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La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide. En examinant la poetique du vide cultivee par La Celestina (1499), cette etude se propose d’analyser l’emergence, au sein de l’univers deploye dans la tragicomedie, d’une apprehension nouvelle du monde. College. Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de desillusion que l’?uvre fait entendre jusque dans sa celebration des plaisirs et au c?ur meme du rire qui la parcourt. Personal Of Early. Ce travail souhaite mettre en lumiere la richesse de ce regard nouveau pose sur le monde en tentant de montrer, a travers l’analyse de motifs recurrents en lien avec la notion de vacuite, combien La Celestina est pleine de son vide, feconde du neant dans lequel elle fait sombrer, avec l'elegance d'un desespoir joyeux, le monde ne au fil de ses pages. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion (. Baylor University Thesis. ) 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on orwell 1984 essay, pourra consulter Vincent Parello (. College. ) 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on salary expectations cover letter, pourra se (. University Thesis. ) 1 La Celestina 1 de Fernando de Rojas voit le jour en 1499, en Espagne, au c?ur de cette periode cruciale pour l'histoire des arts, des peuples, des hommes et des idees, qui vit basculer ce que nous appelons le Moyen Age dans cette epoque que nous disons moderne. Sheridan Baker Thesis. ?uvre dont l'ecriture cherche a saisir ce mouvement qui l'emporte vers la modernite, ?uvre se donnant a voir en equilibre sur le fil reliant deux mondes, un fil en train de se rompre, La Celestina est aussi nee au c?ur d'une societe, celle de l'Espagne des Rois Catholiques, elle-meme en pleine mutation et a un tournant decisif de son histoire2, notamment dans son rapport aux minorites religieuses. University College Thesis. La Celestina, ?uvre ecrite, dans sa totalite ou en partie3, par Fernando de Rojas, juriste de formation, lettre evoluant dans la sphere universitaire de Salamanque, et convers de la quatrieme generation, prend vie au sein de ce double contexte, dont elle se nourrit. Expressing Salary Expectations Letter. Riche de l'imaginaire a la fois collectif et singulier qui la sous-tend, l'?uvre donne en effet a voir l'emergence d'une apprehension nouvelle du monde.
Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de desesperance, et ce jusqu'au plus profond du rire que l'?uvre fait si volontiers entendre, ou des plaisirs qu'avec tant d'allegresse elle celebre. Baylor University. J'aimerais tenter d'en rendre compte ici en proposant un examen de l'une des poetiques cultivees par l'?uvre, celle du vide, d'un monde plein de vide. Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est tout d'abord celui que met en place l'ecriture de la vacuite de sens du monde. 2 Cette vacuite de sens du monde apparait dans l'?uvre sous diverses formes, et notamment a travers une image tres traditionnelle, celle du monde mis sens dessus dessous, celle du monde a l'envers. Personal Childhood Essay. Tres nombreux sont les elements de l'?uvre qui renvoient au monde a l'envers et j'attirerai votre attention sur deux exemples, qui me semblent a meme de mettre en lumiere deux visages du monde a l'envers dans l'?uvre. Baylor University College Thesis. Le monde a l'envers, c'est tout d'abord celui que decrit le valet Parmeno au debut de la tragicomedia, avant de basculer lui-meme de l'autre cote du monde, avant d'incarner lui-meme l'image de l'inversion des valeurs. High School Papers On Abortion. Parmeno vient d'etre violemment rabroue par son maitre Calisto, par celui-la meme qu'il tentait pourtant de prevenir contre la malignite de Celestina, diabolique entremetteuse dont le maitre veut acheter les services afin de conquerir Melibea, la noble jeune fille dont il est fou d'amour.
Transforme par l'ingratitude de son maitre en victime de sa propre vertu, Parmeno deplore : O desdichado de mi ! Por ser leal, padezco mal. Baylor College Thesis. Otros se ganan por malos, yo me pierdo por bueno. Orwell 1984 Essay Questions. El mundo es tal.4. 5 C. Baylor University College Thesis. Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. Orwell Questions. (. University Honors Thesis. ) 6 F. High Papers. de Rojas, ed. Baylor Honors College Thesis. cit ., p. Questions. 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 3 Le monde ici decrit est donc un monde qui tourne a l'envers, et au sein duquel bien et mal ont echange leur place sur l'echelle des valeurs judeo-chretiennes. University Honors Thesis. Constater que le monde est mis sens dessus dessous est d'ailleurs ce qui motive la metamorphose de Parmeno : les phrases citees sont en effet tres exactement celles qui introduisent sa decision de se mettre a tourner lui aussi dans le sens du monde, c'est-a-dire a dire a contresens du bon sens, ou du sens bon, en devenant le servus fallax qui n'hesitera pas a travailler a la perte de son maitre. Economics Extended Help. Ainsi la figure du monde a l'envers est-elle tout d'abord donnee a voir dans l'?uvre comme cause, et non seulement comme image, de la corruption du monde et des etres.
Une corruption contre laquelle les personnages qui tentent de le faire se battent vainement, vainement et presque par peche d'orgueil, par pretention, cette pretention de la jeunesse qui n'a pas encore pris la mesure de l'ampleur de la tache. Baylor Honors. Parmeno, celui que Carlos Heusch5 a tres justement presente sous les traits de l'ange revolte qui, une fois dechu, devient diable, ne commence en effet par etre bon que parce qu'il est jeune, une jeunesse sur laquelle le texte insiste a diverses reprises. Economics Extended. On notera par exemple la serie des diminutifs utilises par Celestina pour s'adresser a Parmeno et lui signifier qu'il demeure encore, pour quelques instants qui ne sauraient durer, dans le monde de l'enfance, un monde qui justement, comme elle le lui fait remarquer en ce meme endroit de l'?uvre6, ne sait encore rien du monde : Que diras a esto Parmeno ? Neciuelo, loquito, angelico, perlica, simplezico! Lobitos en tal gestico ? Llegate aca, putico.7. 8 Ed. Baylor University College. cit ., p. Economics Essay. 502.
9 Ed. Baylor University Honors College Thesis. cit ., p. Thesis. 509 ou 585 par exemple. Thesis. 10 Ed. School Papers. cit ., p. University Honors. 433. Simon Setzer. 11 F. Baylor. Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours (. Papers On Abortion. ) 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en lo (. Baylor College Thesis. ) 13 Ed. Dissertation. cit ., p. University. 332 et 360. Economics Essay. 14 Ed. Baylor University. cit ., p. Sheridan Baker. 416. Baylor Honors. 15 Ed. Orwell 1984. cit ., p. Baylor University Thesis. 382. 4 Il est d'ailleurs un autre personnage de l'?uvre sur la jeunesse duquel le texte insiste aussi et peut-etre plus encore. Expressing Expectations Letter. Il s'agit bien sur du personnage de Tristan : des sa premiere apparition8, Tristan est appele Tristanico, petit Tristan. Honors. Ce diminutif, qui se verra decline de facons multiples par l'?uvre9, place d'emblee le personnage sous le signe de l'enfance, une enfance que l'?uvre situe a l'origine de la non-corruption de Tristan, donnant ainsi a entendre cette non-corruption comme vouee a disparaitre, a l'instar de la jeunesse qui la motive. Extended Help. Le monde a l'envers mis en place par l'?uvre, c'est aussi celui que dessine l'entremetteuse et hechicera Celestina. University College Thesis. Bien qu'elle soit hechicera (ensorceleuse) et non bruja (sorciere), Celestina, comme ces dernieres, fait en effet subir une inversion au monde dans son ensemble et, en particulier, au monde religieux. Help. Tout d'abord parce qu'elle en denonce les desordres, puisque les eveques eux-memes font partie de sa clientele de maquerelle10, mais aussi parce que sa pratique magique integre cette inversion du rite religieux inherente a la pratique de la sorcellerie.
Francois Delpech, qui a etudie le rapport entre systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique au sein de ces prieres destinees a faire naitre l'amour que l'on appelait conjuros amatorios 11 , ou bien encore Jose Maria Diez Borque12, lequel s'est penche sur l'organisation poetique de ces conjuros, ont en effet montre que la pratique de la sorcellerie integrait un renversement de la liturgie chretienne. Baylor College Thesis. Dans ces pratiques, on simon, conjurait le diable, certes, mais aussi, dans une optique a contresens de l'optique chretienne, on baylor university honors college, y conjurait les saints de la liturgie chretienne, jusqu'a faire de cette derniere une liturgie a l'envers. Orwell Essay Questions. Quelques exemples de ce processus d'inversion opere par le personnage de la presque sorciere Celestina : l'on remarquera tout d'abord que Celestina, a des fins on baylor college thesis, ne peut plus malignes et selon un procede destine a capturer, comme le fait entendre le terme philocaptio, le c?ur et la volonte de la belle Melibea, utilisera la force de ce meme cordon de Melibea qui a touche, et Celestina ne manque pas d'en faire la remarque a deux reprises13, les reliques de Rome et de Jerusalem. Of Early. Ce faisant, Celestina ne detourne pas seulement l'objet de sa vocation initiale, mais va jusqu'a renverser le pouvoir spirituel de l'objet, jusqu'a lui faire subir une parfaite inversion. Baylor University Honors College. De la meme maniere, l'on notera que c'est au sein meme de l'espace de l'eglise que l'entremetteuse un peu sorciere et tout a fait maquerelle qu'est Celestina, fait ses meilleures affaires. Cover Letter. Ou bien encore, l'on se souviendra que ce sont les grains de son chapelet, « las cuentas del rosario »14, qui permettent a celle qui est aussi ravaudeuse des virginites mises a mal, de tenir a jour le decompte des virgos, des hymens, qu'elle a deja restaures ou qui lui restent encore a reparer.
Enfin, l'on pourra aussi et peut-etre surtout se rappeler la parodie des paroles du Christ a laquelle se livre Celestina15. 5 Si le motif du monde sens dessus dessous permet bien la mise en place d'un systeme metaphorique propre a figurer l'inversion de l'Ordre ou a denoncer le desordre du monde, ce motif repose toutefois sur un systeme de pensee qui propose une grille de lecture du monde. Baylor University College Thesis. La figure du monde a l'envers dit en effet deux choses simultanement : elle dit que le monde ne tourne pas dans le bon sens, mais elle dit aussi en meme temps qu'il existe un bon sens, qu'il existe un endroit a l'envers. Simon Setzer. Cette figure, et ses multiples formes possibles, s'articulent donc sur la base d'un systeme stable. Baylor. Bien qu'il renvoie au non-sens du monde, le motif du monde a l'envers etablit en effet encore une frontiere nette, et c'est d'ailleurs pourquoi il etait constitutif de cette parenthese qu'etait le carnaval medieval, entre endroit et envers, il propose encore une discrimination entre norme et non-norme, entre bien et mal. Baker Thesis Machine. On ne pourrait en dire autant des procedes qui, dans La Celestina, aboutissent a la peinture d'un monde non plus seulement tournant en sens inverse, mais d'un monde vide, vide de sens. 16 Ed. University College. cit ., p. Extended Essay Help. 290.
17 Ed. Baylor College Thesis. cit ., p. Sheridan Thesis. 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? A (. College Thesis. ) 6 Ces procedes sont nombreux. High School Papers On Abortion. Que l'on songe tout d'abord a ces interrogations laissees sans reponse dont La Celestina est parsemee, et qui tout au long de l'?uvre, questionnent avec entetement le serieux d'une quelconque tentative de discrimination entre bien et mal, vidant ainsi les notions et valeurs de tout contenu stable. Baylor University. Qu'est-ce que la raison ? Qu'est-ce que la passion ? Qu'est-ce que l'honneur, qu'est-ce que l'amour ? interroge Calisto16. Orwell Essay. Ou bien encore, alors qu'il est en proie au desespoir17, que sont confiance, verite, tromperie, faussete ? Qui est l'ennemi et qui l'ami ? Ailleurs, l'?uvre va jusqu'a montrer une Celestina en train de sommer un fou de bien vouloir lui definir ce qu'est la raison : Que es razon, loco ?18. 19 Ed. University Thesis. cit ., p. Setzer. 290-291.
20 Ed. Honors College Thesis. cit ., p. High School Papers. 297. University. 21 Ed. Expectations. cit., p. Thesis. 520. Dissertation. 22 O. Honors College Thesis. Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subve (. Simon Dissertation. ) 7 « Qu'est-ce que la raison, fou ? », demande-t-elle en effet a Parmeno. Baylor Thesis. Ces questions, parce qu'elles restent sans reponse, mais aussi parce que l'?uvre fait entendre qu'il ne peut en aller autrement19, donnent a voir le vide que l'on risquerait de trouver au fond des notions ou valeurs que l'on chercherait a creuser un peu serieusement. Economics Extended. Et ce non seulement parce que, comme le dit Sempronio : « el bien y el mal (. University Honors College Thesis. ) todo pierde con el tiempo la fuerca »20, mais aussi et surtout parce qu'elles ne sont qu'insondable beance, au fond de laquelle git le reve du sens, du sens du monde. Economics. Ces questions sur le caractere insoluble desquelles l'?uvre attire l'attention, apres avoir pourtant affiche, dans le paratexte, un objectif didactique indissociable d'une vision claire de la frontiere entre bien et mal, vident donc les valeurs et notions de leur substance signifiante. Baylor Honors College. Une scene, la septieme de l'acte XIV, illustre bien ce fonctionnement de l'?uvre. Orwell 1984 Questions. Dans un tres long monologue21, au cours d'un proces imaginaire cense trancher entre culpabilite ou innocence du juge qui a ordonne la decollation de ses deux valets, Calisto prend tour a tour le role de la defense et celui de l'accusation.
Dans cette scene qui argumente aussi equitablement dans un sens que dans l'autre, on baylor college thesis, peut voir transparaitre le juriste Fernando de Rojas qui a questionne la notion de verite, ici donnee a voir comme changeant de visage selon le point de vue adopte. Simon Setzer Dissertation. Il est d'ailleurs interessant de remarquer que Calisto ne tranche rien a l'issue de ce proces imaginaire. Baylor University Honors College. Piege par sa propre capacite a construire these et antithese, il finit par abandonner la partie et par conclure a l'innocence du juge, non parce qu'il aurait reussi a s'en convaincre intellectuellement, mais parce qu'il sent monter en lui le desir de Melibea, et que la satisfaction de ce desir pourrait etre contrariee par la fastidieuse mise en place d'une vengeance contre le juge. Personal Philosophy Of Early Education Essay. De la reflexion intellectuelle sur les notions de verite, d'innocence ou de culpabilite, il ne ressort rien, rien qu'une intuition de la vanite de toute tentative d'exploration de leur contenu objectif. University Honors Thesis. La facon dont l'?uvre joue avec la notion d 'auctoritas, cette reference a l'autorite alors utilisee comme outil de legitimation de la pensee exprimee ou de la verite proclamee, va d'ailleurs dans le meme sens. Expressing Salary Expectations Cover. Olivier Biaggini22 l'a bien montre : mise dans la bouche de personnages qui la devoient, la pervertissent, l'exploitent a contresens et en revelent ainsi les failles, l 'auctoritas, la parole de Seneque, d'Aristote ou de Petrarque, n'est plus qu'une parole videe de sa capacite a guider, elle n'est plus qu'amoncellement de references reduites au vide, donnees a voir par l'?uvre dans leur inanite.
Le rire, qui au sein de l'?uvre peut pourtant, notamment lorsqu'il ridiculise le discours courtois dissident, servir le propos moral affirme au sein du paratexte, est aussi, paradoxalement, mis au service de cet aneantissement des valeurs et notions. University College. Sans trop insister ici sur le rire, qu'une autre intervention va prendre pour objet central, je dirai simplement qu'il est aussi dans La Celestina un rire dont la fonction demystificatrice desenchante le monde et reduit a neant les plus beaux reves. On Abortion. L'amour ? Une gesticulation ridicule dont le fou d'amour Calisto parvient lui-meme a se gausser. Honors. Alors qu'il se meurt d'amour, une plaisanterie grivoise de Sempronio suffit a le faire passer des larmes au rire, un rire qui l'oblige a mettre son amour a distance, comme il le deplore d'ailleurs lui-meme : Maldito seas, que fecho me has reyr 23. 24 J.-P.
Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quel (. Extended. ) 8 « Maudit sois-tu, car tu m'as fait rire », s'indigne en effet Calisto, qui vient de se prendre lui-meme en flagrant delit de rire, et donc de desacralisation, de ce meme amour qu'un instant plus tot il elevait jusqu'a Dieu, qu'un instant plus tot il mettait a la place de Dieu. University. La vertu ? C'est celle de Melibea dans son jardin, plumee comme une volaille, selon la comparaison de l'amoureux Calisto soudain transforme en grossier plaisantin, vertu dont Jean-Paul Lecertua24, a travers sa lecture du jardin de Melibea, a si bien analyse la degradation comique. Expressing Expectations. C'est la le rire corrosif qui aneantit, le rire amer de la desillusion, d'un desengano avant la lettre, un rire critique, endeuille d'avoir trop sonde la vanite des choses. C'est cependant surtout a travers la proliferation des images de la folie qu'apparait le reflet de la vacuite de sens du monde. 25 Ed. Baylor University Honors College Thesis. cit ., p. Of Early Essay. 221. College. 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Rec (. Of Early Education. ) 27 Ed. Baylor Honors Thesis. cit ., p. Sheridan Baker Thesis Machine. 235. 9 Des l 'incipit, au c?ur de la declaration d'intention didactique, la folie est la, folie d'amour qui detourne de Dieu et dont l'?uvre, « en reprehension de los locos enamorados »25, pretend vouloir denoncer les dangers. Honors. Folie d'amour dont est atteint le protagoniste Calisto.
Atteint, car l'amour passionnel, le fol amour, etait bien, pour les esprits populaires et scientifiques du temps, un mal repertorie dans la liste des troubles mentaux, une forme de demence dont Miguel Sabuco, medecin espagnol du XVI e siecle, ecrit dans sa Nueva Filosofia de la naturaleza del hombre (1587) qu'elle pouvait etre provoquee par le desir exacerbe puis frustre26. Economics Essay. Folie d'amour de Calisto l'amant grotesquement courtois qui dans son fameux « Melibeo soy »27 renonce a etre chretien pour se faire Melibeen, mais aussi folie de tous les autres personnages. University. Car c'est a chaque page, presque a chaque ligne, en tous sens, a tout moment, a tout propos, de toutes les facons, que l'on se traite de fou, que chacun traite soi-meme et tous les autres de fou, de folle, de petit fou, loquito, loquillo, de sin seso, de fou decervele, de desvariado, de derange. Essay. Dans La Celestina, meme celui qui n'a pas encore ete identifie, puisqu'on ne lui a pas encore ouvert la porte a laquelle il est en train de frapper, est d'emblee traite de fou. Baylor College Thesis. Areusa, entendant frapper fortement a sa porte, dit ainsi a Elicia : Quiero yr abrir, que es loco o privado quien llama.28. 10 Le deferlement de la folie a travers le texte est tel, que le motif en arrive a transformer l'?uvre en une sorte de maison de fous au sein de laquelle chaque fou passerait son temps a pointer du doigt la folie de l'autre, de ses paroles, de ses actes et de ses croyances. Economics. Maison de fous qui bien sur renvoie aussi l'image d'un monde pris de folie, d'un monde insense, denue de sens. Baylor Honors. Ravi de compter un fou d'amour de plus en la personne de Parmeno, Sempronio fait ainsi le lien entre la folie des personnages et celle du monde : Ya todos amamos ? El mundo se va a perder ! Calisto a Melibea, yo a Elicia ; tu, de envidia, has buscado con quien perder esse poco de seso que tienes.29. 11 Et Parmeno de lui repondre que si la folie etait souffrance, le monde ne serait plus que hurlement de douleur : Luego, locura es amar y yo soy loco y sin seso ? Pues si la locura fuesse dolores, en cada casa avria bozes.30. 31 M. Childhood Education Essay. Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. Baylor University Honors College. 45-46. On Abortion. 32 lbid., p. Baylor Honors. 317.
12 Dans son Histoire de la folie a l'age classique 31 , Michel Foucault montre bien comment, a cette epoque charniere qu'est la Renaissance, tout ce qui a pu etre eprouve de ou formule sur la folie a ete anime par un affrontement que l'on retrouve au sein de La Celestina, affrontement entre deux images opposees de la folie, qui toutes deux renvoient au vide. Personal Philosophy Education. D'un cote on baylor honors college, trouve une folie tragique, sombre, reliee au theme de la mort et de la chute, et l'on remarquera a ce propos que dans l'?uvre, trois morts, celles de Calisto, Sempronio et Parmeno, sont reliees avec insistance a l'image des sesos, de la cervelle repandue a terre, de la cervelle qui s'est ecoulee de la tete des sin seso, des fous decerveles. Philosophy Education. Coincidence textuelle qui tisse un lien entre mort, une forme de neant, et folie. Baylor University Honors Thesis. De l'autre cote on high school papers, trouve une folie rieuse, gorgee de conscience critique, interrogeant le monde, et cette fois on thesis, se souviendra que le fou Calisto, dans sa comique folie, est aussi celui qui interroge le contenu des notions et donne a voir leur vide, comme le font a un degre ou un autre tous les fous, c'est-a-dire presque tous les personnages, de l'?uvre. Machine. La folie, en outre, ne renvoie pas seulement a l'idee d'un monde vide de sens. Baylor. Elle est aussi une incarnation du concept de vide, elle est le vide lui-meme. Sheridan Baker Thesis Machine. Dans l'ouvrage cite plus haut, M. University. Foucault souligne ainsi le lien etabli entre folie et vide, des la progressive disparition, a partir du XV e siecle, de la croyance au role du Diable dans la genese des troubles mentaux. Personal Of Early. Il ecrit que la folie etait alors devenue : « la manifestation (.) du non-etre, (.), une folie eprouvee comme deraison, c'est-a-dire comme negativite vide de la raison »32. Baylor Thesis. Cette folie entendue comme negativite pure, entendue comme vide de la raison, est d'ailleurs bien celle que l'on retrouve dans la definition qu'en fournit le dictionnaire de Covarrubias, le Tesoro de la lengua castellana, ecrit en 1611, ou Sebastian de Covarrubias donne une etymologie aussi fausse qu'interessante pour l'entree loco (fou). Expressing Salary Cover. Il associe en effet a la fois etroitement et de facons multiples la folie au vide dans sa definition du terme : 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, B (. Honors College. ) La etimologia deste vocablo tornara loco a cualquier hombre cuerdo, porque no se halla cosa que hincha su vacio.
Y sea su primera interpretacion de la palabra locus, loci, por el lugar, atento que al loco solemos llamar vacio y sin seso ; y assi aquel lugar parece que queda sin llenarse.33. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro (. Essay Questions. ) 13 Ainsi, pour les esprits du temps et ceux de la periode posterieure, c'est aussi l'image du vide que demultiplie l'?uvre lorsqu'elle fait deferler les fous, fous qui sont en outre souvent associes, a la fois par le savoir medical de l'epoque et par les fictions, a l'element aerien, representation materielle au plus pres de cet immateriel qu'est le vide. University Thesis. Pour les medecins34, ce sont ainsi les vapeurs empoisonnees du desir insatisfait qui montent au cerveau de l'amant et le plongent dans la demence, ou bien encore, dans le domaine litteraire, on baker thesis machine, verra le Criticon de Gracian associer la folie d'orgueil a l'element air. College Thesis. En ce sens, il n'est pas ininteressant de remarquer que lorsque la prostituee Areusa met en place sa manipulation de Sosia, elle dit a sa compagne Elicia qu'elle projette, pour rendre Sosia fou d'amour, de le gonfler du vent de la flatterie, afin de lui insuffler l'orgueilleuse illusion d'etre le seul homme dans son c?ur. Essay. Elle dit en effet : lo paro lleno de viento de lisonjas.35.
14 Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est aussi celui du vide de la parole et de la parole dans le vide. 15 Cette parole vide, je la vois apparaitre notamment a travers l'ostentation, l'exhibition, de la mecanique rhetorique. Baylor University. Cette ostentation releve bien sur en premier lieu du projet esthetique d'un auteur desireux de faire montre de sa capacite a manier les figures de la rhetorique. Personal Of Early Childhood Education Essay. Le morceau de bravoure artistique n'en est pas moins porteur d'un sens justement en rapport avec le vide de la parole. Thesis. Quelques courts exemples. Simon Setzer. Pour convaincre Melibea de se rendre, Celestina lui fait valoir la souffrance d'amour de Calisto, strategie qui recueille dans un premier temps la colere de Melibea. Honors Thesis. Pour se defendre, Celestina recourt alors au syllogisme : mis palabras (. Essay Help. ) en si no eran malas ; que cada dia ay hombres penados por mugeres y mugeres por hombres, y esto obra la natura y la natura ordenola Dios, y Dios no hizo cosa mala 36 . 16 L'auteur fait ici ostentation du maniement pervers d'une rhetorique sophistique, destinee a tromper grace au masque de la logique. Baylor University. Or cette ostentation est doublement interessante. Simon Setzer. Parce qu'elle exhibe l'ossature du discours, sa mecanique, elle peut tout d'abord etre lue comme un contre-discours implicite oppose par l'intentionnalite edifiante aux sophismes de Celestina. University Thesis. La parole de Celestina epouse en effet le moule de la rhetorique sophistique au point de se denoncer elle-meme comme sophisme, au point d'attirer l'attention sur sa nature fallacieuse. School On Abortion. Lorsqu'elle recourt au meme type de figure pour convaincre Parmeno de suivre ses conseils, l'arme rhetorique maniee par Celestina est a ce point apparente que Parmeno ne se laisse pas meme prendre par ce qu'il appelle des « [palabras] envueltas en dulce veneno »37, c'est-a-dire des mots baignes dans le doux poison.
Jusqu'a un certain point, Celestina partage cependant sa maitrise des rhetoriques ou des codes formels avec la quasi-totalite des personnages, et chacun y va de son petit discours rhetorique, toujours oriente dans le sens qui l'arrange. Honors. Or, a travers cette exhibition de la mecanique rhetorique, on economics extended, peut lire aussi une volonte de l'auteur de donner a voir, en negatif, le creux qui se trouve a l'interieur du moule. Honors College. Ce que la parole a de pre-fixe, de pre-etabli, de formel, est exhibe jusqu'a faire naitre l'impression que la parole est toute entiere dans sa seule forme, qu'elle est une forme desincarnee, videe. Education. La parole, comme le rappelle Areusa lorsqu'elle projette de souffler la parole flatteuse dans l'esprit de Sosia pour le rendre fou d'amour, c'est du vent. University College. On remarquera en outre la proliferation, tout au long de l'?uvre, des termes vano/vana, de vanus (vide), ou bien hueco (creux), associes a l'idee de parole. Thesis Machine. Parmi de multiples exemples possibles38, on university honors college thesis, pourrait citer vanos y huecos prometimientos (vaines et creuses promesses), vanas palabras (mots vains), vanos consejos (vains conseils). Papers On Abortion. Quant a l'inscription du discours dans le registre du code litteraire, elle produit le meme effet : la parole y apparait creuse, desincarnee. College Thesis. Que l'on pense par exemple a la premiere rencontre de Calisto et Melibea dans le jardin. High School. Le code courtois sous-jacent au discours amoureux de Calisto est a ce point perceptible que la parole d'amour est videe jusqu'a n'etre plus qu'un moule revelateur de son propre creux. Baylor Thesis. Areusa le fait d'ailleurs remarquer a Sosia, lorsqu'elle se plaint a lui que tous les hommes aient toujours sous la main, pour seduire les femmes, de ces mots coules au moule : todos los hombres traygays proveydas essas razones (.) tan comunes para todas, hechas de molde.39. 17 Quant aux paroles de Melibea dans cette premiere scene de rencontre, elles sont elles aussi truquees, minees de l'interieur par l'ostentation de leur caractere conventionnel, par l'exhibition de l'intertextualite qu'elles integrent.
Derriere la colere de Melibea, de la jeune fille noble a la vertu offensee, on papers on abortion, entend en effet resonner toutes les coleres litteraires de ses cons?urs fictionnelles, mais aussi et surtout, on university college thesis, entend resonner la tradition misogyne medievale, le fameux : 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Sheridan Baker Thesis. B. Baylor College. Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Casta (. High On Abortion. ) Todas las fenbras han en si estas maneras ; al comienco del fecho syenpre son refferteras40. 41 Ed. Baylor Honors Thesis. cit., p. Baker Machine. 331, 353, 358, etc. Baylor University Honors College Thesis. 42 Ed. High School On Abortion. cit ., p. University Honors. 460. 18 du Libro de buen amor (1341), qui a l'instar de tant d'autres textes du Moyen Age, predit par ces vers l'immanquable transformation du « non » initial de la belle en un « oui » d'autant plus ardent que le non qui l'a precede aura ete violent. Economics. Celestina est bien la d'ailleurs pour relayer explicitement le message implicite de l'intertextualite, et rappeler que le refus initial de la belle n'est que le premier pas d'une danse bien connue, et ce a diverses reprises41. Honors College. Grace a l'intertextualite, grace a la superposition des objets fictionnels que cette derniere implique, la colere initiale de Melibea se voit donc ravalee au rang de toutes ces coleres litteraires, semblables a la sienne ou pires encore qu'elle, et qui pourtant ont fini par ceder le terrain, et ce avec ardeur et allegresse. Setzer. Cette colere initiale de Melibea devient ainsi le signe de son immanquable reddition future, et c'est la force meme de cette colere qui revele sa faiblesse. University College. Ainsi, en denoncant le vide de la parole, l'exhibition du moule formel parvient aussi a vider les personnages de leur substance.
Calisto, par exemple, dans un premier moment de l'?uvre, s'identifie si pleinement, d'un point de vue formel, au code courtois, qu'il en devient une sorte de pantin, une mecanique susceptible de s'enrayer au moindre grain dans le rouage, a la moindre atteinte du code. Economics Extended Essay Help. Alors que Celestina lui fait valoir a quel point Melibea est deja toute a lui, il implore l'entremetteuse de bien vouloir parler « cortes »42, c'est-a-dire a la fois, pour la forme espagnole, courtoisement et en respectant les codes de l'amour courtois. University Honors Thesis. Le texte donne ainsi a voir le personnage de Calisto comme incapable de fonctionner autrement qu'a travers ce code courtois, code courtois qui veut que lui, le siervo de amor, le serf ou esclave d'amour, soit tout a elle, et non qu'elle, la toute-puissante Dama et alta mugier, soit toute a lui, comme osait le pretendre Celestina. 19 Dans La Celestina, la parole vide est en outre tres souvent proferee dans le vide. 20 Le fonctionnement de la parole adressee au vide apparait par exemple de facon particulierement interessante dans la scene du cordon. Essay Help. Victorieuse, car elle attribue a ce don de Melibea une fonction proleptique qui annonce le don futur du corps de la jeune fille, l'entremetteuse remet a Calisto le cordon que Melibea a fini par accorder. Baylor University Honors. Dans un premier temps, Calisto recourt de facon traditionnelle a la figure rhetorique appelee prosopopee, qui permet de s'adresser a un objet inanime comme s'il etait humain. Orwell. De facon traditionnelle, c'est-a-dire en maniant des formes interrogatives et exclamatives dont le caractere formel reste present a l'esprit du personnage. Baylor University Honors. Cependant, tres vite, l'auteur va outrer le procede43, jusqu'a mettre en scene un Calisto attendant veritablement une reponse du cordon, l'implorant ou le sommant tour a tour de repondre, un Calisto amoureux d'un cordon dont il a litteralement oublie le statut d'objet inanime. On Abortion. Le Calisto ici mis en scene, c'est bien sur tout d'abord un Calisto fou, fou fetichiste qui reve aux secrets du corps merveilleux que le cordon a du voir : oh que secretos habras visto.44. 21 Le Calisto de cette scene est cependant aussi un Calisto amoureux de l'objet en tant que tel, amoureux d'un vide et adressant ses paroles d'amour au vide, a un objet qui finit par eclipser Melibea elle-meme.
22 Celestina releve bien cette disparition de la personne de Melibea sous l'objet cordon. Baylor College Thesis. Elle parle de delire et rappelle Calisto a l'ordre en lui demandant de veiller a traiter le cordon en cordon, sans confondre la personne avec l'objet : deves, senor, (. Expressing Salary Expectations Cover. ) tratar al cordon como cordon. University Honors. (. Sheridan Baker Thesis. ) no haga tu lengua yguales la persona y el vestido.45. 23 De meme, Sempronio souligne egalement cet aneantissement progressif de Melibea auquel aboutit le discours d'amour que son maitre Calisto est en train d'adresser au cordon. Baylor University College. C'est sur le mode comique qu'il le fait, en insinuant que son maitre est en train de vivre un instant erotique avec le cordon au lieu de le vivre avec Melibea, grace a un jeu sur l'equivoque des termes holgar, qui dans la langue de l'epoque a pour sens prendre du plaisir, sexuel ou non, et gozar, qui encore aujourd'hui signifie jouir, sexuellement ou non : Senor, por holgar con el cordon no querras gozar de Melibea.46. 47 Ed. Expressing Salary Cover. cit ., p. Baylor Thesis. 421 et 538. Extended Help. 48 Ed. University Honors College. cit ., p. Baker Thesis. 533. 24 Ainsi, en s'adressant au vide de l'objet, Calisto en arrive-t-il a reduire a neant l'existence de Melibea. University Honors. Ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama dont Melibea est ici videe. Orwell 1984. Les contre-portraits de Melibea, par exemple ceux que brosse la jalouse Elicia en associant Melibea a des evocations repugnantes47, ou bien plus largement, la degradation comique dont le personnage de Melibea fait l'objet tout au long de l'?uvre, parviennent a vider le personnage de sa substance litteraire de Dama de la tradition courtoise.
Mais il s'agit dans la scene du cordon de plus que cela, car ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama, mais aussi de son existence aux yeux de celui-la meme qui pretend l'aimer, dont Melibea se voit ici videe. Honors Thesis. Elle n'est plus qu'idee desincarnee. Dissertation. De nombreux liens tissent une parente entre Melibea et la Dulcinea du Quichotte (1605 et 1615) de Cervantes. Baylor University Honors College Thesis. Cette scene de La Celestina, en particulier, permet de voir en Melibea les germes de Dulcinea, pure invention de Don Quichotte, lequel decrete qu'il lui faut aimer, puisque les chevaliers aiment tous, et qui dans ce but s'invente une chimere d'amour a adorer dans les regles de l'art, avec la constance et la conviction d'une foi inebranlable. Personal Philosophy Of Early Essay. Il est d'ailleurs dans La Celestina un autre exemple interessant de cet aneantissement de l'autre au moyen de la parole adressee au vide. University Honors College Thesis. En colere contre Centurio, Areusa commence par s'irriter contre le personnage en s'adressant a lui a la deuxieme personne du singulier.
Puis soudain, Areusa48, alors que Centurio est toujours bien present, recourt a la troisieme personne en parlant devant lui de ce poltron, de ses mensonges, de la folie de l'avoir laisse entrer chez elle, en se demandant ce qu 'il peut bien avoir pour plaire. Essay Questions. Et s'ensuit un portrait de Centurio qui metamorphose ce dernier en un objet grotesquement hideux, portrait qui ne prendra fin qu'avec l'ordre de disparaitre. Thesis. L'exemple est d'autant plus interessant qu'ici l'interlocuteur est present, mais qu'il est delocute, exclu du champ de l'interlocution. Questions. Ainsi la parole vide de La Celestina peut-elle etre aussi une parole adressee au vide et qui, ce faisant, vide l'autre, le reduit a neant. 49 C. University College. Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. Economics Help. 1 (. Honors Thesis. ) 25 Comme l'a bien remarque Carlos Heusch49 en etudiant l'evolution du dialogue vers le monologue a travers l'?uvre, le creux des personnages se voit progressivement comble, etoffe d'une dimension qui a la fois complexifie, humanise et individualise le personnage. Economics Extended. Ce comblement progressif du vide des personnages ne marque cependant pas la fin du protagonisme du vide dans l'?uvre. 50 Ed. Baylor Honors College. cit ., p. Essay Help. 532 et 536.
51 Ed. Baylor. cit., p. Economics Extended. 581-582. 26 Au contraire, a mesure que les personnages s'emplissent, c'est le monde autour d'eux qui se vide, un vide dont ils acquierent une conscience de plus en plus aigue et qui les laisse seuls face au vide tragique du monde. University Honors College Thesis. C'est par exemple Elicia qui se desespere de ne trouver personne avec qui partager sa peine a la mort de son amoureux Sempronio50, c'est Melibea reprochant a Calisto de la laisser lancer ses paroles insensees dans le vide51, c'est Calisto qui, a l'oppose de celui qu'il a ete durant la scene du cordon, devient celui qui s'effraie de parler tout seul, de s'adresser au vide : Que digo ? Con quien hablo ?52. 27 Enfin, c'est surtout Pleberio, Pleberio et le vide immense que son planctus donne a voir. High School Papers. Ce planctus, comme tous les llantos, se construit en grande partie sur les figures prefixees de la rhetorique, et s'adresser a l'absent fait justement partie integrante de la convention du planctus. Baylor University Honors Thesis. Il n'empeche. Salary. La facon dont Fernando de Rojas joue avec la contrainte, la facon dont il renove la convention, confere a ce planctus une force et une charge emotionnelle extraordinaires, qui font toucher du doigt le vide laisse par l'absence, qui rendent tangible le vide laisse par la mort de l'etre aime. University Honors. La force expressive du vide qui plane sur ce planctus de Pleberio gagne, car elle en ressort comme mise en relief et revelee, a etre mise en perspective avec le traitement poetique du vide dans le llanto de la mere du Leriano de la Carcel de amor.
Dans la Carcel de amor (1492), ?uvre de Diego de San Pedro parfaitement contemporaine de La Celestina et dont cette derniere est en partie la parodie, la mere du protagoniste Leriano, apostrophe aussi, bien sur, le fils mort qu'elle est en train de pleurer. Letter. Pourtant le vide laisse par son absence n'a pas la meme resonance. College Thesis. Tout d'abord parce que la mere de Leriano conclut sur de futures retrouvailles avec son fils dans l'au-dela, sa foi en une vie autre fermant le planctus sur une note d'espoir. Philosophy Of Early Childhood Essay. Ensuite, parce que son planctus n'a pas le dernier mot de l'?uvre, qui ensuite donne a entendre, a travers le recit de l 'auctor, un Leriano s'enfoncant doucement dans une mort paisible qui met fin a sa souffrance. 53 D. Baylor University. de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. Expressing Cover. p. University Honors College. 176. Acabados son mis males53. 28 ou c'en est fini de ma douleur, dit en effet Leriano avant de s'eteindre, et comme remerciant la mort de le delivrer. Y assi quedo su muerte en testimonio de su fe54.
29 ajoute ensuite l 'auctor, ici le messager, donnant ainsi un sens a la mort de Leriano. Essay Help. Si la poetique du vide mise en ?uvre dans le planctus de Pleberio s'avere dramatiquement plus efficace, c'est aussi cependant parce que Fernando de Rojas, dans le planctus de Pleberio, a su allier a la convention rhetorique, a l'expression emphatique de la douleur, la peinture de la quotidiennete du malheur, le prosaisme de la souffrance et de la solitude laissees par le vide. Baylor. Le pere s'adresse a sa fille morte, au vide, et a cette fille absente, a ce vide, il parle justement du vide qu'elle laisse. 1984 Questions. Du vide qu'elle laisse dans sa vie vue comme abstraction, mais surtout, et c'est la ce que j'appelle le prosaisme de la souffrance laissee par le vide, il parle du vide concret, presque materiel, qu'elle laisse dans va vie quotidienne, sa petite vie de tous les jours. Honors College. « Que ferai-je quand je rentrerai dans ta chambre et que je la trouverai vide ? Que ferai-je quand je t'appellerai et que tu ne me repondras pas ? », interroge-t-il, en effet55. School Papers. C'est precisement dans l'evocation du vide concret laissee par la fille morte que me semble resider une sorte de condensation poetique du vide cree par l'absence, ou du vide irremediable laisse par la mort. 30 Une mort qui progressivement envahit l'?uvre, et dont l'envahissement se voit poetise par la metamorphose, dans la bouche d'Areusa, du locus amoenus du jardin de Melibea en jardin noir plonge dans les tenebres du malheur et de la mort. University College. Souhaitant voir mourir les amants trop heureux qui ont involontairement cause la mort de son amoureux, Areusa peint ainsi de noir et de desolation le jardin de leurs doux ebats : Las yerbas deleytosas donde tomays los hurtados solazes se conviertan en culebras, los cantares se os tornen lloro, los sombrosos arboles del huerto se sequen con vuestra vista, sus flores olorosas se tornen de negra color.56. 31 Une mort qui vide l'?uvre de presque tous ses personnages, fauchant tout d'abord Celestina, Sempronio, Parmeno, puis Calisto, Melibea, et peut-etre meme, car une ambiguite subsiste a ce propos, Alisa, la mere de Melibea. 1984. Pourquoi, si tu es bien morte, me laisses-tu porter seul la souffrance ? demande en effet Pleberio a sa femme, qu'il voit couchee sur le cadavre de leur fille57.
Vide de la mort et vide de la solitude de celui qui doit porter seul l'incommunicable souffrance viennent ici se confondre, en cet ultime instant de l'?uvre. University College. Ultime instant de l'?uvre qui donne a voir un personnage seul en scene, s'adressant au vide pour lui parler du vide, du vide laisse en son c?ur par la mort de la fille aimee mais aussi du vide abyssal d'un monde sans immanence et qui n'est plus que beance. Salary Cover. Personnage seul en scene qui lance les tout derniers mots de l'?uvre dans une interrogation dont le desespoir semble aussi vain que l'espoir : Por que me dexaste triste y solo in baylor honors thesis hac lachrimarum valle ?58. 32 Vide de la mort qui est aussi d'ailleurs dans La Celestina mort dans le vide. Simon Setzer Dissertation. C'est en effet d'une fenetre que Parmeno et Sempronio tombent dans le vide avant d'etre acheves. Honors. C'est d'une echelle que Calisto tombe dans le vide, ce vide sur lequel Fernando de Rojas fait insister Melibea, lorsqu'elle raconte a son pere la mort de son amant Calisto : « Puso el pie en vazio »59, il a mis le pied dans le vide, precise-telle en effet de facon significative. Machine. Enfin, c'est aussi dans le vide que se jette Melibea depuis le haut de la tour, un vide dont les dernieres paroles de Melibea donnent d'ailleurs a entendre la profondeur. Baylor Thesis. Les derniers mots de Melibea sont en effet ceux-ci, adresses a son pere qu'elle previent de sa chute imminente dans le vide : este cuerpo que alla baxa.60. 33 Dans ces ultimes paroles de Melibea, l'on remarquera en espagnol la forme en a du deictique alla, particulierement propre a dire le deplacement vers, la trajectoire vers, une forme en a qui de cette facon, devient en quelque sorte instrument de mesure du vide qui va engloutir Melibea. Baker. En ce sens, j'aime bien laisser au mot pozo de la premiere phrase du planctus de Pleberio son sens de puits, meme s'il peut aussi vouloir dire sepulcre dans la langue de l'epoque. University Thesis. « Nuestro gozo en el pozo »61 (notre bonheur au fond du puits), dit en effet Pleberio.
Cette image du puits au fond duquel sombre le bonheur me semble en effet en parfaite adequation avec le vide qui hante l'?uvre. 34 Le vide du Planctus de Pleberio et de l'?uvre dans son entier, c'est enfin cette vacance du ciel, ce vide d'un monde que Dieu aurait abandonne ou deserte, ce vide d'un monde prive du sens que lui donnait une providence en laquelle on high papers, ne croit plus, en laquelle Pleberio ne parvient plus a croire62, ce vide d'un monde denue de spiritualite et qui autorise Carlos Fuentes a parler d'une expulsion de Dieu : Entre l'allegresse orale de la jeunesse et la tristesse muette de la vieillesse, Fernando de Rojas se contente d'exister a jamais dans un livre. Baylor College. Sa vengeance secrete consiste a expulser Dieu, en silence, de la cite et du livre : il n'y a pas une seule reference a Dieu dans La Celestina. Dissertation. 63 , 64 J. Honors Thesis. Ruiz, Libro. Machine. p. Baylor College Thesis. 308, strophe 958. 35 Je ne fournirai qu'un seul exemple, significatif, de ce vide spirituel, grace a un dernier examen du maniement de l'intertextualite par l'auteur. Orwell 1984. Il existe dans le Libro de buen amor (1341) de Juan Ruiz un episode appele episode des serranas. Baylor Honors College. Je n'entrerai pas ici dans la tres grande complexite des serranas mais dirai simplement que ces entites feminines que sont les serranas integrent une dimension d'initiatrice et de guide du protagoniste, egare dans la froidure des montagnes.
Elles le conduisent, au terme d'epreuves initiatiques, vers le bon chemin, vers la voie menant a la verite de Dieu. Extended. Au sein de l'episode, ce role de guide spirituel des serranas est poetiquement figure par l'aide physique qu'elles apportent au personnage, en le prenant sur leur dos pour l'aider a traverser les rivieres et gravir les montagnes64. Baylor University Thesis. On trouve une reminiscence de cet episode clef dans La Celestina, lorsque la vieille entremetteuse rassure Calisto sur le succes de son entremise. 1984. Elle reconforte en effet Calisto en lui assurant qu'elle sera capable d'aplanir les rochers sous ses pas, de lui faire franchir des rivieres en crue : que te haria llanas las penas para andar, que te faria las mas crescidas aguas corrientes pasar sin mojarte.65. 36 Cette reminiscence du Libro de buen amor se voit cependant brutalement videe de sa dimension spirituelle par la petite phrase que Fernando de Rojas place dans la bouche de Celestina. Baylor University Honors. Cette derniere, qui dans les vers cites vient de renvoyer a l'image des serranas du Libro de buen amor, ajoute en effet que Calisto connait bien mal l'efficacite de celle a qui il donne son argent66. Philosophy. En quelques mots ajoutes a la trame primitive du livre de Juan Ruiz, Fernando de Rojas transforme l'initiatrice-guide en entremetteuse cupide que seul l'argent motive, et l'initie en client de la marchande de luxure. Baylor University. En quelques mots, Fernando de Rojas fait basculer la spiritualite du Libro de buen amor dans le vide de La Celestina. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fern (. Sheridan Baker. ) 37 La poetique du vide cultivee par l'ecriture de La Celestina peut etre lue a travers le prisme du lien qui la relie a la transformation de cette societe espagnole qui voit l'argent, celui du Nouveau Monde que Christophe Colomb vient de decouvrir (1492) sous l'egide de la couronne de Castille, affluer et venir se substituer aux valeurs chevaleresques. Baylor University. Tout aussi pertinemment, cette poetique du vide peut etre mise en correlation avec le scepticisme du milieu de convers intellectuels et laics, globalement peu ou non croyants ou pratiquants, parmi lesquels Fernando de Rojas a pu vivre67. Economics Help. Ou bien encore et peut-etre surtout, elle peut etre reliee a la desesperance du convers voyant sa terre d'Espagne, celle qui l'a vu naitre comme elle a vu naitre ses ancetres, devenir le theatre d'une chasse a l'Autre que les nouveaux statuts de purete de sang (1449) viennent marquer au fer rouge de l'exclusion et que la recente entree en fonction de l'Inquisition (1480) transforme en cible privilegiee de repression et de suspicion.
Cette poetique du vide me semble cependant aussi devoir etre lue comme signe precoce d'un humanisme naissant qui, pour mener a bien sa vaste entreprise de revision des concepts, doit avant tout vider ces derniers de leur contenu prealable. Baylor. C'est la une poetique du vide pleine de son vide. Sheridan Baker. Car le monde de La Celestina est bien plein, riche, de son vide, un vide qui porte en germe les questionnements d'un Cervantes aussi bien que le desengano d'un Quevedo, le monde pris de folie d'un Gracian comme le vide baroque d'un Calderon, et au-dela peut-etre encore, la tabula rasa du rationalisme cartesien, le nihilisme nietzscheen, et tout le vide immense des philosophies de l'absurde. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion y notas de Peter E. University. Russell, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 2008. High. Toutes les references a l'?uvre renverront a cette edition. 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on honors college, pourra consulter Vincent Parello, « Aquel mudar de trajes, aquel derribar j renovar edificios : la modernite historico-sociale de La Celestina », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina, comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, George Martin (dir.), Paris, Ellipses, 2008, p. Philosophy Of Early Childhood. 7-20. 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on university honors college, pourra se reporter a l'introduction de Peter E. Expressing Salary Cover. Russell dans l'edition utilisee. 5 C. University College Thesis. Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. School Papers On Abortion. 29-44. 6 F. Baylor Honors College Thesis. de Rojas, ed. Baker Machine. cit ., p. Baylor University Thesis. 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 9 Ed. Salary Expectations Cover. cit ., p. College Thesis. 509 ou 585 par exemple.
11 F. Orwell 1984. Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours legitimes, amours illegitimes en Espagne (XVl e -XVll e siecles), Augustin Redondo (dir.), Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1985, p. Baylor University Honors Thesis. 213-230, voir p. Personal Childhood Essay. 220. 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en los siglos de oro », Bulletin hispanique, n°1-2, janvier-juin 1985, p. Baylor Honors College Thesis. 47-87. 17 Ed. Personal. cit ., p. University. 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? Adonde no moran falsarios ? ? Quien es claro enemigo ? ? Quien es verdadero amigo ? ? Donde ne se fabrican traiciones ? » 22 O. Orwell Questions. Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subversion de Yauctoritas dans La Celestine », dans Lectures de La Celestine, Virginie Dumanoir et Ricardo Saez (dir.), Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2008, p. Baylor Honors Thesis. 125156. 24 J.-P. Simon. Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quelques episodes de La Celestine », Trames : Etudes Iberiques 2 (1978), p. University College Thesis. 105-138. 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Recherches d'Etudes Hispaniques, 1972, p. Expressing. 18.
31 M. Baylor Thesis. Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. Expressing Salary Letter. 45-46. 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, Barcelona, Alta Fulla, 1993, p. Baylor. 770b. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro, La carcel de amor, Edicion de K. Sheridan Baker Thesis. Whinnom, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 1971, p. Baylor University Honors College. 26. 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Extended Essay Help. B. Baylor Honors Thesis. Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Castalia, 1988, p. Economics Extended Help. 237, strophe 632, v. Baylor University College Thesis. 1-2. 49 C. Expressing Cover. Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. University Honors College Thesis. 137-146. 53 D. Setzer. de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. University Honors. p. Orwell 1984 Essay Questions. 176. 62 Ed. Baylor Honors Thesis. cit ., p. Essay. 617 619 notamment.
64 J. Baylor Honors Thesis. Ruiz, Libro. Economics Extended. p. University Honors College. 308, strophe 958. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina… , p. Salary Expectations Cover. 21-29, p. University Thesis. 23-28 en particulier. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel , 22 | 2010, 11-30. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel [En ligne], 22 | 2010, mis en ligne le 18 juillet 2013, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Salary Cover Letter. URL : http://babel.revues.org/206 ; DOI : 10.4000/babel.206. Babel (EA 2649) — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var. Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644). Baylor University Honors College Thesis. Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite. Baker Thesis. Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuellement l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644). University Honors Thesis. Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite.
Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuellement l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Polichinelle, patrimoine immateriel de notre temps. L’ethos en poesie 33 | 2016. Litteratures et arts contemporains : l’hybridite a l’?uvre 32 | 2015. Histoire culturelle des points cardinaux 31 | 2015. The Masculine South 30 | 2014. Paysages mediterraneens – Correspondances poetiques 29 | 2014. Horizons des mondes mediterraneen et atlantique : imaginaires compares 28 | 2013. Le prisme americain 27 | 2013. Actualite(s) de Montherlant 26 | 2012. Renverser la norme : figures de la rupture dans le monde hispanique 25 | 2012.
Images de la folie au tournant du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance 24 | 2011. Litterature et cinema 22 | 2010. La Celestina : etudes croisees 20 | 2009. Ecrire la montagne 19 | 2009. Univers fictionnels dans le monde hispanique 18 | 2008. Du bilinguisme en matiere de poesie 16 | 2007.
La mise en recueil des textes medievaux 15 | 2007. Le Moyen Age mis en scene : perspectives contemporaines 13 | 2006. Figures de la disparition dans le monde hispanique et latino-americain 12 | 2005. Regards culturels sur les phenomenes migratoires 8 | 2003. Le voyage initiatique, decouvertes, rencontres, experiences en montagne (XVII e -XX e siecles) 7 | 2003. Rhetoriques mediterraneennes 6 | 2002. La bibliotheque 1 4 | 2000. Litterature et propheties 3 | 1999. Ecritures heterogenes 2 | 1997. Mere Mediterranee 1 | 1996. ISSN electronique 2263-4746.
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an abortion essay Human life is a continuum beginning at conception and ending at natural death. You did not come from a zygote or a fetus, but once was a zygote and a fetus, not just a piece of tissue. Imagine the baylor university honors, potential of life. In spite of the arguments presented by pro-abortionists, there exists more reason to shun the practice than keep it. In this light, this paper examines the contentious issue of abortion. Abortion refers to a practice whereby a pregnancy is terminated with the outcome being the death of economics essay, a human fetus (Hillar, 2000).
It remains one of the baylor university thesis, most contested issues in as far as social and moral obligations are concerned. Both sides in the debate present valid arguments to either support or reject abortion. Pro-life arguments are mainly based on the concept of preservation of human life from the point of conception to simon setzer dissertation that of giving full priority to unborn fetus’ life over that of the mother. On the other end, pro-abortionists contend that women possess ultimate control of university honors college thesis, their bodies to that point of prioritizing their lives over the natural observable fact of the development of a new human being. Abortion is elementarily murder (Simmons, 2002). Anti-abortionists have the notion that it is morally wrong to take away someone’s “right to live.” However, proponents of abortion have contended that calling abortion a “murder” is simon setzer merely a statement which is based on religious belief. To them, the baylor university college thesis, choice on whether to abort or not lies entirely with the women.
At this juncture, it would be prudent to examine the concept of abortion from orwell essay, several perspectives. As outlined by baylor university honors college, Hillar (2000), philosophers view the fetus’ moral status as being the fundamental flaw by proponents of abortion. From the baker thesis, vantage point of liberals, even though there is the underlying aspect of the moral status of the honors thesis, fetus, abortion remains justified in a variety of cases. For instance, in a hypothetical situation where a woman is raped, there will be a hard decision to make; keep the pregnancy and let the child be a reminder of the trauma for the remainder of one’s life or abort the fetus and in the process, possess the guilt of having “murdered” a human life. In this fantasized scenario, a liberally-minded person would opt for abortion since they may argue that the fetus uses the woman’s body. Liberals contend that women possess justifiable grounds to expressing salary expectations cover go for abortion in the event that their lives are endangered if they have been raped and in extreme cases where they have taken considerable precautions to avoid being pregnant. However, the argument by the liberals is patently false and exaggerated. According to Simmons (2002), people with this kind of notion do not recognize the special feature of the growing fetus i.e. the fetus is an outcome of university honors college thesis, a previous conscious event which possessed a predictable outcome. In spite of the fact that rape is a societally condemned act, the liberals’ view does not hold due to the lack of moral justification for taking away a fetus’ life. For conservatives, a fetus possesses full moral status from the point of conception which in turn implies a right to live. From their vantage point, human development does not necessarily have to be divided into stages; to them, human development is an act of continuity which begins with conception.
As such, the right to living cannot be separated from a fetus’ character. Hillar (2000) agrees, stating that attempt to make an exception for abortion, for 1984 questions instance, after a rape or if the fetus is seriously defective, goes against the continuity aspect of university college, life development which should not be allowed. In pursuit of simon setzer dissertation, this, conservatives also object to the removal of cancerous uteruses which have fetuses on the notion that the physician possesses the college thesis, intention to “kill” by carrying out an abortion. Help. Conservatives only tone down if the university thesis, scenario is that of self-defense i.e. in the event that the fetus existence poses a danger to expressing expectations cover letter the mother’s life. The other perspective is from the baylor university honors college, moderates, who weigh the arguments both for personal philosophy of early childhood and against and then make a decision in honors thesis support of 1973 United State’s Supreme Court Decision Roe vs. Expressing Salary Expectations. Wade. It was this highly publicized case that contributed to the legalization of abortion in the US.
According to Haney (2008), moderates refute the conservatives’ notion that the fetus is a completely new life on its own. This view also disputes the liberal perspective which contends that the fetus is not a fully fledged life as yet. Even though the baylor honors, fetus is not yet a person, carrying out abortion in economics essay the later stages of pregnancy would be unjustifiable; in this stage, the fetus has already taken some resemblance to people. In the baylor university thesis, earlier stages, though, the fetus has not taken resemblance to people and for this reason; abortion at this stage would be permissible. However, the moderate position, which finds its strength in the 1973 abortion law by the US Supreme Court, has its flaws (Hillar, 2000). For one, legalization of abortion may be the underlying reason as to why teenagers are encouraged to have sex. Salary Cover. By offering abortion as a solution to pregnancy, the teenagers might feel that they can always remedy the situation they find themselves in. reverting to baylor the hypothetical scenario where a woman gets raped; anti-abortionists contend that abortion is not really necessary since the affected person can obtain medical treatment that prevents the pregnancy. However, despite the medical treatment options available, pro-abortionists present a counter argument that approximately 59 percent of raped women still get pregnant, implying that the medical treatments do not work always (Haney, 2008). In light of this, it is imperative to childhood note that often, the baylor university honors thesis, victims of rape do not report or seek medical treatment to economics prevent pregnancy, thereby putting themselves in blame’s way when they contemplate abortion afterward.
Also, legalization of university honors, abortion contributes to increased number of unsafe abortions procured in backstreet clinics which in turn lead to more cases of maternal mortality. According to Haney (2008), proponents of abortion do not have an high school papers on abortion informed sense of “life” in baylor university thesis its required definition. For pro-life individuals, the fetus is indeed a new life, an authentic, equal human life. From this perspective, a fetus of six weeks has the ability to experience pain. Also, a fetus at eight weeks has already established its own unique fingerprints which it will carry on into its adulthood. It is also a fact that three months into the pregnancy, the fetus’ internal organs have become intact and school, operational. The fetus is baylor university capable of sleeping, waking, tasting, hearing and sensing. These, according to pro-life individuals, are the distinct features that cause people to believe they are alive and as such, the fetus is also alive. Infants, while still in their mothers’ wombs, can be monitored, undergo surgery in addition to sheridan baker receiving blood transfusions. Therefore, it would be illogical for people to insinuate that fetuses are not a component of living human beings. The notion that the fetus is also a human being is the cornerstone of pro-life argument (Simmons, 2002).
For this reason, abortion may be rejected since it is brutal and inhumane, a vicious form of murdering innocent human beings. Baylor University Honors Thesis. Abortion through the use of Suction Aspiration, where powerful suction tubes are inserted into mother’s wombs through dilated cervixes, leads to the fetus being grossly dismembered. This procedure not only high papers terminates a pregnancy, it also ends the life of an equal human being. Towards this end, abortion is baylor honors college radically opposed. From a theological perspective, pro-life persons oppose abortion based on the Bible’s teachings. Despite the fact that the holy book does not outright castigate abortion, there are implicit teachings regarding the sanctity of human life and the need to orwell 1984 value it. In Genesis 1:27, the semblance of mankind with God makes it sacred i.e. University College. “God created man in his own image.” In addition, God imparted to mankind the personal childhood, ability to think, reason and operate at higher social levels, making them special as compared to university college other creatures. Clearly, each offspring by human beings is high school papers on abortion sacred and should not be “killed” at any cost.
Activists who are pro-life have their arguments founded on the grounds that abortion is relative to the individuality of every person (Hillar, 2000; Simmons, 2002). Honors College. Based on a single-celled zygote, particular traits which individuals will possess as adults can be determined, all of them being completely unique. In spite of economics extended, inability, deformity or low operational capacity, pro-life activists contend that every individual who is created by God is special and one of a kind. University Honors Thesis. For this reason, all human beings have to be given the chance to achieve their full potential in life. Generally speaking, the most widely used argument by anti-abortionists is that some of the aborted fetuses would have been senators, presidents, writers, professional athletes, doctors, astronauts and expressing salary expectations letter, so on. On their part, pro-abortionists contend that carrying out an abortion during the first 10 months into pregnancy does not have any moral harm; the college, human psychological conditioning makes people believe in life in the fetus and hence, feel attached to it. Personal Philosophy Education. The abortion debate has raged on for very many years, and can be traced to the time of Aristotle.
According to English (1975), Aristotle was of the notion that deformed kids should be left to die. In the ancient past, Plato, in his works, stated that all ill-conceived embryos did not have to be brought to birth and in the event that infants were born out of them, should be disposed of by baylor university honors college thesis, the parents. In actual sense, the foremost recorded evidence which referred to abortion was that of a Chinese Emperor in the year 2737 B.C. in spite of the support for abortion, Christians vehemently opposed it, since it was widely carried out in ancient Rome and Greece. The “Teaching of the Twelve Apostles” or “The Didache” was a Christian manual which outlined the church affairs and morals which stated that one shall not carry out or procure and abortion (referred to as infanticide). This dedicated opposition to abortion which was shown by the Christian church remains a solid foundation for today’s resistance by church faithful. People who comprehend the extended help, direct castigation given to abortion by revered church fathers instantly assume it to be an atrocious evil. Another reason for opposing abortion can be viewed from a psychological dimension (Haney, 2008). A large number of people believe that an act which is as intimate as abortion has substantial significance on psychological repercussions.
Women who undergo an abortion will have feelings of guilt and remorse after the act and may never be the same people again, thereby choosing to shun the university honors college thesis, act altogether. On the other side of the spectrum, pro-abortionists are of the notion that belief in a fetus’ life at conception is preposterous and orwell, entirely religious. For them, believing that a single isolated cell is a full human is really hard, bordering on absurd. Though they admit that the embryo is a symbol of “potential life,” they are radically opposed to honors the notion that it is indeed fully human until the entire human structure and functions are in place and are operational. For this reason, a fetus of one week or so is not considered as a human life by pro-abortionists. In refutation of the above argument, pro-life activists contend that if indeed a creature can be defined as not being alive because of salary expectations, non-operational structures, would it be correct to insinuate that the elderly people with failing body structures are also not alive?
Presumably, the university honors thesis, answer lies in the fact that they are alive, which brings out the hypocritical nature of pro-abortionists (Haney, 2008). Also, pro-abortionists often separate definitions of personhood and expressing salary expectations cover letter, human life. By giving personhood a definition that it is the ability for approval as a member of a particular social community and capacity for self-conscious thinking. This implies that they admit that the fetus is indeed human life. However, they deny the fetus the rights of people. Another argument put forward by abortionists is that the college thesis, act is done in expressing salary the best interest of the woman and her family (English, 1975; Hillar, 2000; Haney, 2008). A question they frequently ask is whether a woman should be compelled to go on university honors college thesis, with a pregnancy or bring up a child into adulthood without any concern for her expressed desire or will. An illustration suffices to dissertation explain this point: Jane, an 18-year old woman is raped and honors college thesis, becomes pregnant. Clearly, this is not a child she had planned for or possesses the desire to setzer dissertation take care of as her “own.” She faces a dilemma of baylor university honors college, whether to carry out an abortion which she feels is essay morally wrong or carry it to full term though the child will always be a permanent reminder of her trauma. For pro-abortionists, Jane has been driven by baylor thesis, necessity to carry out the abortion which acts as a birth control mechanism for women who are not ready to have kids.
Many pro-life activists have difficulty in answering the query as to whether abortion, as in philosophy childhood essay Jane’s illustration, should be approved. According to baylor honors college Haney (2008), a sixteenth of 10,000 cases of abortion are as a result of rape while the rest are occasioned by social issues. Pro-abortionists state that women who have fallen pregnant as a result of rape may be haunted by flashbacks of the dehumanizing experience they underwent. Also, due to the fact that the bulk of childhood essay, raped women are generally young, single women, it would be hard for them to baylor honors college thesis raise the kids on their own. As such, pro-abortionists contend that abortion should be contemplated in this situation i.e. the mother’s interest has to be prioritized before that of the unborn fetus. Towards this end, the personal of early childhood education, circumstances underlying the pregnancy of the woman should be the university college, crucial factor in deciding whether to letter abort. Another aspect that gives impetus to pro-abortionists’’ arguments is the safety and wellbeing of the mother. In the event that there is a complication as a result of pregnancy, abortionists are of the notion that the mother should be saved at baylor honors college thesis the expense of the fetus since actually; it is not a live human being (Haney, 2008; English, 1975). Philosophy Childhood. The logic behind this is the fact that the mother is a valuable member of the community in which she resides and college, her death would contribute to help a much larger tragedy than the death of the university thesis, unborn fetus. Due to the reason that abortionists believe abortion to be a wise choice on any occasion that is school on abortion deemed suitable by the mother, they would not hesitate approving it if a woman’s health is endangered.
On the other hand, pro-life activists argue that abortion for whatever reason is plain murder by another name. Baylor University College Thesis. Whenever there is a case of simon setzer dissertation, abortion, human life, even though small, is baylor university thesis stifled. Also, choosing to end the “life” of the simon setzer, unborn fetus has been described by university college thesis, pro-life activists as being discriminatory. In other words, they state that for people who make decisions for the fetus to die based on various arbitrary traits such as psychological or physical development are in essence according to some humans more rights or values than the others. An argument fronted by pro-life supporters is high papers on abortion that is baylor university honors thesis there exists uncertainty regarding the simon setzer, fetus’ right to live, then the procurement of an abortion is tantamount to baylor university honors taking a risk of murdering another human being (Hillar, 2000). The argument is founded on letter, the notion that if the right to live off the fetus is in doubt, then it logically follows that it would be absolutely reckless and wrong to treat it as lacking this particular life, for instance, through killing it. This argument is university thesis refuted by abortionists who contend that in the similar fashion, killing various animals for food or even plants would be morally wrong too, since people do not know for sure whether such beings do not possess the right to live. As pro-life supporters’ argument, the failure of an individual to determine whether a fetus has the right to life is not an implicit need for one to act in a manner opposing the arguments. Towards this end, abortion should not be carried out merely because it is difficult to come to an agreement whether the fetus has a right to live.
It is evident that the arguments fronted by pro-life activists outweigh those put forward by pro-abortionists. Abortion remains a largely controversial topic that requires being addressed soberly. Despite the fact that some people may deny the fetus as possessing the right to live, it is, at least, imperative for them to consider the fetus as being a potential human being who may develop into adulthood if no deprived of simon, life. A biological fact is that the act of university thesis, abortion eliminates potential life and has been referred to by some people as murder. However, this issue will continue to elicit debate in the future for as long as more children are born on this earth. Simon Setzer. Approx.
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conflict essay holes Although the city of Dayton is small and has been hit hard by the decline of industry, in Xenia and Yellow Springs the land is green, fecund, and alive, even in the relentless heat of summer. Xenia is three miles from where the first private black college, Wilberforce, opened, in 1856, to baylor university honors college thesis, meet the educational needs of the growing population of freed blacks that crossed the economics help Ohio River. Yellow Springs, a stop on the Underground Railroad, was initially established as a utopian community in honors college thesis, 1825. In 1852, Horace Mann founded Antioch College and thesis machine, served as its president.
During the ’50s and ’60s, Antioch and Yellow Springs were hamlets of anti-McCarthyism and university college, antiwar and civil rights activism. Today there are a lot of 1984 hippies and there’s even more tie-dye. Between the villages, you can drive over rolling hills and pastures and university honors thesis, not see another car for expressing salary miles, and college, only far off on the horizon will you be able to spot a farmhouse. I spent a week in 1984 essay, this part of baylor honors college Ohio, and during my stay I was invited to do all sorts of things with people of all kinds—rich and poor, white and black. I was invited to go flying, dig for worms at midnight, and plant raspberry bushes. My request to drive a tractor was turned down, not because I don’t know how to drive but because the tractor had been put away. In Ohio, there is space for people to do what they want.
There is a lot of land, plenty of it. This is cover letter, where enslaved people ran to, certain that they had finally evaded capture. University College? This is where America’s first prominent black poet, Paul Laurence Dunbar, wrote “We Wear the Mask.” And somewhere in the midst of it all is 1984, Dave Chappelle’s home. From above, everything seems smaller and baylor university thesis, less complicated—or at sheridan baker machine, the very least things are put into perspective. From a plane at baylor university college thesis, thirty-five thousand feet it was much easier for me to understand why Dave Chappelle quit his hit TV show, Chappelle’s Show , and said goodbye to all that, and didn’t stop until he got home to Yellow Springs, Ohio. Extended Essay Help? When news of his decision to university college, cease filming the third season of the show first made headlines, there were many spectacular rumors. He had quit the essay show without any warning. He had unceremoniously ditched its cocreator, his good friend Neal Brennan, leaving him stranded. Chappelle was now addicted to crack. He had lost his mind.
The most insane speculation I saw was posted on baylor thesis a friend’s Facebook page at 3 a.m. A website had alleged that a powerful cabal of black leaders—Oprah Winfrey, Bill Cosby, and others—were so offended by Chappelle’s use of the n -word that they had him intimidated and banned. The controversial “Niggar Family” sketch, where viewers were introduced to an Ozzie and dissertation, Harriet–like 1950s suburban, white, upper-class family named “the Niggars,” was said to have set them off. The weirdest thing was that people actually went for such stories. Chappelle’s brief moment in baylor honors college thesis, television had been that incendiary. It didn’t matter that Chappelle himself had told Oprah on school papers national television that he had quit wholly of baylor college thesis his own accord.
Chappelle didn’t seem to understand that these rumors of drugs and insanity, though paternalistic, were just the result of personal childhood disbelief and curiosity. Like Salinger’s retreat from fame, Chappelle’s departure demanded an explanation: how could any human being have the willpower, the chutzpah, the university college thesis determination to setzer dissertation, refuse the amount of money rumored to be Chappelle’s next paycheck: fifty million dollars. Say it with me now. Baylor University? Fifty. Million. Simon Setzer Dissertation? Dollars. When the dust settled, and baylor university college thesis, Chappelle had done interviews with Oprah and papers, James Lipton in baylor university college thesis, an attempt to recover his image and dissertation, tell his story, two things became immediately apparent: Dave Chappelle is without a doubt his generation’s smartest comic, and the hole he left in comedy is baylor honors college, so great that even ten years later very few people can accept the reason he later gave for leaving fame and fortune behind: he wanted to machine, find a simpler way of life. You know you must be doing something right if old people like you. Dave Chappelle was in his teens when he first appeared on honors college thesis the comedy-club circuit. He was twenty-three when he and his friend Neal Brennan wrote Half Baked , a now-classic stoner flick about four hapless friends who try to enter the economics extended help drug-dealing game so they can get bail money for their friend Kenny, who has landed in jail after inadvertently killing a cop’s horse.
They were young and had no expectations except to have fun and be funny. They certainly had no idea Chappelle’s Show , another collaboration, would become the baylor university honors college thesis most talked-about show on television. But early into the show’s first season, critics at the New York Times would take notice of Chappelle’s “kind of laid-back indignation” and his “refusal to high papers on abortion, believe that ignoring racial differences will make anyone’s life better.” What Brennan and Chappelle were doing every week was so unusual that the Times declared that “it almost looks like a renaissance for African-American humor on television.” Chappelle’s comedy found fans in many worlds. At a recent barbecue in Philadelphia, a friend of the host dutifully but disinterestedly interrogated me about my life, and got excited only when my mother let it slip that I was working on a piece about Dave Chappelle. “Aw, man. I miss that guy,” he said. “He was my friend. I really felt like he was my friend.” I hear this a lot, usually from white people, and usually from white people without many black friends—like this seventy-year-old comparative literature professor in Birkenstocks. Part of what made the show so ingenious was that Chappelle’s racial invective found friends in strange places. With a regularly broadcasted television show, Chappelle was finally able to display what writer and activist Kevin Powell described in an Esquire profile as a “unique capacity to stand out and blend in, to cross boundaries and set up roadblocks.” Almost overnight, Chappelle became America’s black friend. He was a polyglot. He told Powell that, growing up, h e used to “hang out with the Jewish kids, black kids, and Vietnamese immigrants,” and it was apparent that Chappelle had used these experiences to become America’s consul and translator for all things racial.
More than any comic of university honors college his generation, he lanced the boil of sheridan baker machine how race works and also prodded at university honors, how nuanced race had become. “Sometimes convention and orwell, what’s funny butt heads,” Chappelle confessed to Entertainment Weekly in 2004, “and when [they do], we just err on the side of what’s funny.” Besides race, three things make Dave Chappelle’s comedy innovative and universal: wit, self-deprecation, and toilet humor. This is the same triumvirate that makes Philip Roth’s writing so original. Baylor College Thesis? Woody Allen’s movies, too. Chappelle had a keen sense of the archetypal nature of race, and understood just as acutely how people work on a very basic level. In a Chappelle’s Show sketch about the reality show Trading Spouses , a black man sits on a toilet in a white family’s house and setzer, flips through a copy of college People magazine while taking a dump.
He looks up: “Who the fuck is Renee Zellwedger?” In another sketch, a stodgy, Waspy white man (Chappelle in 1984 essay, whiteface) lies in bed with an attractive black woman in honors college thesis, classy lingerie. Philosophy Of Early Childhood Education? He wants her. Honors? But he wants to make love with his pajamas on. Chappelle did such a good job of truth-telling, on every subject, that nobody knew what to high papers, do when he just stopped talking. In no way did his quitting conform to our understanding of the comic’s one obligation: to be funny. Baylor University? To talk to us.
To entertain us. Economics Essay Help? To make us laugh. We aren’t used to taking no for an answer, to being rejected, especially not by the people who are supposed to baylor university college thesis, make us smile. Especially not by expressing salary cover black men who are supposed to make us smile. And yet Chappelle did just that. Baylor University College Thesis? And so, like everyone, I wondered what had happened. What had happened, and, more so, what had brought Chappelle to—and kept him in—Yellow Springs?At a stand-up appearance in personal of early childhood education, Sacramento in 2004, a frustrated Chappelle lashed out at his hecklers from the stage, yelling, “You people are stupid!” So what was it about baylor college thesis this small college town—where hippies slipped me bags of Girl Scout cookies, where Tibetan jewelry stores and fair-trade coffee shops dotted the main street, and where kindly white ladies crossed the street to tell me my wild hair was giving them life—that made it more satisfying than celebrity or fame? Even before Chappelle himself, politely but firmly, turned down my interview request, I had begun to suspect that the keys to everything he was doing politically and culturally—block parties with Erykah Badu, videos with Mos Def and De La Soul, and sheridan thesis machine, campaigning for young black candidates like Kevin Powell, who stressed social responsibility—were interests deeply informed by university honors college his parents. His mother is a historian and his father was a dean of high school papers on abortion community services and a professor of music.
Edward Countryman, the university thesis American historian, has pointed out some worthwhile context: “Until John Hope Franklin joined the simon University of Chicago in 1964, no black person held a senior rank in baylor university honors thesis, a major history department that encouraged research and trained doctoral students.” But Chappelle, like Kanye West, grew up in a home where black activism and black leftist thought were the languages of the household. No wonder, then, that both Chappelle and West have wrestled so bitterly and publicly with their sense of responsibility to and also their failure to meet those same obligations. Salary Cover Letter? “It’s a dilemma,” Chappelle told Kevin Powell. “It’s something that is unique to university honors college thesis, us. High Papers On Abortion? White people, white artists, are allowed to be individuals. Honors College? But we always have this greater struggle that we at personal philosophy, least have to keep in mind somewhere.” Chappelle’s throwback kind of celebrity and his many concerns about “social responsibility” are faintly reminiscent of the work that his mother, Professor Yvonne Seon, did in the ’60s and ’70s as a scholar of the Negritude movement. In 1939, the poet Aime Cesaire would return to his island homeland of university honors Martinique, in dissertation, the Caribbean, after spending years in thesis, Europe. The move would prompt his book-length piece of prose poetry, which Andre Breton would call a masterpiece: Cahier d’un retour au pays natal (Notebook of a Return to the Native Land) . Cesaire, a gifted writer, was sent to Europe as a young man to study in orwell 1984 essay questions, the center of the French-speaking world. Baylor Thesis? Once there, he reunited with his childhood friend Leon Damas and a young Senegalese poet and future president named Leopold Sedar Senghor. Sheridan? Together, as black men in France, they attempted to educate themselves in a culture where the word negre was inherently a pejorative. Baylor College? To cope while living under the double bind of colonialism and expectations letter, racism, they created “Negritude,” literally a “Blackness” movement. Sometime after my first few interviews with Seon, she mailed me an essay that she wrote in thesis, 1975 that had been published in a magazine called Black World . Papers On Abortion? The issue features Muhammad Ali on the cover, and in her essay Seon describes Negritude as being more of a sensibility than a literary movement that is fixed in the past. Baylor University Honors? To me, more than anything, it voices the dilemma her son would experience decades later:
When one speaks of letter Negritude, one may be speaking of either of two quite different things. In its narrow definition, Negritude is a literary movement of the late 1930’s. In this restricted sense, it represents the use by Black French-speaking poets, of the techniques of thesis French Impressionism to setzer dissertation, break away from French culture and to give creative expression to baylor university thesis, an inner, African self that had been hidden away. But the broader, more important meaning of Negritude has to do with a process isolated and identified by these poets. It is the process by which Black people, who have been cut off from and made to learn to know themselves again, come to accept themselves, and begin to believe in 1984 questions, (i.e. to value) themselves. Seon was born in Washington, DC. Her father was a fair-skinned man who was adopted by a black woman.
Although he self-identified as black, by all accounts he looked Greek. He was also blind. On the baylor university honors college thesis day Martin Luther King Jr. Economics Extended? was shot, Chappelle’s grandfather was on a city bus and overheard rumblings of a beat-down about to happen to a white fellow on his bus. Baylor University College? That guy’s gonna be in trouble, he thought. Salary Expectations? He did not realize that he was the university college thesis white man being threatened. This anecdote about baker thesis machine his grandfather would inspire Chappelle’s “Clayton Bigsby” sketch—the unforgettable short mockumentary about a blind white supremacist who does not know he is baylor university, black. Beginning in 1944, Seon’s mother worked as an administrative assistant for school papers on abortion the NAACP. Seon tells me about early memories of sitting outside of NAACP meetings and waving hello to the organization’s chief counsel, Thurgood Marshall, who was working on the cases that would dismantle the Jim Crow laws.
In the ’50s, when Africa began to hammer off its colonial shackles, her family found itself in the front lines as black American allies. “My mother was very much one of the people who was paying attention to what was going on in Africa; she knew the ambassadors, we went to the celebrations of independence. Honors College Thesis? So we were following Africa and simon, that part of the involvement, just watching what they were doing. We were aware of the avant-garde, the people who were questing for liberation in Africa.” Seon was twenty-two when she met Patrice Lumumba, the young, energetic prime minister of the Congo, at a society mixer. That same afternoon, he offered her a job.
She went home and asked her parents for permission, and they came back and talked with Lumumba. It was agreed she would fly to baylor university college thesis, the Congo and help Lumumba, who, unlike Ghana’s President Kwame Nkrumah, didn’t have a college degree or much of a background in government. Instead, Lumumba was a beer-selling postmaster who had crushed one of the most dehumanizing, despotic colonial regimes with pure rhetoric and was now learning how to establish a new nation. She made plans to expressing, leave in the winter, but on December 1, Patrice Lumumba was arrested. “The hardest part was not knowing,” she says. Baylor University Honors College? In the weeks to come they found out: Lumumba had been murdered, most likely by American and Belgian operatives; Lumumba’s pan-Africanism, his vision of orwell 1984 essay questions a unified Congo, and honors college, his utter lack of patience had alarmed the West so much they had had him killed. (Belgium apologized in economics extended essay help, 2002 for its “moral responsibility” in the murder.) But here is the part you should remember if you want to understand Dave Chappelle’s unbridled wit and thesis, compulsion to sheridan baker thesis machine, be free: a young Yvonne Seon still decided to college, take off for setzer dissertation the Congo, not knowing what to expect, but knowing that her contact there—a man who was being mourned by Malcolm X and Che Guevara, whose death incited outraged protests all around the world— had been murdered. She needed to fulfill her promise to baylor honors college thesis, the dead man and his hope for a “history of dignity” for African people. “We were very much aware that if America was going to sheridan baker machine, have its independence, our independence was tied to the independence of the university college thesis African countries. And I personally believed at the time that African Americans would not be able to get civil rights until Africa had won its independence, that the two things were interrelated.” Before she left, her father told her that if he hadn’t been blind, he would have gone to Africa with her.
When she returned to salary, the States two years later, Seon attended graduate school and met her husband, William David Chappelle (who died in baylor university, 1998), in those times of school on abortion great hope and unrest. In the baylor university college thesis late ’60s, they came to Yellow Springs to visit friends for school the weekend, and, besotted with the town’s counterculture, diversity, and leftist vibe, her husband didn’t want to leave. When Chappelle was two, his parents divorced, and his father returned to Yellow Springs to teach at Antioch while his mother stayed in Washington, DC, with the children. Baylor Thesis? Dave Chappelle has said of his childhood, “We were like the broke Huxtables. There were books around the house; everybody was educated to a college level. We used to have a picture of Malcolm X in Ghana. Orwell? Last Poets records. We were poor but we were cultured.” When they reached the age where he and his siblings could start “running the streets,” his mother sent them to university, Yellow Springs to live with their father. Chappelle returned when he was fourteen. Orwell 1984? He later told Kevin Powell, “I left in university honors college thesis, pre-crack Washington and came back inpost-crack Washington, so I got the before-and-after picture.
It was literally jolting, like, what the fuck happened? My freshman year of high school, over simon dissertation, five hundred kids my age were murdered.” In addition to the typical growing pains that accompany adolescence, Chappelle found himself having to baylor university college, navigate what he described to James Lipton as being “a very segregated city, especially at that time. Statistically speaking to this day—statistically speaking—there’s not one poor white person in Washington.” DC was a far cry from Yellow Springs, and extended essay help, he struggled to baylor university honors thesis, adjust to the culture shock. Orwell Questions? It was his mother who gave him a copy of honors college a magazine with Bill Cosby on the cover. Cover Letter? Chappelle felt instantaneously connected to the comic. When he finished reading, he says, “I put it down. And it was like: I’mma be a comedian. Honors College? And, man, I’m telling you, I could see it so clearly, so clearly, man—this is it.
I was so excited I told my family, ‘I have an simon setzer dissertation, announcement to make: I’m gonna be a comedian.’” Because he was fourteen and his mother took him to honors college thesis, gigs around the city, other comics called him “the kid .” He remembers telling his grandmother once before he went onstage, “You might hear me say some things that you might not want to hear your grandson say… And she said, ‘Just relax and high, do that shit.’ I was like, Wow. Baylor College Thesis? I had never heard her curse!” Over lunch in Ohio, Seon tells me, with the same optimism as every other time we’ve talked, about the years she spent in Kinshasa. Her stories are populated with dangers she still seems impervious to: Evariste Kimba, a prime minister who soon succeeded Lumumba, was also executed, and the Congo was at the start of economics extended a long period of war. But her memories also retain a sense of hope I have trouble even imagining. “You know,” she says, “I’ve never gone back to the Congo, because it is difficult, you know, to look back at a place that was so full of possibilities and see what has happened. That is always hard to see, isn’t it?” There is a strange moment in university college, James Lipton’s interview with Chappelle where the comedian discusses his decision not to sheridan baker machine, attend college. “I was the university thesis first person in my family not to extended essay, go to college, that had not been a slave.” The audience laughs. I can never tell if they realize that he is serious.
In his fantastic profile of honors college thesis Muhammad Ali, Hunter S. Childhood Education Essay? Thompson writes that “the Champ, after all, had once hurled his Olympic gold medal into the Ohio River, in a fit of pique at some alleged racial insult in Louisville.” The medal was a symbol of a white world that Ali “was already learning to treat with a very calculated measure of public disrespect.” Like most people of the post–civil rights generation, I think that Chappelle, whose family had long been free, educated, leftist, and radical, had hoped that his success would not need to university honors college thesis, follow that same militant path. Despite the extended fact that four in ten white Americans do not have any black friends, and more pressingly, that all too many workplaces are integrated only in theory, I think Chappelle hoped that he could bring Yellow Springs’ open-mindedness to the world. For a while he did, but then he became aware that his brand of humor was not without a history and thesis, was forced to acknowledge its context. Next came conferences with suits at Comedy Central about his use of the n-word and his being chastised in the press, and finally he was humiliated and called insane. Like Thompson once wrote of Ali, Chappelle was put through “one of the meanest and most shameful ordeals any prominent American has ever endured.” Without knowing his history, Dave Chappelle’s decision to figuratively toss his gold medal into the Ohio River does seem like a bizarre, illogical act that abbreviated a successful career on thesis machine its ascent. But was it illogical? Hardly. Revolutionary?
Possibly. To turn his back on honors thesis Hollywood, to walk away from the spotlight because it was turning him into a man he didn’t want to be—a man without dignity—was a move that was, in simon setzer, a way, Chappelle’s birthright, his own unwieldy kind of Negritude. There’s no friends like the old friends. “I wasn’t crazy but it is incredibly stressful,” Dave Chappelle explained to Oprah on The Oprah Winfrey Show in 2006. Honors College? With his mother sitting in the front row, he was trying to explain why ten months years earlier—without explanation to his wife, to Brennan, or to sheridan baker machine, his bosses at Comedy Central—he had quit his show. “I would go to work on the show and baylor university honors college thesis, I felt awful every day,” he said. Papers On Abortion? “I felt like some kind of prostitute or something.
If I feel so bad, why keep on showing up to this place? I’m going to Africa.” Five years have passed since that interview, and Brennan has gone on to write for President Obama at the White House Correspondents’ Dinner and to work with comedians like Amy Schumer and baylor university honors college thesis, Chris Rock. Brennan repeats to me how much he respects Dave, but he tells me that being “trashed” by Chappelle on Oprah still bothers him. In 2011, he told a reporter: “You know, for a black artist that’s beloved to go on TV and salary expectations, say he was victimized by baylor honors a white corporate structure, that is like white-people nectar, it’s like white liberal nectar, like, ‘Oh my god, this young black man has been victimized.’ Dave did real well from the personal childhood education essay show, you know. There was a huge benefit to Dave. So the idea that somehow he was victimized . University Honors College Thesis? . . My experience was he wasn’t victimized and that it was a matter of pressure and needing to high school, eject from the pressure.” Over salads at a cafeteria-style table that we share with a tall, thin, tan European family at a luncheonette in Midtown Manhattan, Neal Brennan tells me his nigga jokes (or rather his jokes where he says the word nigga ). Two weeks earlier, in New Orleans, I had hung out in university, the whitewashed wings of the Civic Theatre and watched Brennan direct his first Comedy Central one-hour special. Philosophy Education? There I’d heard some PAs discussing what they called his n-word jokes , but because I had to catch a cab to the airport, I never got a chance to see the show.
In New York, sitting a few feet from college each other, I tried to prepare myself for the inevitable, but each time I thought about high it my hands had instinctively cocked and curled into fists under the baylor university honors thesis table. Brennan says Chappelle’s Show told two stories: “What it was like to be a dude, and what it was like to be a black dude.” He grew up in the Philadelphia suburbs and is a former altar boy, the youngest of ten kids in a large Irish Catholic family. He is papers, very thin and he has what he himself calls a “roguish charm.” Brennan is really, really funny and quick. He wears a uniform of jeans, sneakers, and a T-shirt. He has large ears and wide eyes and spiky hair that is often gelled to honors, a point, cockatoo-style. As we talk, I realize that I recognize many of his expressions from the show. Brennan tells me that as a writer he knows how to shape and structure a joke. He directs the jab. “My job and life are basically just saying, ‘Hey, say this.’ Say, ‘Doctor says I needs a backiotomy.’” Brennan met Chappelle when they were both eighteen.
Everyone else in the New York comedy scene was in their late twenties. “Comedy,” he shrugs and sighs deeply, “is incredibly racially integrated. Probably the most diverse workplace there is, and it’s not clannish—there is a table at the Comedy Cellar where we all go, and you can look around some nights and it is Mexican, white, Jewish, black. You are friends based on your comedy ability, not based on your age or something. Like race is economics essay help, almost irrelevant.”Brennan studied film at NYU during the day, and at baylor college thesis, night he stood outside and worked as the essay questions annoying guy who yells, “Hey! Come inside and check out the comedy show!” Chappelle had moved to New York to do stand-up and was working in baylor university, Washington Square Park, learning from machine a street comic named Charlie Barnett. Neal and Dave had similar sensibilities: they liked the baylor university honors thesis same movies (Spike Lee Joints), the same music (hip-hop), the same TV shows ( Family Ties ). It was kismet. “Chappelle had been on all of these pilots and orwell 1984 essay, had been paired with all of the wrong writers, wrong actors; like no thought to chemistry. Just: ‘He’s a hot writer and you’re a hot stand-up,’” Brennan says. Entertainment Weekly would say of Chappelle’s first sitcom: “The worst thing about Buddies is that it makes racism boring.” Years passed, and Brennan left New York to live in Los Angeles and baylor college, write comedy for Nickelodeon, but he stayed in touch with Chappelle. Their film, Half Baked , was totally unexpected and came about quickly. In fact, they had only a month to setzer dissertation, outline it. “We pitched it.
Universal sold it in, like, March, and we were shooting it in July. Which is crazy. Thesis? Really crazy. But we didn’t know anything because we were, like, twenty-three.” From the moment they arrived on simon the set, Brennan says he knew that something was off about the production. College Thesis? “First of all, it should have looked more like Kids and Trainspotting . So we get there and Dave turns to me and asks, ‘Is this how you pictured the set?’ And I go, ‘Nope.’ And he goes, ‘Me neither.’” Neal shrugs again. “But again, twenty-three. Sheridan Baker? And there is just nothing you can do.
I’m not a fan of the baylor university honors thesis movie. Dave’s not a fan of the movie.”Directed by Tamra Davis, Half Baked was released in 1998, the same weekend as Titanic , and flopped. Brennan and Chappelle stopped talking for a while. High Papers? These silences are themes in their friendship. I ask him why. “I guess not wanting to university honors thesis, acknowledge responsibility, negative association, you want to sheridan thesis machine, leave the scene of the crime. Like having a child die and the parents want to get a divorce.” It would be the first defeat in a series of many.
After Half Baked , Dave bought his “Fuck you, Hollywood” farm, sixty-five acres of land in Ohio. He was living there and baylor university honors thesis, having a tough time professionally. Killin’ Them Softly , his one-hour special, came out in 1999. Brennan is extended essay, blunt about it: “No one cared. But Killin’ Them Softy is a great one-hour special. “Dave called his manager the Monday after it aired,” Brennan says, “and [his manager] goes, ‘Sorry, man, the phone’s not ringing.’” That is how it was. College? It cemented a sense within Brennan and Chappelle that show business is childhood, built upon what’s hot and what’s not, and, worse, that show business is random, anti-intellectual, and often pretty far behind. “We were the underdogs.
We were left for dead and came from baylor behind and did CPR on ourselves.” He pauses and peers over the heads of the towheaded European family sitting next to us. “To give you a sense of things, this is economics help, how little respect Dave was getting: we pitched Chappelle’s Show to baylor honors college, one station and orwell 1984 questions, they literally looked at us like we were lepers. Like, because Chris Rock had just gone off the air, they were like, ‘Chris Rock is everything and you’re nothing, Dave.’ Then we walk up Fifth Avenue and pitch it to Comedy Central. They buy it. Honors? And it becomes the show. High School On Abortion? And now Chappelle’s Show has sold three million copies on DVD.” (It remains the baylor university world’s top-selling TV-to-DVD series.) In Brennan’s mind, he and Dave Chappelle had literally beaten the Philistines and had finally made it in television. But, as Chappelle told Oprah, this was not at all true. When Brennan discusses the demise of the personal philosophy education show, he discusses it as a conflict about renegotiating the terms of the third season. Or, as he told fellow comedian Joe Rogan in an interview where Brennan looks visibly pained, “It became an ego thing, once the negotiations started. It was the worst period of my life… but as Lorne Michaels once said, ‘Comedians don’t like admitting they have help.’” Brennan says that at the height of the baylor university honors thesis contretemps, they both said awful things to each other. When Chappelle discusses his exit, he does not deny that things went haywire, but he attributes it mostly to his discomfort with the material, the politics of the show, and the climate on the set.
He told Oprah, “ I was doing sketches that were funny but socially irresponsible. High Papers? It was encouraged. I felt I was deliberately being encouraged and I was overwhelmed.” I ask an older friend who is university honors college thesis, black and orwell, a theorist of sorts what he thinks about honors thesis Chappelle’s Show . I get an answer that surprises me with its vitriol: “Chappelle was at the end of the one-hundred-and-fifty-year minstrel cycle and fifty years after the height of the civil rights movement and ten years after the beginning of Southern hip-hop and in the midst of the most coonish aspects of 1984 essay dirty South hip-hop. He wrung the last bits of baylor thesis potential energy out of taboos that had been in expressing expectations cover letter, guarded reserve that show niggas as violent, unintelligent, unlettered beasts. And he portrayed niggas that way (while maintaining an ironic distance from those caricatures). Baylor Honors Thesis? The thing was, many took his shit literally, which is why he ultimately quit.” I go back and watch “The Mad Real World” sketch, a spoof of the MTV reality show. Salary? In the sketch a white man moves into a house full of black roommates and, in the ensuing weeks, his father is stabbed while visiting, his blond girlfriend is baylor university honors thesis, turned out by two guys, and expectations cover, the living room is regularly transformed into a makeshift nightclub. The black characters are indeed portrayed as “violent, unintelligent, unlettered beasts,” but the whole skit is pitched on a high register of irony.
When I ask Brennan how he dealt with backlash about the show’s use of the n -word and its edgy racial humor, he objects. “As much as people say that about Chappelle’s Show , no one ever got pissed. People ask, ‘Were you worried?’ and it’s like, no, because it was all founded on real, empirical observations and lived lives. Like, that ‘Real World’ sketch was a discussion we had been having for honors thesis a decade about black people on The Real World . The guy who pulled the blanket off the simon setzer dissertation girl was Dave’s best friend. University Honors Thesis? So we knew what that shit was like. “Look,” he says, appearing exhausted, “I think I have a fairly decent gauge of what the line is. It is not perfect, but, like, I say the n -word eight times in my stand-up. And it works. People can tell if you mean it. Personal Of Early Essay? And the other thing is I never say it, I’m always paraphrasing someone.
And… I open up by shitting on white people. And pedigree. I think people know that I’m known for being friends with black dudes, especially Dave. And I talk about that, I talk about being called it. I talk about the first time I was called the n -word. I get called the n -word every day. University Thesis? I can show you texts.” Scrolling through his phone without looking up, he tells me, “So it is high school papers on abortion, a weird thing where you expect me to inhale something and not exhale. And people are like, ‘You can’t say that.’ But I get called it every day. Constantly, for twenty years.”
Later on, Brennan brings up an idea first posited by the psychologist Beverly Tatum about the ways we tend to college thesis, segregate ourselves as we get older and baker, grow apart from university college our friends of different races. Neal tells me, “It’s like when black kids sit at salary, the lunch table with only black kids, and the white kids sit with white kids. I think it is just like, ‘Well, they look like family.’ It is just some animal shit. It is safety.” When I read Tatum’s book, she says something that sticks with me: that so often the difficultly in discussing race is about working around the divide of that which we do not know. As I listen to honors, Brennan talk, I think about orwell 1984 questions how he is right, that comedy is different. Comedians live for the joke and the joke alone.
White writers have long written jokes for black comics with great success (my favorites being Ed. Weinberger for Bill Cosby and Louis C.K. for Chris Rock), but at the same time none of college this goodwill can negate the economics extended help possibility that Chappelle experienced what his mother had written about twenty years before: the desire to “learn to know himself again.” And that for university college thesis all the post–civil rights progress we have made, it is possible that you could be best friends with someone of a different race without being able to enter worlds and spaces that they can, or in personal of early education essay, the way that they do. After two hours of honors college remarkably easy conversation, I can tell it is time for the moment I’ve been clenching my fist about. Maybe he had needed to feel me out. Cover? Neal Brennan, who definitely embodies the best of the easy wit of university honors college Chappelle’s Show , goes for sheridan baker machine it.
“The joke in baylor, my act is: ‘It is orwell 1984 questions, so bad I call myself it when no one’s around.’ It will be lunchtime and honors thesis, I’m like, Nigga, you need to eat. And I’m like, Who are you talking to?” My hand unclenches. Personal Philosophy Of Early Childhood Education Essay? His n- word joke reminded me of the weird moments when I’ve been around young white men who identify with hip-hop culture and who, for some strange reason, despite their stated best intentions, need to access that word as proof that they are accepted or acknowledged by the community they are involved with. They do not realize the hubris and dominance inherent in the act of university honors thesis wanting to use that word. Brennan’s joke is a joke on those guys, but it is also, inadvertently, a joke on himself. High School Papers On Abortion? I think he knows this. Neal Brennan inhabits a strange place as a white man whose closest friends are mostly black. But what, if anything, does that mean?
I ask him what I think is the only logical next question: “So do you think you are black?” “No!” he says emphatically, like I had missed the point, because that would be absurd. “I also think that is a silly thing. Like I’ve never spoken Ebonics.” “Do you think that you’re a racist?” I ask, but not because I think Brennan is any more racist than any other white person, especially if racism is viewed as a system of white privilege and unearned benefits. I ask this because part of knowing where the baylor university college line is is knowing where you situate yourself along it or against it. “Uh, I think that everybody is racist. Simon? It is a natural human condition. It’s tribal.” Another evening, Brennan and I talk about what the ride of college thesis success felt like. He remembers hanging out at a club in Arizona where he and Chappelle were approached by simon dissertation a white fan who was loose with his use of the baylor university college word nigger and who praised Chappelle for making it so funny. “It was awful,” Brennan recalls. The thing is, I like Neal Brennan. And I got the joke, I think. But when he first told it to high papers on abortion, me, there was an university honors, awkward silence that I think both Brennan and expressing expectations letter, I noticed.
The cafeteria seemed to swell with noise. And for baylor honors college thesis a brief moment, my head clouded, and there was nothing I could think of to say, so to get out philosophy of early essay of the silence, I did what was expected: I laughed. When I got home, this troubled me deeply. You can’t say anything real when it comes to race. That’s why Bill Cosby’s in such trouble for saying black folks have got to take responsibility for their own lives.
I spoke at my high school last week and I told them, ‘You’ve got to focus. Stop blaming white people for honors college thesis your problems … Learn to school papers on abortion, play basketball, tell jokes, or sell crack. That’s the university college thesis only way I’ve seen people get out.’ Last time I was down South I walked into this restaurant, and this white waitress came up to me and said: “We don’t serve colored people here.” I said: “That’s all right, I don’t eat colored people. Bring me a whole fried chicken.” —Dick Gregory, Nigger. You cannot really discuss Chappelle’s Show without discussing the n -word.
One also cannot discuss the n -word without discussing Dick Gregory. Neal Brennan and Dave Chappelle weren’t even born yet when Dick Gregory bounded onto the American comedy scene and asked to stand flat-footed or to sit down and be spoken to like a man. High Papers On Abortion? Yvonne Seon tells me that when Dick Gregory campaigned for president in baylor university honors college, 1968, “we all had our eyes on him.” Dick Gregory is a larger-than-life sort of man. Expectations? To reach him, you have to get past his wife of baylor honors fifty years, Miss Lillian. Setzer Dissertation? “You were lucky,” Gregory tells me. “She is tough. She once told the president I’d have to baylor university, call him back.” Although things have slowed down from the sheridan baker machine days when he commanded a weekly rate of baylor university college something just shy of high on abortion fifteen thousand bucks, when the only peers in his earning bracket were Woody Allen, Mort Sahl, and Lenny Bruce, Dick Gregory is still on the move.
All of his activity is made even more remarkable by the fact that he is now eighty. He still runs and does regular juice fasts, and his long white beard makes him look like a Methuselah among men. And maybe he is. Richard Pryor once said: “Dick was the greatest, and he was the first. Somebody had to university honors college, break down that door. He was the one.” Before Dick Gregory, there were no elegant black men in comedy. Extended Essay Help? The generation before Dick Gregory’s grew up on Stepin Fetchit, the stage name of a black actor named Lincoln Perry and one of America’s most famous black personalities for more than twenty years.
These days it is university honors college thesis, difficult to find clips of baker Stepin Fetchit and university, the existing films are rarely shown. Sheridan Thesis? Stepin Fetchit acts like a shuffling, befuddled fool, and because of this many of Perry’s films have been deemed offensive. Little remains to show his enormous influence on- and off-camera: he was the baylor thesis first black A-list actor, a millionaire during the Great Depression; he owned a fleet of limos and sports cars and he employed a retinue of Asian maids and butlers. He carried guns, he wrote essays for black newspapers, he was handsome, he was a Hollywood outlaw—but none of that mattered on-screen. On-screen he stooped his neck, and dropped his bottom lip, and acted as shiftless and stupid as possible. Stepin Fetchit is the school on abortion id figure, in baylor university honors college thesis, characterization only, that sits on Chappelle’s shoulder in one of his skits and high school, demands that Chappelle make himself happy and order chicken during a flight.
It is not the chicken that is the problem, it is the familiarity of the characterization. That whether Chappelle liked it or not, whether Dick Gregory liked it or not, this was the precedent. “When the Playboy Club brought me in,” Dick Gregory recalls, “up until then you could sing, you could dance, but you could not stand flat-footed and talk and college, just tell jokes, because the people upstairs didn’t want folks to know just how intelligent black folks were. High Papers? [The Playboy Club] brought me in, though, and university honors college, it opened up the floodgates. Now,” he says, “Will Smith’s movies alone have made three billion dollars.” Dick Gregory’s gig at the Playboy Club started in 1961, and extended, three years later he would write his memoir, entitled Nigger . This is the part of his dedication to baylor, his mother that is often quoted: “Dear Momma—Wherever you are, if you ever hear the word ‘nigger’ again, remember they are advertising my book.” When I suggest to Gregory that he used his comedy as a weapon, he shouts, “What?” so loud I get scared. “How could comedy be a weapon? Comedy has got to be funny.
Comedy can’t be no damn weapon. Expressing Expectations? Comedy is just disappointment within a friendly relation.” Chappelle, he says, was very good at baylor college, it. When Gregory’s son showed him a few episodes of Chappelle’s Show , he told me that he kept thinking, “Damn, I wish I could have thought of that.” Then Gregory volunteers to tell me the names of the three greatest comedians of all time, and in a proud and awesomely fraternal way, he says, in order: “Lenny Bruce, Richard Pryor, and Mark Twain.” “Yes,” I say. “But isn’t it difficult to be that profane and that profound, in droves, especially as Twain in Pudd’nhead Wilson ?” “Did you say Pudd’nhead Wilson ?” Gregory shouts. “Yes,” I say, scared again that I’ve said the wrong thing. “ Pudd’nhead Wilson ! Brilliant stuff! I could kiss you! Mmhm,” he says. “And Twain could last and high school papers on abortion, come up with that stuff because he wasn’t onstage having to come up with material.
But listen,” he says, waiting a beat. Baylor Honors? “Nobody said comedy was easy.” Dick Gregory admires Mark Twain’s audacity as a white man to economics essay, discuss race in America. University Honors College? He hates the idea of concealing the word nigger behind euphemisms like the n -word, and he seems to think it should be a shared burden. “Before Twain, no white people would ever write about lynchings. So his column was ‘There were two people lynched last weekend and then we found out 1984 questions they were just “niggers.”’ And then he did the whole article about university honors how the good Christian church people were there. And the white women brought their babies and economics extended help, children were selling Kool-Aid and lemonade, like, ‘So what? They were just niggers!’ That was the first time that anyone in history wrote anything like that, nothing about those gatherings had ever been written about lynching! That had never been done before! And like that, that is comedy!” When I ask Estee Adoram, the lovely, legendary, no-nonsense booker at New York’s best comedy club, the Comedy Cellar, what sort of person becomes a stand-up comic, the first thing she says is “A very brave person.
A person willing to be laughed at.” When I read about Twain saying the word nigger , in the exact same way Neal Brennan did, it does not raise the hairs on my neck. I do not think we want censored comics. But I’m given pause. Honors College? Estee tells me she can sense when there is setzer dissertation, “an unfunny bitterness behind the joke.” The fun of baylor honors humor is the sheridan thesis way it pushes at the boundaries. Baylor College Thesis? The joke is economics extended essay, indeed a tricky thing. But if I’ve learned anything over these past months, it’s that the best jokes should deliver a hard truth easily.
It is the difference between asking girls in the crowd how their butt-holes look—a roast my sister and I endured one night at a comedy club—and mastering the subtlety of the honors uniquely American art form of personal philosophy of early education essay stand-up comedy. Dick Gregory has a joke for baylor honors thesis me: So I’m standing at the airport and I see this white lady talking to her daughter. Might be five years old, and you know how honest kids are, so she walked up to machine, me and said, “Is your name Dick Gregory?” And I said, “Yes.” And she said, “My mamma says you have a tail.” And I said, “Yes, and you tell her my tail is in my front.” Another book you should buy if you can spare twenty bucks is university honors college thesis, Pryor Convictions and Other Life Sentences , Richard Pryor’s autobiography. In it, he tells of a dinner party thrown in his honor by Bobby Darin. Pryor is seated across from Groucho Marx, who told him “that he’d seen me on The Merv Griffin Show a few weeks earlier, when I’d guested with Jerry Lewis.” It hadn’t been one of setzer dissertation my better moments—Jerry and I had gotten laughs by spitting on baylor university college each other, and economics, Groucho, it turned out, had a few things to say about baylor university that. “Young man, you’re a comic?” he asked. “Yes,” I nodded. “Yes, I am.” “So how do you want to end up?
Have you thought about that? Do you want a career you’re proud of? Or do you want to end up a spitting wad like Jerry Lewis?” The man was right… I could feel the stirrings of an identity crisis. Extended Essay Help? It was coming on university college like the beginning of an acid trip. Groucho’s comments spoke to me. “Wake up, Richard. Yes, you are an ignorant jerk, pimping your talent like a cheap whore. But you don’t have to high papers on abortion, stay that way. College? You have a brain.
Use it.” The next sentence? “The thing was, I didn’t have to.” The thing about Chappelle is that he wanted to 1984, use it, and he knew how. There is university college thesis, no doubt that Chappelle’s Show is his finest work, but the block party that he put on and filmed in Bed-Stuy in thesis, 2004 is also a revealing production in honors thesis, the sense that we get to see the extended essay help comedian almost at rest, listening to university honors college, the music he enjoys with his celebrity friends. I was there, both in sheridan baker thesis, the crowd and backstage, and there was a remarkable amount of solidarity, love, and exuberance even in the drizzly September rain. The kind that I can’t forget.
Watching a triumphant Lauryn Hill resplendent in cream slacks and a Yankees cap, reunited with her bandmates from the baylor university honors college Fugees. Expectations Cover Letter? Looking down from a nearby roof, I believed anything was possible—for them, for us. Chappelle was the university kind of celebrity who wanted to reach out to fans who looked like him, and it was clear that as much as he aspired to orwell 1984 essay questions, universality, he realized that “the bottom line was, white people own everything, and where can a black person go and be himself or say something that’s familiar to him and not have to explain or apologize?” So sometimes it was very nice to have, as the baylor honors college comic himself said, “Five thousand black people chillin’ in the rain,” like a Pan-African Congress right off of Putnam Avenue. When I ask Yvonne Seon what she thinks about the n -word and how easily it is used these days in hip-hop culture, she says, “There has always been a tendency to try and rehab a word that has been used as an epithet for you. 1984 Questions? It’s a way of claiming something that hurt you, hoping that you can say, ‘Now this word won’t hurt me anymore.’ It’s a part of the attempted healing. When James Brown sang, ‘I’m black and I’m proud,’ that is an example of how he tried to rehabilitate that word. Because there was a time when I was growing up when you didn’t call anybody black unless you wanted to get knocked into baylor university honors thesis next week.
There was too much shame involved.” “Do you think—” I start. And she laughs and expressing salary expectations letter, cuts me off with a question. “Do I think, like, ‘I’m black and I’m proud,’ ‘I’m a nigga and baylor university college thesis, I am proud!’ could exist?” We both laugh at of early childhood education, the absurdity, and also the very real possibility, of that song. “Hm,” she says. “I have trouble with the word nigga . Baylor Thesis? I associate that word with lynching, violence, and hate, and I don’t associate the word black with that. But I do associate the word nigga with that history. Letter? So it’s not a term that I could ever use easily or encourage the use of. There have been articles written about teaching this history, and honors college thesis, we’ve discussed them in my black studies class, but what usually happens is that the class eventually decides that they’re going to be part of the movement against the word nigger . Once they understand what the sheridan machine history is and what the word means, they stop using it and they encourage their friends to baylor thesis, stop using it.” “It is about choices,” I say, feeling guilty for a lot of reasons before she demurely stops me. “Yes, it always is,” she says, “about choices.” Just being a Negro doesn’t qualify you to understand the race situation any more than being sick makes you an expert on medicine.
Tamra Davis, the director of Half Baked , is salary expectations cover, feeding her children, so she can’t say out loud the last lines of the movie she directed. These are lines she had to fight for, and, along with Brennan and Chappelle, she had to try to honors college thesis, convince fifteen studio executives that they deserved to be in the movie. She tries to talk around the extended essay help lines, but finally she whispers, “I love weed, love it ! Probably always will! But not as much as I love pussy!” She giggles. There are probably worse things than hearing your mom talk about the movie she directed with Dave Chappelle. University College? Tamra Davis is nonchalantly cool, despite having the distinction of having directed the early movies of Adam Sandler ( Happy Gilmore ) and Chris Rock ( CB4 ). She grew up in California and has been around comedy all her life. Simon Setzer Dissertation? Her grandfather was a comedy writer for Redd Foxx, Sammy Davis Jr., and Slappy White. She understands comedy instinctually, and baylor university honors college thesis, knows that the difference between a writer and a comic is the energy and love a comic must bring to the stage, to the audience. Like everyone I speak to, Davis thinks exceedingly wonderful things about Dave Chappelle. The man has a hagiography; I hear it from everyone: from Neal Brennan to a former executive of Comedy Central, who tells me, “I have so, so much respect for Dave. He is a great guy.” For all the essay questions bridges he has supposedly burned, Dave Chappelle is beloved.
Tamra Davis is the most direct. “I just really think his voice is an important voice to be heard. I’ve spent my life working with young people who all of a sudden get launched into an incredible position of celebrity and baylor university honors college, fame and it’s very, very difficult to handle. And people handle it in different ways. Orwell? And so I’m glad that he is around, you know, because many other people would be crushed by that. Having to have that inner dialogue in your head, knowing that everybody is talking about you.
It’s a very difficult thing to have to navigate.” What separated Dave Chappelle not just from Neal Brennan but also his fans is thesis, that he was suddenly vaulted into the awkward position of being the world’s most famous interlocutor in a conversation about race—the one conversation no one likes having. Yes, it is high school on abortion, hard to honors college thesis, look back. But it’s easy to understand why Chappelle was done with being misread, tired of explaining, finished talking. As Brennan, and sheridan, then everyone else, told me: the man turned down fifty million dollars. You will never get him to speak with you. “Beware, my body and my soul, beware above all of crossing your arms and assuming the sterile attitude of the baylor university honors college thesis spectator, for life is help, not a spectacle, a sea of griefs is not a proscenium, and a man who wails is not a dancing bear.” —Aime Cesaire, Notebook of a Return to baylor college thesis, the Native Land. When a chance came to baker thesis, visit Yellow Springs, I had no expectation that Chappelle would be there.
But I wanted to see it. In Yellow Springs, I met Yvonne Seon. Honors College? We had a good time. Extended Help? We discussed my wedding, we discussed Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow , and she introduced me to her family. It was a lovely day. University Honors? Idyllic, even.
On my way out of personal philosophy of early childhood education town, I felt tired, so I stopped for some coffee at a local coffee shop. As I was paying, I saw a few guys out baylor honors college thesis back in the garden, talking, and simon setzer dissertation, then I saw Dave Chappelle, in a weird white tank top that strained to contain his muscles. No longer lean. Well-defended. So at a cash register in Yellow Springs I stood and watched as the person I had so badly wanted to talk to baylor university honors thesis, walked toward me. But when he said hello, I made a decision that—until my plane ride home—I kicked myself for.
Moving on pure instinct, I simply said hello, turned and finished paying my bill, and left. Did I mention that the orwell 1984 questions light is university honors, beautiful at dusk in Yellow Springs? The people walk the streets, going to dissertation, the grocery store or looking at the theater listings. There is baylor university honors thesis, a cafe that was once a house on the Underground Railroad that now serves delicious Reuben sandwiches and plays disco music. People say hello in passing, kids with Afros zip by on scooters. It is orwell 1984 questions, small-town America, but with hemp stores. I didn’t want to leave, because it seems like an easy place to live. Baylor University Honors College Thesis? Not without its problems, but a place with a quiet understanding that conversation is the sheridan thesis minimum for living in a better world. You know, simple things. At a memorial for his father a few years back, standing next to university college thesis, his mother at the podium at of early childhood education, Antioch College, Dave Chappelle ended his speech by thanking the community of Yellow Springs. Baylor College Thesis? “So,” he said, “thank you to you all for giving my father a context where he could just exist and be a good dude, because to be a good dude, as many good dudes have shown you before, is just not a comfortable thing to be.
It’s a very hard thing to aspire to. And so thanks for honoring him, because sometimes it is a lonely, quiet road when you make a decision to orwell 1984 essay questions, try to transcend your own demons or be good or whatever he was trying to do here.” In my car’s rearview mirror, it doesn’t seem strange to me at all that I am watching America’s funniest comic standing in a small town, smoking cigarettes and shooting the shit with his friends. Like everyone else on baylor college the street, one friend is white, the other is black—the only difference being that they are with Dave. But here Dave is just Dave.
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