listed by ship or simply U.S. Navy with home city and year?
I also received a nomination for 2005 Graphic Artist of the Year while in the Navy, which section would you recommend listing this? Hi Michael, for your exhibitions, I think you should list U.S. Navy, the ship, as well as home city and year. Someone looking at your CV would probably appreciate as much information as possible. For your nomination (congratulations, by who won the cold war essay the way!) you can list that under a heading called “awards.” You could format it something like this: 2005, Nomination, Graphic Artist of the Year, US Navy. I hope that helps #128578; Very much so. Thank you! OK, one more question, for dbq essays multiple awards received in one year, list year and award individually or as a group under that one year?
Hi Michael, there’s no exact right or wrong here, it’s up to you in who won war essay terms of what you think visually looks better. You could go like this: Nominated, Award #1. Nominated, Award #2. Finalist, Award #3. 2005, Nominated, Award #1. 2005, Nominated, Award #2. 2005, Finalist, Award #3. 2004, Winner, Award #4. just saying thank you. Why Study! i have struggled to find a good reference for creating a cv for an artist, this one is great. Thank you!
I’m glad it helped you. I was wondering whether the who won the cold war essay tips above applies to those wanting to pursue arts-management courses as well? . I don’t have formal post-secondary arts-related education but have taken part in small-scale and major group exhibitions. Hi Yangzheur, I think it depends exactly what you’re tailoring your CV for. Do you mean that you are applying to an arts-management business type of course? If so, look closely at their requirements. Are they asking for an artist’s CV? If so, the jury and cons information about war essay, would be applicable to you. Master! If they are asking for who won war essay a resume, and if you feel your participation in the exhibitions are relevant to the focus of the program, you could add those to your resume as professional experience. I hope that helps! Thank you.
Its good reference to e government thesis make a CV for an artist. Reblogged this on balladblood and the cold war essay commented: Very helpful for those of us doing their artist C.V’s for the first time. Great Advice! My sister is struggling and I am trying to help in of using case any way. I am not an artist so all the advice helps! Can I send you her CV so far? Hi Natalie, if you have any specific questions about the CV or its formatting, please email me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cheers! Thanks for the information. Who Won The Cold! You have clearly explained how we can write professional resume perfectly. There is one option to create perfect CV is to dbq essays use resume templates. This helps in saving your lot of time and also helps to make your resume best among all. Wow, This is wonderful. I am trying to take the information from my regular resume and crate a CV for graduate school applications. Is there a best format for grad school applications that combines both work and the cold war essay art? Also, I am challenged by and cons essay how I should add a competition (the only one I have to put on the CV) that was through Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Design, Issue 18, which is war essay, a print and web journal. I won a Merit award in student photography and was published (full page) in the magazine. Generator For Literary! But in addition to that for the same issue, my winning Runner-Up image was posted in the on-line gallery.
Here’s what I have written. The formatting did not carry over with a copy and paste function. Please imagine that the journal title is who won the cold war essay, underlined not to include the words, Volume Five, Number Four. Can you tell me if it is correctly entered? This is e government master writing, so awesome! Thank you! New Talent Merit Winner-Student Photography. Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Design, Issue 18. Volume Five, Number Four. Spring 2010.
64. The Cold War Essay! Print. Runner-Up-Student Photography. “Online Gallery: CQ 18.” Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Design, Issue 18. Jury System Pros Essay! Volume Five, Number Four. Spring 2010. Forgive if this post hows up twice. My laptop is being a pain right now. Hi, please forgive me for my delay in replying!
I think you should choose what elements you need from who won your work resume and which from your art, and combine them as you see fit based on the requirements of your application. Resumes are CVs are formatted fairly similarly, so if you just keep that consistent it should be just fine to combine the information that they require into one document. Regarding your competitions section, you could consider renaming it “Awards.” Even if you technically received runner-up, it still is ap history, appropriate. I think your formatting works well. Hope that helps #128578; New Talent Student Photography Award,v The information you’ve shared is who won the cold, very helpful.
I will change the section to Awards,and I’ll change the case information as you have suggested above. I really appreciate you! Thank you very much. When adding shows to your CV, should you separate juried shows from the cold war essay exhibitions? Does it matter and how should you separate them? I know that separating solo shows from group shows is done, but I am wondering specifically about juried (and, now that I think about it, un-juried — but that would make it more of just a group exhibition, no?) shows. Thank you. If you want to note that certain shows were juried, I would just put a note at advantages of using case studies, the end of who won the cold, those entries.
For example: 2013: “Portraits” at the Downtown Art Gallery (juried) “Landscapes” at West Art Gallery. “Abstracts” and East Art Gallery (juried) I think if you were to separate juried shows into their own section, it could get too confusing for neural a reader. Hope that helps! Hi! Thanks so much for war essay this CV advice, v helpful! I have a question aswell. Would you include web-based magazines under “bibliography”?
And in advantages studies in research that case, how would you write it? If you would like to include web-based magazines or publications on your CV, go ahead. You can list them along with the other items in the cold your bibliography, and e government master writing just put ” (online) ” or similar at the end of the listing. I’m sure web-based articles and reviews haven’t always been appropriate for CVs, but obviously things are changing. Any important articles and reviews, online or otherwise, should be included. Hope that helps! Thanks very much for your help! Am struggling with my CV, and realized Ive been in some magazines that have both a paper-based article and who won the cold war essay the same article online, so just thought I could refer to why study the online article as it would be easier get a hold of. In that case, you could add “(also available online)”? Perhaps that would make it clear to the reader. Thanks so much for who won the cold war essay your help with this!
If I had a collaborative piece in why study mba essay a group show in a museum, how do I indicate that I was one of the cold war essay, a number of people who produced the piece, or do I need to? You could list it like this: 2013, Group Show, Museum of ap history, Modern Art (artwork in collaboration with Andy Warhol and who won the cold Jackson Pollack) or if you don’t want to list the other artists (there’s too many, or you just want simplicity), you could simply put: 2013, Group Show, Museum of Modern Art (collaborative artwork). Hope that helps! If you show and sell in artist markets do they go in the Exhibitiions section? Should they be in a separate section ie; Markets. Many of the markets I have done over the past year were juried. Hi Leslie, usually you would not include markets in the exhibition section, even if they are juried. You could include them in their own section if you would like to advantages of using case studies include them on your CV, but I would say only do this if you are submitting your CV for commercial purposes, ie applying to a different market. Thank you for sharing this information and displaying it in such an easy to follow fashion.
Hi mate, do you suggest a cover letter with your cv? Thank you for this, I had done mine like a job CV until I found your post. I do not have a lot of shows on my CV, but I have made the most of who won the cold, it with your advice. Thank you. Hello and thank you for the information you’ve shared.
However, I’m someone who has had a career in producing and studies in research promoting the art of others. I recently found my own ‘voice’ and am trying to establish myself. My work is who won war essay, abstract photography and I’ve been approached for some rather large projects in Saudi Arabia, here in Los Angeles and in NYC. I’ve had an article written on me by a design magazine. I do have work in private collections in mba essay London, New York, Jacksonville, Dallas, New Orleans, Provincetown and who won Los Angeles, as well as shows in jury system and cons a couple of smaller galleries here in Los Angeles, but I can’t seem to land gallery representation. I’ve created an EMK (electronic media kit) to who won the cold use to why study begin cold submissions to galleries. I just was curious what input or advice you might have for me going forward.
I appreciate your time and who won the cold attention. Robert Madden. I would suggest, if you haven’t already, researching the mandates or programs of galleries before submitting. This could be online, or simply a phone call asking if galleries are accepting submissions, and what exactly they are looking for. Hopefully you can then narrow down the list of thesis analysis, galleries you are approaching. Of course, acquiring gallery representation is not easy for anyone. Stay persistent and keep working on your own projects and exhibitions–good things will happen. Hi dear,Thanks for sharing this format,I tried my best to made the most of it with your advise. I have attended some workshops by the cold some well known artists.
Should I include this under education or leave it off the CV. Including the workshops would be appropriate in the education section as you suggested. Thank you so much for this. System Pros And Cons Essay! Even the comments under specific questions asked by who won war essay others has been helpful. I appreciate your efforts. I unfortunately have no formal art training (I can not afford to attend art school) and I am near completion of dbq essays, my first collection (it is a mixed media project that focuses on the use of who won the cold, green army men in each piece). I recently discovered a not for profit gallery in my area that are taking submissions. I have a few pieces that I want to submit, and I have been racking my brain on what to pros place in my resume since I have not sold any work, presented it anywhere, I have yet to the cold place any work on why study, a website. Could you please assist me? Thank you in advance.
I also would like to ask if it is strange for an artist to who won work on a political body of work (as my toy soldier piece is), and then jump to a humorous body of generator, work, and who won war essay back to something political in nature, and anywhere in between? I can not think of any artist that have done that. Analysis! I always make notes of ideas for bodies of works that I’d like to create (many tend to be of a conceptual nature), and I have realised that many of my ideas don’t fit into the cold war essay, a mold that would categorize me as a person making a particular type of work. I ask this because, at some point, I would like to work on a humorous body of work after I feel ready to move on from this project. The best I can do for thesis generator for literary analysis your is included in my newest post, which offers suggestions for if you need to write a CV and don’t have much professional experience: https://thepracticalartworld.com/2013/04/09/how-to-write-an-artists-cv-when-you-dont-have-much-or-any-professional-experience/
Alternatively, depending on what is required of you for your submission, you could include a cover letter indicating that you do not have a CV as you are a new and emerging self-taught artist. In terms of the who won the cold war essay art itself, honesty is always visible. E Government Master Writing! If you make work that matters to you, whether it’s serious or humourous, that’s the best anyone can do. Thank you so much! Recently I took part in a photo competition organised by a local independent art gallery.
I didn’t win first prize but I was one of the runner-up(finalists). Who Won The Cold War Essay! Can this be included in my CV? If so under which (specific) category? If am applying for thesis analysis transfer of the cold, article ship in any firm where should i mention experience details.In experience column or any other place as the reason for advantages studies transfer. What a fantastic resource. Thank you! My issue is that I’ve taken about 10 years off to raise my children, so all of my dates are really OLD!! I’d like not to include any dates on the cold war essay, exhibitions or education or anything – what do you think? I feel like I am still emerging, and yet the dates would say otherwise (ie: undergrad in 1985-1991, grad school in 1993/94, etc…) How would you include a publication you produce?
I have been publishing and selling a calendar of my mandala art since 1997. Do I include that? How is the best way? You could list them under the heading “Publications” The format beyond that is up to you, but for an example you could do something like: 1997, “Michael Lukacsko” published by Mandala Art. If there are any essays or authors, you could list them also. Hope that helps!
Thank you so Much. You helped me a lot. Thank you for this advice – it helps a great deal to make sense of the mba essay differences between a work resume and an artist CV. I do have one question – is who won, it ok to mix media on thesis generator, a single CV? I came from the cold war essay a journalism/print media background and am now doing photography. Can I list my “Images of Men and Women in Advertising” Pop-Culture presentation and my piece on Lollapalooza on generator analysis, the same CV as my photography exhibit? I would say yes, as long as everything is still relevant to who won war essay your practice (which it sounds like it is).
Thank you so much for putting this together. It is just what I need to get my CV in working order for gallery applications. Master! I have been doing solo exhibits for a number of years, but have never had the courage to try to break into the world of gallery showings. The part about the war essay CV always had me worried. Now I know what I need to do. Thesis Generator For Literary Analysis! #128578; Reblogged this on who won, sallyann16 and of using commented: Wow. This is war essay, brilliant. Thank you Justine ! I am really grateful to the owner of this web page who has. shared this enormous post at at this place. Best breakdown I read today.
Clean simple truths. Thesis Generator Analysis! About to start my CV thanks. This post provides clear idea for who won war essay the new visitors of blogging, that. actually how to ap history do blogging. Greetings from Carolina! I’m bored to the cold war essay tears at thesis using networks, work so I decided to who won war essay check out your. website on my iphone during lunch break. I really like the info you present here and dbq essays can’t wait to war essay take a look. when I get home. Advantages Case In Research! I’m surprised at how quick your blog. loaded on my cell phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G ..
Anyways, superb blog! First, this information is so very helpful! Many thanks!! Secondly, I’m an emerging artist, so my CV is in the “sparse” stage. I’ve had two projects in which people commissioned me to create art work for covers. Who Won! One was for a published book of poetry, the other was for a music CD.
What title would I list these 2 projects under? I’m truly enjoyng the design and layot of your blog. Ap History! It’s. a vety easy on the eyes whicdh makes it much more pleasant for mee to come here and who won the cold visit. more often. Did yoou hire out a designer to create your theme? Quality posts is the crucial to be a focus for analysis the visitors to go to who won the cold see the site, that’s what this website is providing. Greetings! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a team of volunteers and dbq essays starting a new project in who won a community. in the same niche.
Your blog provided us beneficial information to. work on. Jury System Pros And Cons Essay! You have done a outstanding job! Heya! I understand this is sort of the cold war essay, off-topic however I. needed to ask. Does operating a well-established blog like. yours require a lot of thesis, work? I’m brand new to operating a blog however.
I do write in my journal everyday. Who Won! I’d like to jury system pros essay start a blog. so I will be able to share my personal experience and thoughts. online. Please let me know if you have any suggestions or tips for who won the cold brand new aspiring blog. In regards to the education section, I have a multimedia illustrator professional diploma from thesis using neural Defense Information School, would it be helpful to list it? I have been an artist for years and I still don’t have a comprehensive cv. I would also advice including links for who won the cold war essay your online portfolio i you have blogs or a website.
It would be useful and convenient for ap history dbq essays employers if they will just type the who won links and e government master thesis get an idea of what you can do as an artist. Nice advice! Keep it up! I will try to apply including to links for who won the cold my future resume drafts. #128578; BTW, good job for pros this article. I really enjoyed reading EVERY BIT of who won the cold war essay, advice written herein. For more advice on dbq essays, resume writing, I would like to recommend http://www.resumeprime.com/.
Hi, Carrie Fox. Thanks for commenting. The Cold! I really find the website you have given very useful. Just contacted them a while ago and they are really great and e government thesis awesome. Thank you once again. Aw, this was an incredibly good post. Taking the who won the cold time and actual. effort to make a superb article… but what can I say… I hesitate a whole lot and never seem to why study mba essay get.
nearly anything done. Hi, this is the who won the cold most useful site i have come across for advice on writing an artists cv– So thank you for that! I have a question. I come from a background in Animation, i studied a postgrad in it, and prior to that a degree in Graphic Design but in the last few years i have chucked animation in to be an artist. I have several exhibitons, but am wondering if it is thesis writing, ok to put that i occasionally teach with a group of kids once a month animation at the BFI (British Film Institute), or does this sound unproffesional. Also i have an award from the cold years ago from RSA for a short animation film i made…it is mba essay, ok to include this in the cold the CV. I also developed a childrens animation series and was creative director at a major tv company in the UK a while ago but am concerned that if i put all this in this CV it will be too long and not sticking to the field i am now involved with. I am just checking with you really, I was thinking of putting the dbq essays awards only and if anyone wanted to know more about my experience as an animator treat it as a seperate subject or CV??
thanks in the cold war essay advance for your advice. I am applying to using do an artists fair. Regards B. I think if you create a heading on your CV called “teaching” and put your BFI experience under, that would sound great. The Cold War Essay! It doesn’t matter that it’s in animation—teaching is a good thing to put on your CV if it’s in an arts-related field, which this is. I would agree with you that the award should be included, as it is an advantages case in research award you won for a personal creative project. I would also agree that the TV company experience should not be included, as that would be more of a work resume item. I hope that helps. War Essay! Cheers! that’s great- thanks for that. Ap History Dbq Essays! One other quick question.
I know that nowadays it is the cold war essay, not compulsory to put your date of e government master writing, birth on a CV- at least that is the case in the UK- due to ageism! would you think that for an artists CV this is necessary though? My thoughts are that it might be needed for the cold say selling something in an auction, or on an artists biography, but why should this be on a CV necesarily….? If it is a necesity could you let me know and i will put it, but I do not agree with it personally! I think it is often done, but not compulsory. Wonderful article!
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Scientists were aided by funding by some . Indeed, New England and the cold war essay the Chesapeake regions both had settlers of English descent; by the 1700's the developments of these sodalities had sculptured them into jury system pros and cons essay two distinct societies. The premier reason for the differentiation of the evolvement was . There were two main parties in the early nineteenth century that could be characterized based on their interpretations of the Constitution. The Jeffersonian Republicans were seen as strict constructionists, while the Federalists were viewed as broad . The generalization that, ???‚NsThe decision of the Jackson administration to remove the Cherokee Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River in the 1830s was more a reformulation of the national policy that had been in effect since the 1790s than a . Between the years 1825 and 1850, the US underwent a series of social and political reforms which attempted to democratize American life. Reform movements during this period of Jacksonian Democracy attempted to dissolve disunity in the social ladder and who won the cold . For Literary? The greeks, between the eighteenth century and early nineteenth century, fought for independence from the who won war essay Ottoman impire. In 1821, when the Greeks revolted against Ottoman turk rule, the ap history dbq essays Concert of Europe was hardly invoked at all. The cries for the cold war essay, freedom . The beginning of the 1780's starts off the decade on the right foot. The surrender at Yorktown ends the war with Great Britain, the networks Bank of North America is established, the treaty of Paris finalizes the peace with United states and Great Britain, . To prohibit a great people from making all that they can of every part of their own produce advantageous to themselves, is a manifest violation of the the cold war essay most sacred rights of networks, mankind. These views of who won, Adam Smith were very much supported throughout . During the Jacksonian era there were many different views on the rights and wrongs of the e government master thesis writing presidential actions. Who Won The Cold? The Jacksonians thought themselves to be guardians of individual liberty, political democracy, the United States Constitution and the equality . For Literary? 1993 Dbq: New England And Chesapeake. Although the who won the cold war essay Chesapeake Colonies and dbq essays New England Colonies were settled at around the who won the cold war essay same time, the specific situations affecting each establishment altered the way that they developed. Jamestown was the first settlement on May 24, 1607.
The Virginia . DBQ New England vs. Chesapeake The . Northern Middle-Class Women (1981 Dbq) Between the years of 1776 and 1876, a key change came about in of using studies, America over the women. Before these dates, women were not considered to be very important to the community. The only who won the cold war essay, major role they played was raising children and bringing food to the table . The settlers of the New England region were most likely driven to succeed in ap history, the New World because of how they had been treated in England. They had been strictly persecuted for their religious beliefs, and God was a major part of their lives.
This is . The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 The Alien and Sedition Acts were not merely intended for immigrants who spoke out against war essay, the government but more to detain the growth of the Democratic - Republican Party. These four Acts coercively lessoned the . The path of the revolution endured from about the 1610's to the 1780's. Here is where our founding fathers, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, etc. made adjustments to several documents, like the mba essay U.S Constitution and lead up to . During the early 1800s, two parties were developed having different perspectives on government and the Constitution. The Cold? The Democratic Republicans, led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, were always characterized by following the strict construction of . Many colonists held a stronger loyalty to their American Colonies than to England by the eve of the Revolution. The battles and trials that they endured gave them an identity and a unity, they had survived through many hardships and any group that does . Wilson's Ineptitude Stubbornness 1991 Dbq Ap History. President Wilson's own ineptitude and stubbornness is what led to the Senate's defeat of the Treaty of dbq essays, Versailles, rather than the strength of the opposing forces. Even Wilson's closest and most trusted advisors could not sway his stance. . Between 1781 and 1789, the Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an ineffective government, Although there were flaws, strong steps were taken in the attempt to try and make the United States a better country.
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dissertation comics Comics-Related Dissertations Theses: Doctoral. Note: The original list has now been separated into three pages. See also: Masters Theses || Undergradate Theses To submit additions or corrections, please contact us. Who Won War Essay. If submitting your own information, you may send as much as you wish. Suggestions for information include: your full name title of project level [doctoral, master's, undergraduate] degree. committee members abstract relevant URLs, e-mail addresses.
publication information (if the work has been published in ap history whole or in part) Comic Related MS/PhD Thesis (a brief list of primarily American work) For more information on comics in academia, see our Academic Resources page. Note: Degrees awarded are Ph.D. unless otherwise specified. Abderrahmane, Azzi. 1985.
French Structuralism and its Contribution to Sociological Theory. The Cold War Essay. University of North Texas. DAI. Barefoot Gen is an autobiographic account of childhood survival after the Hiroshima bombing in 1945. It is an thesis neural, anti-war visual polemic, offering a critique of both Japanese and US militarism. This case study includes a summary of the post-war development of manga, the visualisation of the bombing; the issue of interfamilial violence in manga; graphic reversal the technical difficulties of translation from the cold war essay Japanese; formal traditions and innovations in manga.
Maus is a Holocaust narrative that explores ethnic discrimination, the death camps and prevailing post-war anxieties of survivors and their offspring. In this case study there are sections on e government writing ethnicity and discrimination; reception and success in the cold war essay mainstream publishing; the question of taxonomy; establishing the graphic novel as a significant means of expressing political values; theories for jury pros and cons essay, the inclusion of photographs. Palestine is an account of Palestinian domestic life under military occupation, including the prisons and refugee camps. In this case study there is a discussion of cinematic techniques and Sacco’s methods of visualisation; topographical and political cartoon traditions; the use of frames, text and page layout; Palestine’s political effectiveness in relation to Edward Said’s analysis of the ‘peace process’. The study seeks to apply the methods of the social history of art, modelled on the work of critics like Clark, Martin Barker, Al Boime and Leonard Rifas, with an the cold, emphasis on the objects of study as material productions, inextricably bound up with the political context of neural networks, state and society. The history and themes of anti-Semitism in post-war US politics, the establishment and who won the cold maintenance of Israel, the Cold War, and US relations with Japan are all discussed as significant factors in why study the production of the case study works. The thesis concludes by summarising the findings of each of the case studies, as measured by application of the theories of realism explored in who won the cold the earlier chapter. Each graphic novel’s realism is found to be dependent upon the specific graphic language by which the artist challenges political orthodoxies. Adams, Kenneth Alan. Thesis Generator For Literary. 1980.
Family and Fantasy: Dread of the Female and the Narcissistic Ethos in American Culture. Brandeis University. DAI. Andersson, Lars M. 2000. The Cold. A Jew is A Jew is using neural a Jew. Representations of the cold, 'The Jew' in why study mba essay Swedish Comic Press 1900-1930s . Lund University (Sweden), Department of History.
On-line information; more. Bailey, Cellastine P. 2000. Teaching Writing and Creating Change in a Multicultural / Urban Elementary Classroom. The Cold War Essay. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Ap History. DAI. Beaty, Bart. 1999. All Our Innocences: Fredric Wertham, Mass Culture and the Rise of the Media Effects Paradigm, 1940-1972.
McGill University, Communications. Best, Mark Timothy. 2002. Who Won The Cold War Essay. Secret Identities: American Masculinities and the Superhero Genre in system pros and cons essay the Fifties. Indiana University. DAI. Blair, Christopher Allan. 2002. To Protect the who won the cold Children: An Examination of Arguments for the Content Regulation of Mass Media.
University of Memphis. DAI. Bogart, Leo. Of Using Studies. 1951. The Comic Strips and who won the cold their Adult Readers: A Study of Male Workers in a New York City Neighborhood. The University Of Chicago. DAI. Bongco, Mila Francisca. 1995.
Reading Comics: Analysing Language, Culture and and cons the Concept of Superheroes in Comicbooks. Dissertation Abstracts International, 1996 Sept; 57 (3): 1115A. Who Won. U of Alberta. Brown, Charles Marvin. 2002. The Culture of Culture Industries: Art, Commerce, and Faith in the Christian Retailing and Entertainment Industry. Southern Illinois University at Cabondale. DAI. Brown, Eric H. 1982.
Wholistic Reading Comprehension through Comic Book Art Production. Ed.D. Thesis Using Neural Networks. Columbia University Teachers College. DAI. Brown, Jeffrey A. 1997. The Cold War Essay. New Heroes: Gender, Race, Fans and Comic Book Superheroes . University of Toronto. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and neural networks Social Sciences, 1998 Dec; 59 (6): 1818. Carter, Vicki K. 2000. Learning from who won war essay work: Thinking aversively about 'Dilbert.' (Scott Adams) D.Ed.
Pennsylvania State University. DAI. 'The Shadow of a Past Time': History and Graphic Representation in Maus . Jury System Pros Essay. Twentieth-Century Literature 52.2 (Summer 2006): 1-32. Temporality and Seriality in Art Spiegelman's In the Shadow of No Towers . American Periodicals 17.2 (2007): 228-244. Coogan, Peter Macfarland. 2002.
The Secret Origin of the Superhero: the the cold war essay Origin and Evolution of the Superhero Genre in America. Michigan State University. Cusack, John Bernard. 1969. The American Weekly Humor Magazine in the Nineteenth Century. Boston University. Davidson, Sol M. 1959. Culture the Comic Strips. New York University. Davis, Julie Anne. 2000. 'Dilbert' as Organizational Analyst.
Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2001 June; 61 (12): 4755.U of Kansas. Duncan, Ralph Randolph, II. 1985. Panel Analysis: A Critical Method for Analyzing the Rhetoric of Comic Book Form. Louisiana State University. DAI, 1991 June; 51 (12): 3942A. Dycus, Dallas J., Jr.
2009. Chris Ware's Jimmy Corrigan: Honing the Hybridity of the Graphic Novel. Georgia State University; English dept. Michael Galchinsky, director; Chris Kocela; Randy Malamud. http://digitalarchive.gsu.edu/english_diss/47. My introductory chapter provides a broad, basic introduction to the genre of comics its historical development, its different forms, and a survey of comics criticism over the last thirty years.
In chapter two I clarify the nature of comics by comparing it to literature, film, and pictorial art, thereby highlighting its hybrid nature. It has elements in e government writing common with all of these, and yet it is who won the cold a distinct genre. My primary focus is on Chris Ware, whom I introduce in chapter three, a brilliant creator who has garnered widespread recognition and respect. His magnum opus is Jimmy Corrigan: The Smartest Kid on Earth, the story of four generations of Corrigan men, most of whom have been negligent in raising their sons. Jimmy Corrigan, as a result, is an introverted, insecure thirty something year old man. Among comics creators Ware is unusual in that his story does not address socio political issues, like most of his peers, which I discuss in chapter four.
Jimmy Corrigan is an isolated tale with a very specific focus. Ware s narrative is somewhat like those of William Faulkner, whose stories have a narrow focus, revolving around the lives of the thesis generator analysis inhabitants of Yoknapatawpha county, rather than encompassing the vast landscape of national socio political concerns. Also, in who won the cold war essay chapter five I explore the intriguing combination of realist and Gothic elements normally at opposite ends of the generic continuum that Ware merges in Jimmy Corrigan. Using Networks. This feature is especially interesting because it is another way that his work explores aspects of who won, hybridity. Finally, in my conclusion I examine the current state of comics in American culture and its future prospects for development and success, as well as the potential for future comics criticism. Eastman, Jacqueline Fisher.
1998. A Study of The 'Madeline' Books of Ludwig Bemelmans. University of Alabama. Advantages Of Using Case Studies In Research. DAI. Fauvel, Marie-Louise. 1989. L'Aventure d'une Ecriture: La Bande Dessine d'Essai. University of Wisconsin - Madison.
Flanigan, Beverly Olson. 1981. Who Won. American Indian English in History and mba essay Literature: The Evolution of a Pidgin from Reality to the cold Stereotype. Indiana Univesity. Case. DAI. Fuglsang, Ross Stuart. 1997.
Motorcycle Menace: Media Genres and the Construction of a Deviant Culture. Who Won The Cold War Essay. University of Iowa. DAI. Gabillet, Jean-Paul. 1994. Le comic-book: Un objet culturel Nord-Am ricain.
Universit Michel de Montaigne-Bordeaux. Garlitz, Ivy. 1998. The Old Country: An Experiment in Modes of Writing on the Jewish-American Experience in Poetry, Fiction, and Popular Culture. University of East Anglia in Norwich (UK). [Parts of the jury system pros critical chapters of the dissertation were published in Comics Forum magazine. ] Gibson, Mel. 2002. Who Won The Cold War Essay. Remembered Reading: Memory, Comics and Post-war Constructions of British Girlhood. University of ap history, Sunderland. Gordon, E.B.
1970. The Significance of Political Caricature during the Reign of Louis Philippe, 1830-1835. Philadelphia [Query: Ph.D or Master's level?] Harkins, Anthony Andrew R. 1999. The Hillbilly in Twentieth-Century American Culture: The Evolution of the cold war essay, a Contested National Icon. University of Wisconsin - Madison. DAI. Harrison, Michael Preston. Essay. 2009.
Comics as Text and Comics as Culture: Queer Spain through the Lens of a Marginalized Medium . University of California, Irvine, Dept. of Spanish and Portuguese. Dr. Jill Robbins and Dr. Luis Avils, co-chairs, Dr. Ana Mara Amar Snchez, committee member. I begin by establishing previous critical explorations of queer Spanish followed by a prehistory of who won war essay, Spanish comics and comics related art forms. I then devote three chapters to the analysis of comics from different historical moments.
In the first, focused on Nazario s Anarcoma, I explore the ways the comic deals with visual representations of fluid gender identity, the constructedness of gender, and the navigation of newly opened gay spaces. Next, I analyze Manuel by Rodrigo, who transgresses the spatial norms of comics themselves as a means of celebrating the varied freedoms of the Spanish gay community under democracy while linking its refiguring of city spaces with its subversion of comics conventions; specifically the absence of delineated panels and the elimination of verbo-visual text (word balloons). In the third chapter, I discuss Rafa s Chuecatown series and how the thesis text, through the use of the cartoon form and its citation of iconic comics figures, communicates issues of gender and the cold sexual identity, institutionalized homophobia, and current sociopolitical issues such as gay marriage and adoption. My final chapter examines the iconography of comic book superheroes in the poetry of Leopoldo Mara Panero and lvaro Tato, and the narrative of Lluis Fernndez, and how the ap history dbq essays rich mythological systems associated with these characters are wielded by these poets to concisely convey emotional realities, questions of identity, and expressions of gender. Although often viewed as a marginalized medium, through detailed analyses of these comics texts I uncover aspects of queer Spanish culture that have yet to the cold war essay be explored in much depth, drawing explicit connections between the mechanisms that comics employs in thesis for literary analysis its narrative project and the specific issues of significance to the development of gay identity post-Franco.
Hatfield, Charles William. Who Won War Essay. 2000. Graphic Interventions: Form And Argument in Contemporary Comics [Dissertation on Hernandez Bros, autobiography and why study mba essay Chester Brown.] U of Connecticut, Department of English. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2000 Oct; 61 (4): 1386. Heisler, Florence Anna.
1944. Characteristics of who won, Elementary-School Children Who Read Comic Books, Attend the Movies, and why study Prefer Serial Radio Programs. New York University. DAI. Helsby, Wendy Frances. 1999. Comics in Education: The Link between Visual and Verbal Literacies: How Readers Read Comics. DAI, Section C: Worldwide, 2000; 61 (3): 643-44. U of Southampton. Despite the steady stream of overseas influences, this Australian alternative comics scene has managed to display a sense of vitality and who won war essay a local identity. An examination of the work reveals a wide range of subjects, a plurality of graphic styles, a level of jury system and cons essay, self-reflexivity and widespread use of autobiographical material.
Many of the participants in the movement have positioned themselves on the creative ‘edge’ antagonising, irritating, satirising and who won the cold testing the acceptable limits of ap history dbq essays, visual expression. In so doing they take advantage of what is a relatively unregulated outlet of creativity and visual communication. The graphic humour of their work adds to the visual culture of the who won the cold war essay country and contributes to the ongoing critique of Australian life. No subject is sacred and thesis so Prime Ministers, Premiers, politicians and party members, pop stars, princesses and parents, Olympic mascots and sporting champions, subcultures and even the creators themselves have been the the cold target of these artists’ pens as they seek to satirise the state of Australian affairs. From its position on the margins, its critical viewpoint is often expressed with humour. In addition to employing artistic practices in their work, these creators also make use of design strategies. In particular, their use of visual communication techniques facilitates its conveyance to a small but nevertheless widespread audience.
In its own limited way Australian alternative comics not only dbq essays contribute to the visual cultural life of Australia but also work as an aid to an understanding of it. They add to the ongoing critique of Australian society, and provide an inviting and creative outlet for these fearless commentators and satirists. This thesis represents a basic description and critique of their practice. Jobs, Richard Ivan. Who Won. 2002.
Riding the New Wave: Youth and the Rejuvenation of France after World War II. Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick. DAI. Johnson, Crystal A. 1997. Schizoid Defenses, Transitional Phenomena and Humor in mba essay Bureaucratic Corporate Life. War Essay. DAI, Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 1997 Oct; 58 (4): 2165-66. Wright Institute. This analysis focuses on three broad themes: (1) The development of comics storytelling from the single comics page to the larger “book experience”; (2) The struggle between art and commerce which is enacted via the publication methods of comics; and (3) The growing opportunities for e government writing, personal expression in the comics form. Winsor McCay, who created Little Nemo in Slumberland and Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend at war essay, the beginning of the twentieth century, was one of America’s earliest professional strip cartoonists, as well as one of the thesis first American animators. Finding his work constrained to the newspaper page, with no opportunities for his work to grow into a more permanent form, McCay moved into the realm of animation to explore personal themes that his work for William Randolph Hearst increasingly would not allow.
His formal and the cold thematic innovations on the comics page, however, influenced generations of cartoonists to jury system essay follow, including Art Spiegelman, the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Maus , whose underground comics work, freed from the editorial and commercial constraints, explored the formal aspects of cartooning in the long form. His eventual role as small publisher himself opened doors for new cartoonists who thrived in smaller comics venues apart from the who won the cold traditional newspaper or comic book page. Chris Ware, creator of The Acme Novelty Library , uses the advantages of using studies in research freedom and opportunities created by Spiegelman and other alternative publishers to explore form and theme in ways that explicitly acknowledge the importance of who won the cold, design, in both images and the text within them, throughout the course of his comics narratives. Kern, Adam Lewis. 1997. Blowing Smoke: Tobacco Pouches, Literary Squibs, and Authorial Puffery in the Pictorial Comic Fiction (Kibyshi) of Sant Kyden (1716-1816). Harvard University, East Asian Languages and Civilizations. Forthcoming: The Geisha's Forbidden Comicbook (tentative title; accepted for of using in research, publication by who won the cold war essay, the Asia Center, Harvard University Press). Kraemer, Christine Hoff. 2008.
The erotic fringe : sexual minorities and religion in master thesis writing contemporary American literature and film . Boston University, Religious and Theological Studies. Who Won. Advisers: Peter S. Mba Essay. Hawkins and Susan L. Mizruchi. Who Won The Cold. Full text available through ProQuest/UMI. Contact: http://inhumandecency.org/christine / email@example.com. Kraft, Karl R. 1990. Ap History. The Use of Comic Strips and Single-Panel Cartoons as an Outreach to Unchurched Young Adults through the Broad Street United Methodist Church, Burlington, New Jersey.
D.Min. Drew University. DAI. Krinsky, Charles Jay. 1998. Rebels without a Closet: The Construction of Juvenile Delinquency, Masculinity, and who won war essay Male Sexuality in American Culture, 1945-1961.
University of California, Irvine. DAI. Kurzrok, Allan. 1993. Master Writing. 'The Kids from who won the cold 'Help' Look at Loss and essay Life': The Inception, Conceptual Framework and who won the cold Creation of a Comic Strip and Psychodynamically Established Text for Increasing Psychological Awareness and Motivating Insight Orientation and Personal Growth in the Lay Public. Union Institute (Ohio). DAI. Moreover these general theoretical and analytical findings are tested in a case study of the writing most popular Flemish comic strip for decades: Suske en Wiske (in English translated as Spike and Suzy , Willy and Wanda or Bob and Bobette ). Though the Flemish dailies are still publishing new stories of Suske en Wiske , this study focusses on the 71 stories made by Willy Vandersteen (1913-1990) for the newspapers De Nieuwe Standaard and who won the cold war essay De Standaard between 1945 and jury system pros and cons essay 1971. This analysis shows that Suske en Wiske has a unity and a set of concrete formal techniques,evolving in time.Culture, tradition, personal qualities of the author(s),etc.,they were all influential in the choice of resources; but very important was also the way in which these comics were published.The publication format (namely two tiers in a newspaper) influenced the who won the cold war essay total concept of the series,both style and content.
Though Vandersteen did not create many new techniques,his combination of a continuity strip with various forms of humor (including self-referential humor), a (fake) family setting, wild imagination and why study mba essay criticism of hot topics is quite unique. Lipper, Mark M. Who Won The Cold. 1974. Comic Caricatures in Early American Newspapers as Indicators of the National Character. DAI, 1974; 34: 5896A(So. Ill.). Lovata, Troy R. 2000. An Exploration of Archaeological Representation: People and the Domestic Dog on the Great Plains of North America . The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Anthropology. Advisoir: Sam Wilson, Ph.D.; committee: Drs. Kenneth Foote (then Texas, now Colorado), Silvia Tomaskova (North Carolina), Fred Valdez (Texas) and Pauline Strong (Texas). I did a short comic about making a comic book dissertation for the Society of American Archaeology's journal back in 2005. Of Using Case Studies. It can be found here, starting on page 22.
Lunning, Nancy French. 2000. Comic Books: Sex and Death at the Edge of Modernity. The Cold. DAI, Section A: The Humanities and for literary Social Sciences, 2000 June; 60 (12): 4225. U of Minnesota. Mattozzi, Alvise.
1998. Nuvole Sotterranee. Alaisi Socio-Semiotica del Fumetto Underground . Universita' Degli Studi di Siena, Facolta di Lettere e Filosofia, Corso di Laurea in Scienze della Communicazione. The Cold. Relatore: Ch.mo Prof. Omar Calabrese. Merino, Ana. 2001. Las dimensiones narrativas del comic del mundo Hispanico en los limites de la modernidad. (Spain, Mexico, Argentina, Cuba.) University of Pittsburgh.
DAI. Mickelson, Holly Michelle. 2002. Replacing Memory: Comics, Survivorship, and Narrative Rupture in Art Spiegelman's Maus Project. Thesis. Purdue University. Abstract on-line. Miller, Jeffrey Alan. 2001.
Critical Analysis of who won the cold war essay, Comic Strips: A Semiological Approach. (Roland Barthes.) Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2001 Oct; 62 (4): 1271. State U of New York, Buffalo. Nguyen, Nhu-Hoa. 2009. Narration graphique : l’ellipse comme figure et signe peircen dans la bande dessine . For Literary Analysis. Universit du Qubec Montral (UQAM) Mutifaculty (philosophy, communication and literary studies); program: Ph. Who Won War Essay. D. in semiology. Advisors: Dr. Franois Latraverse (philosophy) Dr. Thesis For Literary Analysis. Philippe Sohet(communication). Pour ce faire, le premier axe revisite les concepts existants dans quelques champs d’tude principaux, soit la rhtorique, la linguistique, la littrature et la cinmatographie.
Une fois l’assise thorique gnrale pose, le deuxime axe porte un regard sur les diverses expressions de ces concepts en bande dessine travers une centaine d’occurrences puises dans une vaste collection internationale, en particulier la France, les tats-Unis et le Japon. Le troisime axe dtermine le trajet interprtatif de ces expressions au moyen de la trichotomie infrentielle (abduction – dduction – induction) du philosophe pragmatiste Charles S. Peirce. Les recherches menes ont rvl qu’une comprhension plus complte de l’ellipse passait par d’autres figures rhtoriques de nature semblable qui, elles aussi, adoptent le non-dit et le non-montr comme lieux d’expression. La cohabitation avec ces figures et la confrontation de diverses conceptions de l’ellipse travers diffrents domaines ont permis de synthtiser les rsultats en une dfinition applicable gnralement. Elles ont aussi donn lieu une typologie gnrale, qui peut tre modifie pour s’adapter aux besoins particuliers; en l’occurrence, on s’est retrouv avec une taxonomie plus dtaille des ellipses en bande dessine qui couvre les formes des plus courues aux moins courantes. L’application de la classification l’expression concrte de la bande dessine a aussi rvl que le transfert des notions rhtoriques amne une modification notable du statut figural des procds elliptiques, qui prsentent un double comportement, tantt sans aucun changement smantique, tantt avec modification de sens. Par ailleurs, le processus d’interprtation par l’infrence peircenne a fourni l’outil ncessaire pour confirmer le travail incessant d’interprtation d’une bande dessine, dterminer de faon logique l’existence d’une ellipse dans sa lecture et lucider la concordance entre les genres de raisonnement logique et les types d’ellipse. Ainsi les ellipses dductives procurent un sentiment de satisfaction dans la pratique de lecture de progression, alors que les ellipses abductives et inductives rjouissent davantage le lecteur de la comprhension, qui elles ouvrent des horizons riches de possibilits et de probabilits. Okamoto, Rei. 1999.
Pictorial Propaganda in Japanese Comic Art, 1941-1945: Images of the Self and the Other in a Newspaper Strip, Single-Panel Cartoons, and Cartoon Leaflet s. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 1999 Sept; 60 (3): 580. Temple U. O'Sullivan, Judith Roberta. 1976. Who Won. The Art of Winsor Z. McCay (1871-1934). University of neural, Maryland.
Pavlovic, Tatjana. 1996. The Despotic Body and the Nymphomatic Body: Spanish Culture from Francisco Franco to Jesus Franco. University of Washington. DAI. Peck, Stephen Madry, Jr. Who Won. 1988. Tense, Aspect and Mood in Guinea-Casamance Portuguese Creole.
University Of California, Los Angeles. DAI. Prez del Solar, Pedro. 2000. Images of the Desencanto: Spanish Comics, 1979-1986 . Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2000 Nov; 61 (5): 1868. Princeton U.
Comics images rely on minimizing and absence of information, rather than representation in detail. The notion of the gap as an inherent part of the abstraction that is typical of the comics image is established. The page layout is created by frames and gutters which separate out the individual panels, creating structure and order. Why Study. The gaps between panels are ultimately the condition for creating sequence and the cold continuity from analysis a series of separate panels. In relation to the layout, gutters are literal gaps, empty spaces on the cold war essay the page, while in relation to case studies in research the sequence, gutters are gaps in time, gaps in sequences of events that call for interpretation of action rather than of structure. Another means besides the sequence through which comics offer to close gaps is provided by the insertion of the cold, text, the verbal code which as a separate register introduces another way in which to system interpret and connect the images in the cold war essay the comics sequence. Text can be another way of bridging gaps between panels. Using. The concept of gaps is familiar from a narratological point of view, as inherent to and productive of narrative. It provides yet another way in comics in which the reader is invited and engaged as a participant.
Through the narrative gap, and the recognition of the gap operative at all levels of their signification, comics create a self-awareness of these absences, often by creating narratives in which the gap itself takes on who won the cold a thematic role, not just a signifying function. In my interrogation of the function of the gap as creative presence/absence in comics, I take a central characteristic of comics as my theoretical foundation: the form involves a different kind, and in fact many different kinds, of reading, only ap history one of which is the reading of words. Who Won The Cold. The other forms of reading that comics require deal largely with the image. Due to the role of the thesis neural image in comics, it is sometimes assumed that reading comic comes naturally, that the war essay meaning of these texts is jury essay transparent because they are visual. The idea is that it is not necessary to learn this kind of reading, let alone that such texts might require explanation. However, in this age of visual literacy, that view has been superseded. We have learned that images and the cold war essay their power should not be taken for granted, and that images can carry a host of messages. The process of reading in comics is not natural, is not inherent, and for literary analysis my dissertation sets out to the cold war essay lay bare that process, break down the thesis numerous functions that are actually involved in the cold reading comics. Ap History Dbq Essays. One problem with discussing these levels is that they are all intertwined: when a person reads a comics, the signifying functions of the the cold drawings, the sequence and the story all work at the same time.
The gap offers a way of thesis generator analysis, breaking apart the levels of the cold war essay, signification. It offers a way into for literary these processes, since the who won war essay gap operates slightly differently at advantages studies in research, each level—image, layout, sequence, text-image relations, and who won the cold war essay narrative. The area of study to which my work contributes is not a brand new field, but it is certainly still developing. The man who is sometimes hailed as the inventor, the father of comics, Swiss Rodolphe Tpffer, also wrote the first theory of comics, in his Essay on Physiognomy (Essai de Physiognomonie) from 1845. The field has expanded from master thesis there, with histories of comics written since the 1940s, and dissertations and sociological studies of comics following shortly after.
In terms of the popularization and visibility of who won, comics studies (certainly in North America) two texts have been of great significance: Will Eisner’s Comics and Sequential Art (1985), and Scott McCloud’s Understanding Comics (1994). These texts share with Tpffer’s ur-comics study that they are written from the point of view of the writer. While these works analyze the form of comics to jury system pros some extent, they are mostly invested in the cold a how-to approach, explaining how comics artists can craft their stories, can achieve certain effects. My own study of comics signification comes at the form from the e government master thesis other side. My analysis is based in the experience of the reader. When a person is faced with a comics text, how does he or she make sense of it? European comics criticism has a longer tradition of comics studies from a readerly point of who won war essay, view, and most often rooted in a semiotic approach, as my dissertation is.
Examples of this school are Strips Anders Lezen or Pour une lecture moderne de la bande dessine by jury pros and cons, Pascal Lefvre and Jan Baetens (1993), and Thierry Groensteen’s Systme de la bande dessine (1999). This last work was translated into English in 2007, and marks an who won the cold, important development in American comics criticism: the introduction of the why study European school of formal analysis of comics. Groensteen’s work has been of the cold, some influence on my own. My work is in dialogue with Groensteen’s, building on some of his ideas but creating a vocabulary in English. Also, the francophone tradition of comics studies, not surprisingly, draws on the Francobelgian tradition of Bande Dessine. This is a tradition of comics that North American readers tend not to be very familiar with, and one that operates quite differently from American comics. Thus, besides furthering the understanding of signification in comics, my work also offers an entry into francophone work on comics by applying theoretical concepts like braiding (tressage) and ap history dbq essays the multiframe, but applying them in American comics. At the center of the cold war essay, my semiotics of neural, comics is the the cold gap, the notion of creating meaning out of absences.
While the gap functions and is coded in different ways for each layer of signification in comics, its presence in all these levels creates the coherence in my understanding of the form. The most familiar conception of the gap in relation to narratology is Wolfgang Iser’s application of the gap or blank as a productive force in narrative, drawing the reader into the process. Of Using Studies In Research. Comics, like any narrative medium, display this function of the gap. The text that produces the narrative gaps is itself riddled with other gaps and absences as well. Comics narrate in sequences of images, which rely on gaps to create continuity. Actions and movements have to be shown in fragments, in who won the cold separate images, in order to evoke the complete action.
Comics create wholes from holes. The sequential production of narration, of action, in thesis generator comics is the result of the layout, which is a feature that is very specific to the comics form. The layout makes the gap literally visible on the page, in the form of the empty gutters between panels. Who Won War Essay. The blanks signal that the sequences of panels signify in relation to one another. The gutter invites an involvement from the reader, who is called upon to produce a continuity, a coherence from the discontinuous fragments shown on ap history dbq essays the page. While there are absences between the panels in who won the cold comics, absences also exist within the panels. Imagery in comics signifies through simplification and abstraction. Its reduction of detail is related to caricature, but the aim of system pros and cons, caricature is to foreground and ridicule certain actual qualities of who won, its real-life subjects, which is not generally the case with comics drawings. The cartoon style of drawing in comics contains gaps in its lack of detail. The images make up for a lack of information through the advantages of using case studies in research use of strong outlines.
In what Rudolf Arnheim calls the “completion effect,” the reader is again called upon to fill in the absent information. Besides the gap, the signifying processes of comics share another, though related, feature, namely a representational economy. At all levels of comics signification the who won the cold war essay discourse displays an economy of detail. From the point of view of the writer/artist in comics the question always seems to be: how little can I show, how much can I leave out, and still produce a viable narrative. I use Charles Schulz’ Peanuts throughout to illustrate this economy of image, of sequence, even of narration. The gaps and openings that are left on the comics page create space for the production of why study mba essay, meaning. Who Won. Signification is of using case studies in research a dynamic process in comics, one that requires reading multiple layers of meaning at the same time. Who Won The Cold War Essay. Although all these layers of signification involve a similar process, namely finding and e government thesis filling in absences, these gaps are created using different codes and signs at each level of signification (drawings, layout, sequence, narrative), and consequently they require different forms of decoding at each level. One might think that all these different layers would become incomprehensible, that the variety of different codes used, and the complexity of signifying systems would be overwhelming. Comics, however, communicate instructions for how to read them along with their narrative, through their very use of codes. In my dissertation I have brought those latent codes to the forefront and show how they work in a number of different texts.
This analysis denaturalizes the who won the cold war essay various kinds of reading that comics require, and shows the sophisticated processes of signification at work. Comics supply readers with the advantages case keys to their decoding. Through conventions, in who won war essay their application of self-referentiality, and often by reference to other media, comics provide both the text and the manual for how to read that text. Generator. This is once again a way in who won which comics very directly involve and using neural networks address their readers. What needs to be inserted into the gap that is left in comics, is, ultimately, the reader. Price, Penelope. 1985. Gravity's Rainbow: Thomas Pynchon's Use Of The Media. Arizona State University. DAI.
Proctor, Phyllis A. 1973. Mexico's Supermachos: Satire and Social Revolution in who won the cold war essay Comics by Rius . Dissertation Abstracts International, 1973; 33: 5138A(Texas, Austin). Rios Soto, Marilyn. 2000. El papel del lector en la novela 'La ley del amor' de Laura Esquivel. (Mexico) University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez. DAI. Roemer, Richard Dean. Ap History. 1995.
The Thief of the cold, Bad Gags: Charles Ludlam and the Ridiculous Theatrical Company. Mba Essay. A Serious Look at a 'Ridiculosity.' (Gay studies) Universtiy of California, Los Angeles. DAI. Round, Julia Valerie. 2006.
From comic book to graphic novel: writing, reading, semiotics . University of Bristol, UK. Department of who won war essay, English. PhD thesis. Advantages In Research. More info at www.juliaround.com. An article drawn from this thesis ('Fragmented Identity: the superhero condition') was published in the cold the International Journal of Comic Art 7.2 (2005): 358-369.
It begins by of using studies, summarising the American comics industry’s progress historically and uses review of literary criticism to examine comics’ progression from marginalised ‘funny books’ to cult literature to academic and mainstream acceptance. Who Won War Essay. It then considers the Vertigo comics from a variety of perspectives, researching the ways in which they represent the continuance and culmination of thematic and structural elements perceived in ap history dbq essays the literary genres of the Gothic, Myth, and the Fantastic. These elements are returned to as it subsequently approaches the Vertigo comics as postmodern artefacts, examining the ways in which this imprint has contributed to who won war essay the reinvention of both the concept and material form of comics, and concludes with a case study that applies semiotic theories of text and image, showing how notions of the sign are affected by the hybrid nature of the medium. As an interdisciplinary study this research considers the Vertigo comics in mba essay relation to their history, their surroundings and readership, and to other forms of cultural/literary output past and present; grounding textual issues in a historical context and who won the cold war essay reflecting on thesis using neural critical discourse that typically sets literature against popular culture. Rubenstein, Anne G. Who Won. 1994. Mexico 'Sin Vicios': Conservatives, Comic Books, Censorship and the Mexican State, 1934-1976.
Rutgers the State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick. DAI. On-line information. Saunero, Veronica Hazel. 1989. Towards a Definition of the New Spanish-American Essay in the Essayistic Texts of Julio Cortazar. (Spanish Text; Argentina) The Pennsylvania State University. DAI. Schwibbe, Michael H. 1988. Das Bild der Frau bei Wilhelm Busch : ein inhaltsanalytischer Vergleich zu Bilderromanen, Schwnken, Mrchen und Sagen. Why Study Mba Essay. Gttingen : E.Goltze. Sears, Cornelia.
1997. Africa in the American mind, 1870-1955: A study in Mythology, Ideology and the Reconstruction of Race. University of California, Berkeley. DAI. Smith, Rodney Dale. 1979. A Study of the who won the cold International Political Events and Commentary in Selected American Comic Strips from 1940 - 1970. Ed.D. Ap History Dbq Essays. Ball State University. DAI.
Soper, Kerry David. 1998. Seriously Funny: A History of Satirical Newspaper Comic Strips in Twentieth Century United States. Emory University. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 1998 Oct; 59 (4): 1228. Stall, Robin Carin.
2000. Using Comics to Teach Multiple Meaning of Words. Who Won. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2001 Apr; 61 (10): 5270. The author distinguishes between two types of thesis generator analysis, virtuality, internal and external, and ties the the cold construction of mba essay, virtuality to reader response theory. In exploring issues related to the icon, the author builds on Scott McCloud’s conjecture that the iconic character is the means through which the reader inhabits the who won the cold war essay virtual space of the graphic story. The author advances the system proposition that icons are metonymies and that graphic narratives are centered in metonymic, not metaphoric devices. He also undertakes a discussion of how icon operates within the expanding tradition of the “illustrated novel.” Throughout the dissertation an attempt is who won the cold made to express observation and analysis through continuous instead of system and cons, binary descriptors in order to emphasize the cooperative rather than oppositional arrangements of who won war essay, word and image within the graphic narrative. The dissertation concludes with an master thesis, extended examination of war essay, Will Eisner’s contention that the use of stereotype is a necessity in graphic storytelling. Why Study Mba Essay. Examples from Frederik Strmberg’s Black Images in the Comics are used to test this theory and illustrate its consequences.
The treatise finishes with an analysis of approaches to representation that avoid stereotypical treatment, are inclusive but sufficiently flexible to operate through caricature. These observations are applied to issues of characterization and who won the cold representation in electronic gaming narrative. The author concludes that ethics, effectiveness, reputation and empathy are all compromised when artists resort to jury system pros essay stereotypes. Swartz, John Alan. Who Won The Cold. 1978. The Anatomy of the Comic Strip and the Value World of Kids. Ohio State University. WorldCat. Takahashi, Maki. 2002.
It is Hard to system pros and cons essay be Ordinary: An Analysis of the cold war essay, Language Use in 'Maboroshi no Futsuu Shoojo' (Japanese, Shungiku Uchida). University of Kentucky. DAI. Thalheimer, Anne. Master Thesis Writing. 2002. Terrorists, Bitches, and who won war essay Dykes: Gender, Violence, and Heteroideology in Late 20th-Century Lesbian Comix. University of Delaware.
DAI, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences (DAIA) 2002 Sept; 63 (3): 939. Abstract no: DA3046632. Chapter One examines Spenser's Faerie Queene , especially Britomart, Arthegall, and Talus the yron man. Superheroes like Captain America help us understand Spenser's use of shadows, allegorical characters who represent one facet of a real individual (such as Elizabeth). Iron Ma' s struggle with alcoholism illuminates the importance of self-control in both the superhero romance and the knight who is why study his forebear. Tony Stark's slippery identity, often confused by his superhuman suit and his identification with it, help us to understand how Arthegall's identity as the Knight of Justice is temporarily bestowed instead on Britomart, who acts as an exemplar. Chapter Two surveys the use of Arthurian myth in who won comics, and of using case studies creates adjectival categories which may be applied in a non-exclusionary manner to these Arthurian comics. Chapter Three is a close reading of three comics by Grant Morrison -- JLA, The Invisibles, and Seven Soldiers of Victory -- focusing on his use of the Holy Grail. His Arthurian sources, including Wolfram von Eschenbach, Wagner, Chretien, and Malory, are traced. Morrison's Grail is a symbol of communion, of the exchange of ideas between forces which seem opposite but are, in fact, the same.
Finally, Chapter Four is an analysis of Jack Kirby's Fourth World epic, with a comparison made to Ben Jonson s innovative work on the cold the court masque. The Judeo-Christian and anti-fascist elements of the two-year experiment are unpacked, challenges of collaboration are examined, and the argument is made that, like Jonson, Kirby took a well-established form known for its limitations and went beyond those limitations to make the genre definitively his own. Tousignant, Nathalie. 1995. Thesis Using Neural Networks. Les manifestations publiques du lien colonial entre la belgique et le congo belge (1897-1988).
Universite Laval (Canada). Who Won. DAI. Vergara, Robert A., II. 1990. Humanizing Mass Media: Alternative Approaches to ap history Comic Books During Allende's Chile (1970-1973). Ed.D. Northern Illinois University, Department of Leadership and the cold Educational Policy Studies.
Villaverde, Leila Edith. 1999. Mapping Discourse, Art, and Politics in case studies the Construction of who won war essay, Pedagogy. Pennsylvania State University. DAI. Wainer, Alex Myer. Thesis Generator For Literary. 1996. Mythic Expression in Comic Book Technique: Mythopoeic Aspects of Batman. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and who won the cold Social Sciences, 1998 June; 58 (12): 4486.
Regent U. West, Mark Irwin. 1983. Defenders of Childhood Innocence: Reformer Responses to Children's Culture In America, 1878-1954. Bowling Green State University. DAI. Westbrook, Matthew David. 1997. Invisible Countries: The Poetics of the American Information Commodity, 1891-1919. University of Michigan.
DAI. Weston, Joan. 2000. Mba Essay. Comic Books, Superheroes, and Boys: Superhero Comic Books in the Everyday Life of Preadolescent Boys. University of California, Santa Barbara. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2001 Mar; 61 (9): 3788.
Whitney, Patricia. 1994. Influences on war essay Grade-Five Students' Decisions to Read: An Exploratory Study of Leisure Reading Behavior. University of British Columbia. DAI. Zambrano, Wa-Ki Fraser De. 1996.
El discurso colonial/postcolonial y el erotismo en las novelas de dos escritoras: reedicion del encuentro, conquista y colonizacion de America. The University of Iowa, DAI Vol. 57:05A, p. 2058. On-line information at the bottom of advantages studies, this page. The study argues that Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory can be fruitfully applied to Disney comics translated from English into Arabic, provided we can demonstrate that (a) it is possible to identify a composite speaker and composite hearer in Disney comics, and (b) Disney comics can be read as face threatening texts (FTTs).
Disney comics are simply texts that have writers and readers. However, the complex nature of this discourse and the attempt to who won contextualise it within a totally different culture – Arab culture – point to certain limitations of the Brown and Levinson model. Generator For Literary. At the same time, they enable us to propose ways in which the model may be refined to read the nuances of complex discourses, such as Disney comics, that are normative and manipulative in the cold nature while presenting themselves as benign entertainment. The data used in this study consists of 278 Disney comic stories: 140 English stories and 138 Arabic stories translated and published by Dar Al-Hilal in Egypt , Al-Futtaim/ITP in Dubai , and e government master thesis writing Al-Qabas in Kuwait . The English stories appeared between 1962 and 2000. The Arabic stories appeared between 1993 and 2003. Most of these comics are aimed at the cold war essay, 6-13 year-olds. The starting point of the analysis is a conventional application of Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory to original and translated Disney comics, looking specifically at three sources of face threat in this context: verbal and/or visual signals that can be considered taboo or at least unpalatable to the reader; the raising of sensitive or divisive topics (e.g., Jewish and jury system essay Christian imagery and the cold colonial ideologies, stereotyping and ridiculing the target reader); and master thesis writing the use of address terms and other status-marked identifications that may be misidentified in an offensive or embarrassing way, either intentionally or accidentally.
Politeness strategies used by Arab publishers and translators in the data examined in this study include all three categories proposed by Brown and Levinson: Don’t do the FTA; Do the FTA on record with mitigation; and Do the FTA baldly with no mitigation. However, the study also reveals a number of weaknesses inherent in the Brown and Levinson model and highlights the need to refine politeness theory in order to make it more applicable to the analysis of complex genres such as comics and complex types of face threat encoded in discourses which are normative in nature but which present themselves as benign. Back to top of page || Master's Theses || Undergradate Theses Sources: Apart from general Internet searches, the following resources were consulted: The Modern Language Association Bibliography, 1969-2002; The Comics Research Bibliography; The Comics Scholars Discussion List; Dissertation Abstracts International; The Dreaming; Michigan State University Library's Catalog Info on Dissertations About Comics ; WorldCat; personal corresponences. Special thanks to Martin de la Iglesia, Fabio Gadducci, Mark Rogers, Michael Rhode, and Leonard Rifas.