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a question about lasers, engineering homework help. a) In terms of master, advanced manufacturing, what is direct writing? b) Compare laser based and non-laser based forms of case study sampling, direct writing by discussing relevant examples of each type. Master Thesis In Csr? Include sketches to cards for research, help illustrate your description of the thesis, examples. c) Give a brief description of the likely application areas of Direct Writing with examples of good for a, key components that could be produced. Master? Include sketches to good topics research paper, support your description of the master thesis in csr, cases. This is a question from an exam, so the answer should be presented in the form of an essay exam . The slide is very important, so please read the thesis in csr, slide carefully and study, then answer the thesis, question. 250 ?m, but some techniques can operate on smaller (atomic or molecular) scales. • Some methods take a “top down” approach, by scaling down macro processes to produce smaller structures. • Other methods developed take a “bottom up” approach and may be more suitable for production of very small structures. Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Introduction to research paper, Direct Write • Overall, the in csr, aim of DW techniques is the essays town, patterning of in csr, materials in three dimensions. • As well as 3D build, DW can add the essay human in medieval religion, smallest amounts of material to a surface to add some functionality (chemical, electrical, physical etc). Thesis In Csr? • Scales: Usually sub-mm in total build height, but can cover larger areas through patterning approaches with distributed structures having micron down to thesis writing, nm scale feature sizes.
Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Non laser based DW methods • Not all micro DW techniques use lasers. • Laser based methods are in thesis competition with a range of non-laser techniques and there are relative advantages and body essay, disadvantages of the two approaches. In Csr? • In the following slides, the main non laser based micro DW techniques are firstly reviewed in brief outline. Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Ink-based technologies • These rely on the deposition of colloidal inks to essays on living in a small, create structures layer-by-layer. • Evolved from printing, they can create multilayer systems by the deposition of inks containing nanoparticles or organic compounds (including living cells). Thesis In Csr? • Commercial products in thesis graphic this field include ‘nScrypt’ and ‘Aerosol Jet’. • The techniques can be divided into two approaches, as shown in this figure: – continuous (filamentary) inks, or – droplet-based. Master In Csr? Schematic view of writing, ink-based deposition schemes: (a) continuous filament writing (b) droplet jetting Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Ink-based technologies • The properties of the master, ink are important; it must have the required viscosity, shear stress and viscoelastic properties for the relevant process – especially in the case of self-supporting structures. • When printing on hard non-absorbent surfaces, the study sampling, drying of the ink relies entirely on solvent evaporation, though the emergence of UV-curable inks has obviated this limitation to an extent. • Discrete droplet systems rely upon low-dilution ( 200 mm/s); a variety of materials (ceramics, metals, ferrites, polymers) can be used; high reproducibility; dry process; environmentally safe. • A novelty is transfer of the composite material in its solid phase, thus avoiding the melting and re-condensation steps of the LIFT process. In Csr? • This forms a dense packing (max 74% for FCC packing of spheres). Organizer? • Adding nanoparticles to master in csr, fill interstitial voids can increase this value. Good Research? • Novel use of low decomposition temperature chemical precursors. • Additional thermal processing can improve electronic properties of the deposited materials, for example by additional laser sintering. Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Two photon polymerization (TPP) • This technique offers the most promise for in csr, creating complex 3D structures at length scales down to 1 ?m. The focus of an sampling intense fs laser beam is translated within a photo-polymerizable matrix, which is locally cross-linked through the thesis, excitation of a two photon-initiator. Under tight focusing conditions, this creates solidified volume elements (or voxels) with size. 1/3 of the laser wavelength. TPP schematic: laser focused into the sample, which is essay graphic, translated in 3D to form the structure Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Two photon polymerization (TPP) • The intensity in the focal point is so high that molecules can rapidly absorb two photons simultaneously, enough to create radicals that set off polymerization. • No such effect occurs outside the in csr, focal point, so by moving the best writing, laser focus a 3D pattern is generated. • Normally in thesis in csr photolithography, the thesis essay organizer, smallest size of a feature is limited by master in csr the wavelength of the light used. • However, because the two-photon process only functions above a sharp threshold in intensity, it is possible to cards paper, create structures with resolutions smaller than the 780-nm wavelength of the laser light. • Only a small volume of material around the peak intensity of the focal point is polymerized, enabling a resolution of master thesis in csr, about 200 nm. Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Two photon polymerization (TPP) • The process was developed by Marder and Perry at University of Arizona who demonstrated that certain synthetic materials are sensitive enough to two-photon excitation with laser light to trigger chemical or physical changes with submicron resolution in three dimensions. Cards For Research? • When irradiated with laser light, these electron-rich molecules absorb enough energy to cause them to kick one of the electrons to a neighbouring molecule. E ? ?c ? Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Two photon polymerization (TPP) • This photo-induced electron-transfer reaction triggers polymerization, to form a network of chemical bonds. • Efficient two-photon absorption is possible in some materials, but in master others the thesis graphic, intensity can induce damage. Using a ‘negative-tone’ photoresist, two-photon exposure results in crosslinking of thesis, polymer chains.
The unexposed resist is then washed away in the development process. https://www.youtube.com/embed/wThtfAtB5U8 Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Two photon polymerization (TPP) • Internal structuring waveguide writing with IR pulses With a positive-tone photoresist, two-photon exposure can result in thesis essay graphic organizer polymer chain scission. Master Thesis? The shorter units in mla note cards for research the exposed resist are then dissolved and washed away in the process. Images courtesy of Boris Chichkov 2008, reviewed at ASDN article URL: http://www.asdn.net/asdn/nanotools/two-photon_polymerization.shtml Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Two photon polymerization (TPP) • Photonics applications include 3D photonic crystals, metamaterial building blocks. • Biomedical applications include tissue scaffolds. Images courtesy of Boris Chichkov 2008, reviewed at ASDN article URL: http://www.asdn.net/asdn/nanotools/two-photon_polymerization.shtml Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Two photon polymerization (TPP) • Biomedical applications - tissue scaffolds. Images courtesy of Boris Chichkov 2008, reviewed at ASDN article URL: http://www.asdn.net/asdn/nanotools/two-photon_polymerization.shtml Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Two photon polymerization (TPP) • Biomedical applications - Transdermal drug delivery. Master In Csr? The flexibility and high resolution of the 2PP technique allows rapid fabrication of microneedle arrays with various geometries suitable for in vivo use, and for essay religion, integration with the next generation MEMS/NEMS-based drug delivery devices. Precise dosing, safety, and convenience are enabled.
Pain to the patient and trauma at the injection site can be avoided or minimised. Images courtesy of Boris Chichkov 2008, reviewed at ASDN article URL: http://www.asdn.net/asdn/nanotools/two-photon_polymerization.shtml Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Laser Assisted Direct Write (LA-DW) • A hybrid process developed at the University of Liverpool • It uses a filamentary syringe system to master thesis in csr, deposit an gender human in medieval religion ink (usually a metal-loaded epoxy) onto a substrate, then a laser is master, applied to body gender religion, consolidate or cure the ink track. Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Laser Assisted Direct Write (LA-DW) • Resistivity achieved by curing silver inks in this way has been as low as x15 of master in csr, that of bulk silver. Essays On Living In A? • Natural or oven accelerated curing gives higher resistivity • The laser gives controlled temperature rise (thermal curing) • This allows targeted curing of the ink with little or no heat input into surrounding areas, even on heat sensitive substrates such as PET or paper, with no damage. • Two different wavelengths have been used to master thesis in csr, successfully cure these types of ink: 1064nm 532nm. Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Laser Assisted Direct Write (LA-DW) Qualitative model - 10.6 micron CO2 laser cure • Primary absorption is by the thin layer of resin and solvent which coats the silver particles at the top surface; • Solvent is removed by evaporation from the top surface; • Heat is also conducted down into the track, heating the resin complex to its cross-linking temperature. Writing? This can be represented by the energy balance: ?wPlaser = (?sShvw)[Cps Tv + Lv] + (?rShvw)[Cpr Tv+Lcl]+ (?AgShvw)[CpAg Tv] + qcond Solvent heating and evaporation Heating of resin and crosslinking Heating of thesis, silver particles Energy conducted away Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Laser Assisted Direct Write (LA-DW) Issues working with 10.6 micron laser wavelength • Possible boiling of the solvent inside the track during laser curing can cause an thesis writing program uneven surface, reducing electrical conductivity at high frequencies • This wavelength is also strongly absorbed by most substrate materials, raising the potential for damage to master thesis, them. • The thermal properties of the graphic, substrate material can have a significant effect on both the master thesis, curing process speed and for research paper, the efficiency of cure at the substrate interface. Thermally conductive substrate; ink overcured at master in csr top but liquid at interface Thermally insulating substrate; ink cured down to thesis essay organizer, interface. Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Laser Assisted Direct Write (LA-DW) 532nm laser curing of silver inks Using 532nm instead of master thesis in csr, 10.6µm wavelength allows: • • • • Deeper laser penetration into the ink surface. Greater absorption by good topics for a physics the silver flakes. Reduced absorption by other ink components. Poor absorption by polymer substrates such as PET. Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Laser Assisted Direct Write (LA-DW) 532nm compared to 10.6µm: effect on thesis, the energy balance • • • The primary absorber is now changed from the resin/solvent mix to good topics, the silver flake, which makes up.
60% of the ink. As the silver flakes rise in temperature, the bulk of the solvent is expelled at below its boiling point by surface tension effects. This allows for more efficient temperature rise to the cross linking temperature 10.6µm 532nm Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Laser Assisted Direct Write (LA-DW) Application – Genetic Algorithm antenna • Liverpool Laser Engineering Group used LA-DW to thesis in csr, deposit and cure a novel GA antenna directly onto best a composite carbon fibre / foam wing for a BAE Systems led project Towards a Wireless Aircraft in master in csr 2011. Sampling? • Transmitting and thesis in csr, receiving signals from an embedded pressure sensor were successfully demonstrated. • The GA antenna created was to be broadband at 2.4GHz performed well in eliminating null zones found in standard patch antennas. Best Writing? • No apparent damage to the foam wing resulted from the process. Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Discussion • Consider / discuss: • What, in general, would you consider might be the key advantages of master in csr, laser based DW compared to non-laser based approaches? Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Laser based DW methods - advantages – Photons selectively absorbed in localised (µm scale) regions across a material surface, especially at cards for research paper specific wavelengths. – Thermal effects on adjacent areas are avoided, hence the process can be used with temperature-sensitive substrates. – Passive or active functional structures. – Weight and material savings compared to traditional wiring. Customisation of circuits e.g. RFID tags DW onto rigid or flexible substrates, or a skeleton to master, fit between layers – Short pulse lasers enable additive-subtractive methods. Cards Paper? Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers Laser based DW Summary of master thesis, systems applications Laser based DW systems can be separated into: • Laser enhanced deposition methods (e.g. LIFT, MAPLE, MAPLE-DW, LA-DW) • Laser induced modification of preplaced materials (e.g. TPP, LA-DW) Laser based DW applications include: • • • • • • Sensors Tissue scaffolds Microneedle drug delivery Microcircuitry generation Flexible electronics Cell or enzyme deposition (i.e. ‘lab on a chip’) Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) MECH607 – Advanced Manufacturing with Lasers References and further reading J A Lewis, GM Gratson Direct Writing in Three Dimensions, Materials Today, July/August 2004 p. Human In Medieval? 32. P Cooley, D Wallace and B Antohe Applicatons of Ink-Jet Printing Technology to thesis in csr, BioMEMS and Microfluidic Systems A.S.
Holmes 'Laser fabrication and study, assembly processes for master thesis, MEMS’, Proc. SPIE 4274, 297 (2001) Ho, C.,Murata, K., Steingart, D,. Evans, J., Wright, P. (2008) 'A super ink jet printed zinc-silver 3d microbattery', Proceedings of PowerMEMS 2008+microEMS 2008, Sendai, Japan, pp. Best Thesis? 93-96. Li-ion Microbatteries Generated By A Laser Direct-write Method R. Master In Csr? Wartena et al. Topics Paper? / Journal of master, Power Sources 126 (2004) 193–202 Three Dimensional Printing: Rapid Tooling and Prototypes Directly from a CAD Model, E. Sachs, M. Cima et al J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
114(4), 481-488 (Nov 01, 1992) Direct Writing Of Conformal Mesoscopic Electronic Devices By MAPLE DW, D B Chrisey et al Applied Surface Science 168 (2000) 345-352 The Aerosol Jet System [Renn, M. J., Developments in Multi-Nozzle Aerosol Jet Printing. In IMI Printed Electronics, Las Vegas, NV, 2006, 5th, Information Management Institute.] Glass Lab On Chip Y. Mla Note? Cheng et al. / Applied Surface Science xxx (2005) xxx–xxx (in press). J-S Do et al, “Thick-film Nickel–metal-hydride Battery Based On Porous Ceramic Substrates”, Journal of thesis, Power Sources. A Pique et al, “Laser Processing Of Polymer Thin Films For Chemical Sensor Applications”, Surface and Coatings Technology. B King, “Maskless Mesoscale Materials Deposition” Article, EP P magazine February 2003 Jessica et al, Bone Tissue Engineering Using Polycaprolactone Scaffolds Fabricated via Selective Laser Sintering, Biomaterials 26 (2005) 4817–4827. McClelland JJ, et al, Laser-focused Atomic Deposition - Nanofabrication Via Atom Optics, Thin Solid Films 367 (1-2): 25-27 (2000). Nanostructure Fabrication Via Direct Writing With Atoms Focused In Laser Fields, R.E.
Scholten, J.J. Best Thesis Writing Program? McClelland, E.C. Palm, A. Gavrin, and R.J. Master? Celotta, J. Topics Physics? Vac. Sci. and Technol. B 12(3), 1847-1850 (1994). Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN): Process And Instrument Performance With Nanoink's Nscriptor System, Ultramicroscopy, Volume 103, Issue 2, p.117-132 J Haaheim, et al (2005). Boris Chichkov, “Two-photon Polymerization - High Resolution 3D Laser Technology And Its Applications”, in master book “Nanoelectronics and Photonics: From Atoms to case study, Materials, Devices and Architectures”, Springer (2008). Solid Freeform Fabrication Of Three-dimensional Scaffolds For Engineering Replacement Tissues And Organs, K.F.
Leong et al. Biomaterials 24 (2003) 2363–2378 Micro And Nano-fabrication Of Biodegradable Polymers For Drug Delivery, Y. Lu, S.C. Chen Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 56 (2004) 1621–1633. Thesis In Csr? A Predictive Thermal Dynamic Model For Parameter Generation In The Laser Assisted Direct Write Process, Shuo Shang et al, J. Phys. D: Appl. Body Human In Medieval? Phys.
44 (2011) 435301. Laser based Direct Write (Geoff Dearden) Hello there!Here are the master in csr, answers. Let me know if any change is needed.#128548; relevant examples of each type. Include sketches to help. Study Sampling? California Institute of master in csr, Technology. Mla Note Cards For Research? Carnegie Mellon University. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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#039;Submit to thesis in csr your husbands#039;: Women told to endure domestic violence in the name of God. Illustrations by Rocco Fazzari Updated Thu 10 Aug 2017, 4:31 PM AEST. Research shows that the mla note cards, men most likely to abuse their wives are evangelical Christians who attend church sporadically*. Church leaders in Australia say they abhor abuse of any kind. But advocates say the church is not just failing to sufficiently address domestic violence, it is both enabling and master thesis, concealing it. This is the second instalment of an ABC News and 7.30 investigation into domestic violence and religion. You can read part one in the series — on thesis writing domestic violence and Islam — here. The culprits were obvious: it was the menopause or the devil. Who else could be blamed, Peter screamed at his wife in nightly tirades, for her alleged insubordination, for master thesis her stupidity, her lack of sexual pliability, her refusal to join him on mla note for research paper the 'Tornado' ride at master thesis, a Queensland waterpark, her annoying friendship with a woman he called Ratface? For her sheer, complete failure as a woman?
Family and domestic violence support services: 1800 Respect national helpline: 1800 737 732 Women's Crisis Line: 1800 811 811 Men's Referral Service: 1300 766 491 Lifeline (24 hour crisis line): 131 114 Relationships Australia: 1300 364 277. The abuse went on, day and night, as Sally bore a child, worked morning shifts at the local hospital and body essay in medieval, stayed up late pumping breast milk for her baby. She was deeply exhausted, depleted and worn. The night before Sally finally left her husband and thesis in csr, the townhouse they lived in on essay graphic Sydney's northern beaches he told her she was also failing her spiritual duties. Your problem is you won't obey me. Thesis In Csr? The Bible says you must obey me and you refuse, he yelled. You are a failure as a wife, as a Christian, as a mother.
You are an insubordinate piece of s**t. Sally, an executive assistant who had just turned 44, stared at him, worrying about whether her neighbours — or her sleeping daughter — could hear his roars through the thin walls. She knew what had flicked his switch: the simple act of essay organizer, coming down to say goodnight, which he interpreted as a lack of willingness to thesis in csr have sex. Peter then opened his Bible and read out some verses: Wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord. Best Thesis Program? For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body, and is himself its Saviour. Let a woman learn in silence with all submissiveness I permit no woman to teach or have authority over a man; rather, she is to remain silent. For years, Sally had believed that God wanted her to submit to her husband, and she did her best, bending to his will and thesis in csr, working to pay the bills, despite the pain she was in. But on this night, she was done. The next morning, she packed up her bags, grabbed some clothes for her daughter and left, taking the little girl with her.
She left everything else behind. Religion and domestic violence: the missing link. When we speak of domestic violence, and the cultural factors that foment it, one crucial element missing from the discussion has been religion. While it is generally agreed that inequality between the sexes can foster and cultivate environments where men seek to control or abuse women, in Australia there has been very little public debate about topics physics, how this might impact people in male-led congregations and religious communities, especially those where women are told to in csr be silent and essays, submit to male authority. In other countries, like the master thesis, United States and United Kingdom, there has been extensive analysis.
So why is Australia so behind on sampling this issue? In the past couple of years, concern has been growing amongst those working with survivors of domestic violence about the role the Christian church of all denominations can either consciously or inadvertently play in allowing abusive men to continue abusing their wives. The questions are these: do abused women in church communities face challenges women outside them do not? Do perpetrators ever claim church teachings on male control excuse their abuse, or tell victims they must stay? Why have there been so few sermons on domestic violence? Why do so many women report that their ministers tell them to stay in violent marriages? Is the stigma surrounding divorce still too great, and unforgiving? Is this also a problem for the men who are abused by master thesis in csr, their wives — a minority but nonetheless an important group?
And if the church is meant to be a place of refuge for the vulnerable, why is mla note for research, it that the victims are the ones who leave churches while the perpetrators remain? External Link ABC 7.30 Facebook video: The Anglican Archbishop of Sydney Glenn Davies explains gender equality in the church. Is it true — as one Anglican bishop has claimed — that there are striking similarities to the church's failure to protect children from abuse, and master, that this next generation's reckoning will be about the failure in their ranks to protect women from domestic violence? A 12-month ABC News and 7.30 investigation involving dozens of interviews with survivors of domestic violence, counsellors, priests, psychologists and researchers from mla note, a range of Christian denominations — including Catholic, Anglican, Baptist, Pentecostal and Presbyterian — has discovered the answers to these questions will stun those who believe the church should protect the abused, not the abusers. 'I felt that I was almost being raped' Sally met Peter when she was in her mid-30s, and had been praying for a husband.
She wasn't instantly attracted to him but was charmed by the deluge of flowers and thesis in csr, love letters he sent. She grew to believe she was meant to be with him. She overlooked the case study, fact that she had to thesis in csr buy her own engagement ring and agreed to case marry him not long after their meeting. Peter's personality changed on the first day of their honeymoon, when he yelled at her for sleeping in, and made plans to go fishing for days without her. Her bible study leader told her later that she looked like the saddest bride he had ever seen. The abuse quickly escalated as Peter drank, gambled and demanded sex every second night, usually after having yelled at her for hours. She later wrote in a statement prepared for court: If I refused, he would become incandescent with rage. It was easier to give in than argue. Those nights I felt that I was almost being raped.
Once he forced her to have sex just three weeks after giving birth. Sally found little comfort in her Pentecostal church, which she had turned to master thesis repeatedly. Paper? Counsellors there simply advised her to forgive him. She also told her pastor her story, but no one followed it up. The violence mounted until one day her husband threw their three-year-old daughter across the room after the toddler accidentally bumped his leg. When she left Peter, Sally also left her church parish, feeling isolated and unwanted as a single mother. Ten years later, she is still shattered. In Csr? She wishes she had heard just one sermon on domestic violence, or had one supportive ear.
The Christian men more likely to assault their wives. The fact that domestic violence occurs in church communities is well established. Queensland academic Dr Lynne Baker's 2010 book, Counselling Christian Women on How to cards Deal with Domestic Violence, cites a study of Anglican, Catholic and Uniting churches in Brisbane that found 22 per cent of perpetrators of thesis, domestic violence and abuse go to good topics for a physics church regularly. But American research provides one important insight: men who attend church less often are most likely to abuse their wives. (Regular church attenders are less likely to master in csr commit acts of intimate partner violence.) Those who are often on essay the periphery, in other words, who sometimes float between parishes, or sit in the back pews. For these men, the master thesis, rate of abuse committed is alarmingly high. As theology professor Steven Tracy wrote in 2008: It is topics physics research paper, widely accepted by abuse experts (and validated by numerous studies) that evangelical men who sporadically attend church are more likely than men of any other religious group (and more likely than secular men) to assault their wives.
Some attribute these findings to master thesis in csr the conservative denominations and town, churches that preach and master thesis in csr, model male control, with male-only priesthoods and inviolate teachings on male authority. Adelaide's Anglican Assistant Bishop Tim Harris says, it is well recognised that males (usually) seeking to study justify abuse will be drawn to misinterpretations [of the Bible] to attempt to legitimise abhorrent attitudes. Stressing that his diocese strongly rejected any teachings on male superiority, he told ABC News: This has been a particular concern for those coming out of evangelical and master in csr, fundamentalist backgrounds. Video 7:10 Julia Baird and mla note cards paper, Anglican priest Michael Jensen discuss domestic violence and the Church. In Australia, it is widely accepted that gender inequality is a contributing factor to violence against women.
The Australian Institute of master thesis in csr, Family Studies probed this question and concluded: The vital element to consider is the gender norms and beliefs surrounding male dominance and male superiority, created by power hierarchies that accord men greater status. This is thesis essay, confirmed by global research. A study published in the Lancet in 2015 analysed data from master thesis, 66 surveys across 44 countries, covering the gender in medieval, experiences of almost half a million women. It found that the greatest predictor of partner violence was environments that support male control, especially norms related to male authority over female behaviour. The past two decades of thesis in csr, research has also shown women in religious communities are less likely to leave violent marriages, more likely to believe that the abuser will change, less inclined to access community resources and more likely to believe it is their fault; that they have failed as wives as they were not able to stop the abuse. A culture of victim blaming or shaming can cause women to exit the church entirely. Best? The most common story in the dozens heard by ABC News is that when marriages break, the men stay and the women leave. The CEO of Safe Steps Family Violence Centre, Annette Gillespie, says that in 20 years of master thesis in csr, working with victims of domestic violence, she found it was extremely common that women will be encouraged by for a physics paper, the church to master thesis stay in paper, an abusive relationship. I know that for many women the thesis, experience of violence was worsened by the lack of support people turned to in the church, she said. Often people say it is the guilt of going against the church teaching that leads them to stay in relationships well beyond a time they should leave because they are trying to please the church as well as please their partners … they often feel they will have to choose between leaving religion or violence.
So when they leave a relationship, they leave a church. Women in faith communities where divorce is shunned, and shameful, often feel trapped in abusive marriages. In a submission to the Royal Commission on Family Violence, one Victorian woman wrote that five different ministers had told her to remain with a violent husband. A church counsellor told her: Be gentle with him, he's trying to be a man. This is particularly true in the Catholic Church, where divorce is forbidden, as will be explored in greater detail in an upcoming instalment of this series.
If pastors prevaricate, or fumble, it could be too late. New research finds women in essay graphic organizer, the church usually only go to their pastors when partners do something so violent they fear they will die. After 25-year-old Wubanchi Asefaw was told by master thesis in csr, her church leaders to return to her husband in early 2014, he stabbed her to graphic organizer death in their western Sydney home shortly afterwards. Unlike the Koran, there are no verses in the Bible that may be read as overtly condoning domestic abuse. To the contrary, it is thesis, made clear that God hates violence and relationships must be driven by selflessness, grace and love. Confronting domestic violence in Islam. There is essays on living in a small town, no mainstream theologian in Australia who would suggest that a church should be anything but a sanctuary, or that a Christian relationship be marked by anything but love. But church counsellors and survivors of master in csr, family violence report that many abusive men, like Sally's husband, rely on twisted — or literalist — interpretation of Bible verses to mla note cards paper excuse their abuse. Baker, whose 2010 book on in csr counselling abused Christian women sprang from years of doctoral research, writes: biblical principles and scriptures may be used by the perpetrator as a point of authority to case condone his actions, or perhaps to 'prove' to the victim that she is not fulfilling her marital obligations.
Abusive men commonly refer to several different parts of the Bible. First are the verses — cited by Sally's husband Peter, above — telling women to submit to their husbands and master thesis, male authority, under the doctrine known as male headship. Second are verses that say God hates divorce. And third are those in on living in a small, 1 Peter that tell women to submit to husbands in a very particular way, as they follow instructions to slaves to master thesis submit to good for a research even harsh masters. But Denis Fitzgerald, executive director at thesis in csr, Catholic Social Services Victoria, says it is crucial for the Bible to be read in thesis organizer, light of the master, culture it was produced in. Biblical literalism is not an acceptable approach and part of the teaching role with the good paper, bishops is to help the priests and the people to see that texts can't be taken out of master in csr, context — you have to look at the broader intent and mla note for research, message of the scriptures, he says. And Simon Smart, the master thesis, Executive Director of the Centre for Public Christianity points to what [Croatian theologian] Miroslav Volf describes as the difference between 'thin' and 'thick' religion — where thin religion is best thesis program, stripped of its moral content and used as a weapon for goals completely unrelated to the faith. The doctrine of male headship: What does it mean? The doctrine that is most commonly, and controversially cited by abusers is male headship, where a husband is to be the thesis in csr, head of the wife in body essay gender in medieval religion, marriage and the wife is to submit, and men are to master be head of the church. What submission means takes many different forms. At its extreme edge, it is complete subservience.
In the 1970s and 1980s, literature coming out thesis writing program, of the United States suggested it meant putting up with every possible harm. According to Elizabeth Hanford Rice in her book Me? Obey Him?, this even included physical violence and in csr, child abuse. Three female authors — Dorothy McGuire, Carol Lewis and Alvena Blatchley — even praised a woman for staying with a man who tried to murder her. Correct interpretations of body essay human in medieval religion, scripture are debated in ways not dissimilar to those in the Koran; there is master thesis in csr, disagreement over translation, hermeneutics, exegesis, the relevance of the culture in which it was written, the then-radical attitudes of acceptance Christ expressed towards women and the role of paper, women in the early church. These debates hit peak expression in the latter half of the 20th century as most mainstream Christian denominations moved to ordain women to the priesthood, to equal positions to men. Today, those churches in Australia that do not have women priests include the Catholic, Lutheran and Presbyterian churches, and the influential Sydney Diocese of the master, Anglican Church.
Some of these groups have responded to the expansion of case study sampling, women's role elsewhere by restricting it further in their own ranks. Today, it is clear proponents of headship intend to thesis in csr teach a form of self-sacrificial love — for a man to be head of on living in a town, his wife like Christ is head of the church, and to sacrifice himself to his wife in the same way. But there remains some confusion about what submission actually means. In 2009, prominent American evangelical pastor John Piper, a frequent visitor to Sydney, was asked, What should a wife's submission to her husband look like if he's an master thesis, abuser? His response was that if he was simply hurting her, then she should endure verbal abuse for a season, and case, endure perhaps being smacked one night, before seeking help from the church. Almost four years later, he issued a clarifying statement in which he called on men in master thesis, the church to discipline abusers, and uphold a beautiful vision of marriage where men lead with gentleness. Another influential pastor James Dobson has in the past advised women to bait their abusive husbands to goad them into behaving badly, which he believed would shock them into realising they had a problem and agree to counselling.
In 2013, American pastor Steven J Cole concluded in a sermon that a wife may need to for a physics research submit to some abuse. The difficult question is, he writes, how much? My view is that a wife must submit to verbal and emotional abuse, but if the husband begins to thesis in csr harm her physically, she needs to cards for research paper call civil or church authorities. Although physical abuse is not a biblical basis for divorce, I would counsel separation in in csr, some cases to protect the wife while the husband gets his temper under control. But even in essay human religion, such situations, a Christian wife must not provoke her husband to anger and she must display a gentle spirit.
In 2016, American evangelist Kirk Cameron told the Christian Post: Wives are to honour and respect and follow their husband's lead, not to tell their husband how he ought to be a better husband. When each person gets their part right, regardless of thesis in csr, how their spouse is treating them, there is hope for real change in their marriage. Time and case sampling, again in evangelical literature, marital success is predicated on female submission; it is the basis on which women are judged or praised. In Sydney, as recently as 2015, David Ould, the rector of Glenquarie Anglican Church — also active in the conservative Anglican Church League — asked if it might be a Godly wise choice for women to stay with abusive husbands given the Bible teaching in 1 Peter 3, telling wives to submit to their husbands. These verses follow on master in csr from those in 1 Peter 2 that tell slaves to submit to masters — even those who are harsh, or, in other words, physically violent. Ould, who now works to protect women in his parish and essays, region from domestic violence, later clarified his comments. He told ABC News his central message was: I would understand how women would read that passage and choose to thesis stay, but I myself would be urging them to get out and work out what it means from a safe position. Male headship 'providing the best, wiring' for abuse. Today, a growing number of counsellors, psychologists and welfare workers are reporting that abusers cite the idea of male headship to sanction violence. Anglican counsellor from master, Charles Sturt University Nicola Lock, who has been working with domestic violence cases for 25 years, says the use of headship theology in spousal abuse is very common. Anecdotally, teaching of thesis writing program, headship has been seen to be contributing to the problem of thesis in csr, domestic violence, both in encouraging abusive male partners, and thesis graphic, preventing female partners from challenging abusive behaviours, or leaving an abusive relationship, Lock said.
As Dr Johanna Harris Tyler, a lecturer at the University of Exeter in the UK who was brought up in Sydney Anglicanism, argues: While male headship may not necessarily trip the switch of abuse, it can provide the master in csr, wiring. This is a particularly sensitive point in the Sydney Anglican Church, which is cards for research, known for its robust advocacy of male headship. Any suggestion of its abuse usually evokes vehement rebuke and defence from senior clergy. Ministers who uphold headship say their teachings are just being confused with patriarchy, and master thesis in csr, twisted by essays on living small town, those who abuse power. Those who uphold egalitarian views of in csr, marriage in best writing program, this diocese report being sidelined, overlooked for jobs and ostracised. Some told ABC News they could not publicly state that they believed in master, equal relationships between men and women, for best they would lose their jobs. And as domestic violence advocate Barbara Roberts points out, in conservative churches women are often taught that desire to overthrow male authority is a sign of sin — thereby making feminism innately wrong.
In other words, if male authority and leadership is from master, God, any challenge to for research that is from women's sinful natures — or the devil. Kara Hartley is the thesis in csr, Archdeacon for best thesis program Women in the Diocese of master, Sydney and deputy chair of a taskforce looking into church responses to domestic violence. She stresses there is nothing whatsoever in mla note cards, the Bible to condone abuse, and that men and women just have different roles. The responsibility of men is to lovingly, sacrificially care for their wife, and a wife to submit to master thesis his care, his leadership, his loving sacrifice to her, Hartley told ABC News. Now, for many they'll say that's submission, and therefore headship, [which] creates an imbalance in essays on living small town, the marriage. But actually when they're put together, a woman's voluntary … willing submission to her husband, in his loving sacrificial care of her, there's a beautiful picture there.
Sydney Anglican Archbishop Dr Glenn Davies agrees, telling ABC News submission is never coercive, it's always voluntary, so the wife offers herself in that relationship. It becomes dangerous where in a marriage the master, husband over-reaches and manipulates the gender, woman … it's not submission that's gone wrong, it's the master thesis in csr, husband that's gone wrong. It is important to understand, he says, that there is no way in which we countenance domestic violence in any form be it spiritual, emotional or physical, in our church, we are absolutely opposed to that. It's not the teaching, it's the distortion of the teaching which is the problem, I don't believe teaching the Bible produces violence in essay organizer, domestic situations. But it would be wrong to portray this simply as an issue in Sydney. The difficulties with the interpretation of headship spreads across denominations. In February 2016, Catholic bishop Vincent Long cautioned that literal interpretations of the Bible provide the basis for systematic oppression or structural discrimination of thesis in csr, women and case study, lead communities — even church communities — to protecting perpetrators of thesis in csr, domestic violence while simultaneously heaping shame and scorn upon its victims.
Others point the case, finger at all-male leadership. Sydney psychologist Kylie Pidgeon, who also works with perpetrators and survivors of family violence, wrote in master, a recent paper that women are more vulnerable in churches where only men lead: [Men] occupy the positions of greater power and public influence in essay, a church and hold the offices charged with major decision-making and general oversight of the spiritual health of the congregation. Women usually fill 'support' roles, such as teaching kids' church, reading the Bible, or preparing morning tea. Thesis? While the paper, intentions of men in positions of leadership are often good; to master thesis in csr exercise their authority with love and care, and while a male-led structure by no means guarantees that women will be abused, it is apparent that patriarchal structures place women at greater risk of abuse. By failing to for research pastor women, or encourage them to lead or speak, Pidgeon says, male leadership may unwittingly be giving 'silent permission' to male congregation members to master in csr similarly rule over best program, and neglect their wives. In churches where women are not allowed to master thesis speak or preach, they may also worry that they will not be believed. Erica Hamence, assistant minister at the Anglican St Barnabas Broadway in study, Sydney, wrote recently that in male-led churches, women have as much room to speak as the male leaders allow. That's a profoundly vulnerable position to be in, and one which I suspect some male ministers are not always able to empathise with.
If a woman suffering abuse wasn't completely confident that she would be believed, that the particular nature of the thesis, abuse would be understood, and that she would be supported by her church's leader, she would most likely continue to suffer alone. How do all-male hierarchies respond? Almost all-male hierarchies are common in many conservative congregations across denominations — Catholic, Baptist, Presbyterian, Anglican and Pentecostal — as are poor responses from pastors. Susan, a student and mother, went to a Pentecostal Church in Adelaide for most of the 23 years of her married life. She describes her marriage as akin to organizer a horror story. She was repeatedly raped by her husband and was continually unnerved by strange incidents that kept happening to in csr her children in her absence. Bruises appeared, faces were bloodied, weak excuses were given. One day her husband was rebuking his daughter for wearing a revealing top when she ran and hit the wall and lost a tooth.
On another day, he pushed Susan out study, of the car and thesis in csr, left her on the side of the road. A psychologist attached to her church told her divorce was not an option. Good Research? The pastor's wife told her to separate but not divorce as her husband could change. It was not until she came across the master thesis in csr, website, Cry for Justice: Awakening the Evangelical Church to Domestic Violence and Abuse in its Midst, run by mla note, Roberts, that she realised it might be possible to divorce her husband. When she left him, she left her congregation too. It was really, really hard to leave the church as I had been there 20 years, Susan told ABC News. Eventually the pastor said, 'why don't you just leave, I can't keep you safe because he is still here'. Her ex followed her to her next church, and tracked down the master in csr, pastor who told her — after meeting him for coffee once — that her ex was a great guy: I can see why you married him! Fortunately, she says, the church I am at now is not very strong on headship, and has a modern attitude to divorce.
They won't stand up on stage and say, like they did at body human in medieval, the church I attended with my ex-husband, that women should submit and God doesn't want you to divorce. In Susan's Pentecostal church, the Assemblies of God, only 4 per cent of pastors were female in 2013, and the national executive board was all male. And, problematically, Pentecostal women are often taught that part of master thesis in csr, being female is yielding. Prominent preacher Bobbie Houston told a Hillsong conference in 2008: [Women are] big, we can step back from an argument. Someone has to step down, to leave a space for best program God to work, and God put it in feminine DNA to do that. As documented by Meredith Fraser, female submission is touted in Pentecostalism as a cure-all for marital problems: If women pray, are deferential and submit, there will be hope. The culture of self-sacrifice can be so strong it lends itself to a certain masochism.
Many Pentecostal women are advised to separate, but never divorce or remarry. They also report being told by their pastors to go home and make love to husbands who torment and master thesis, terrify them. Sex is essay graphic, touted as an master, answer for many marital maladies. In the best writing, past three years, alarm bells have begun to ring about the role religion may play in fostering, or concealing abuse. There have been two substantial inquiries into domestic violence in Australia in recent years. Both have identified religion as a significant, under-reported problem. In 2014, the master thesis in csr, Queensland Government appointed former governor-general Quentin Bryce chair of the Special Taskforce on Domestic and Family Violence. The report, Not Now, Not Ever, tabled in February 2015, pointed to the challenge of religious leaders:
Disturbingly, a number of essay graphic organizer, submissions and thesis, individuals reported to the taskforce that the town, leaders of faith in their particular community would not engage in master thesis in csr, helping victims or condemn perpetrators of domestic and on living town, family violence. Master Thesis In Csr? These leaders of faith did not see it as the role of the religious gathering to 'lecture' about what happens in the privacy of a home … The taskforce challenges leaders of all faiths and religions to take a leadership role in fostering and encouraging respectful relationships in on living in a, their community, and to teach their communities and master thesis in csr, congregations that coercive control and violence are never acceptable. In the same month, the Victorian Government established the Royal Commission into Family Violence following a series of family violence-related deaths in the state, most notably that of Luke Batty, who was killed by his father in essay religion, 2014. It sought to identify the master thesis, most effective ways to address domestic violence, hold perpetrators accountable, and case study, support victims. The commission received 968 public submissions and master, tabled its report in thesis writing, March 2016, which made 227 recommendations. This commission, too, noted as a challenge faith leaders who were predominantly or exclusively men. For many women who sought help from a faith leader, the thesis, commission reported, the response was inadequate … some faith leaders were uninformed and best thesis program, ill-equipped to respond to such disclosures, 'often the advice given wasn't helpful because the faith leader didn't know what kind of in csr, advice to for a physics give'. Examples cited were of master thesis, religious leaders telling women that their partner's abuse was their fault, or that they should stay in intolerable situations.
These responses, with some religious attitudes and practices, the essays in a town, commission found, risk exposing victims to master further and sustained abuse by family members. In its final report, the cards for research, commission recommended faith communities examine the ways they respond to domestic violence and whether these practices may deter victims or condone perpetrators. In other words, whether they conceal, not reveal, abuse. Within the church, more and in csr, more concerned people have begun to essays small recognise the master in csr, magnitude and seriousness of the problem in their midst, and agitate for change. Leaders who were previously ignorant or defensive have begun to good topics physics paper work to understand the thesis, issues; some have been horrified, or at least sobered, to discover the extent of abuse in their midst. A survey of the major Christian churches in Australia has revealed many have developed — or are in the process of developing — formal protocols and resources for preventing and responding to domestic violence in in a, their communities. Some also require clergy and parish staff to undertake specific domestic violence training, usually run by external providers — though this is thesis in csr, often voluntary. Several churches also reported using guidebooks that advise clergy and pastoral workers on thesis graphic organizer how to recognise and respond to thesis in csr domestic violence and essay gender in medieval religion, abuse. One resource, cited by the Lutheran Church and several Anglican and Catholic dioceses, highlights unequal power relations between men and women as a root cause of abuse, and master thesis, specifically calls out the use of scripture as justification for control and abuse as a form of domestic violence. A progressive group called Common Grace is also working to build a coalition of Christians prepared to essays on living in a small speak up about domestic violence.
As Bishop Richard Condie of the Anglican Diocese of Tasmania said: The scriptural teaching about male headship in the home would be distorted if it were used to justify control, superiority or violence against master women … I encourage my clergy to continue to … speak openly about family violence and domestic abuse in their church communities. We need to be prepared to challenge such behaviours — it cannot be excused or justified. And, motivated largely by the Royal Commission, Catholic Social Services Victoria in February distributed a domestic violence resource kit to parishes. It includes a statement from the Bishops of Victoria, who condemn domestic violence and call on Catholic Church communities to do more to best thesis program prevent it — 25 years after their counterparts in America did the same. As pastoral leaders in Victoria, the Bishops say, we reject a reading of scripture that condones domestic violence. A correct reading of master thesis, scripture leads to good research paper an understanding of the thesis in csr, equal dignity of men and women and to relationships based on mutuality and good physics paper, love. 'The vast majority of churches are naive'
But critics dismiss these efforts as slow-grinding, insufficiently resourced, too narrow in scope and fundamentally impeded by a lack of female leaders. Taboos remain intact, the subject is still shrouded with shame, and efforts stymied by misinformation. Roberts, who was in an abusive marriage for six years, now co-leads the website A Cry For Justice, where victims of domestic abuse can find support and thesis in csr, resources and Christian men and women can learn about this issue from a biblical perspective. She has corresponded with hundreds of thousands of church-going survivors of abuse — with more than a million visitors to her site in the past five years — and says overall, a few churches are making efforts to thesis graphic organizer tackle it but their efforts are not nearly meeting the need. And scarcely any churches are taking action at the coalface to tackle the problem. Most churches think they deal well with it when a particular case is reported to them, Roberts says. But the vast majority of churches are naive about the dynamics of domestic abuse, the mentality of thesis in csr, abusers, and the tactics abusers use to manipulate and resist having to human religion take responsibility for their bad conduct. As for master in csr domestic violence experts outside the essay graphic organizer, church, Roberts says, many churches are wary of thesis in csr, [them] because they assume they are all infected with the virus of feminism. It should be noted that a small number of churches contacted by ABC News either did not respond to repeated requests, or declined to comment on how they were addressing domestic violence, including the Catholic Archdioceses of town, Sydney, Hobart and Darwin and the Anglican Church of Southern Queensland in Brisbane**. What is clear from the women interviewed by ABC News is that they do not resent the church — they urgently seek its reform. Louise, a mother of five children living in Brisbane, says she is master in csr, desperate the church's participation in domestic violence be exposed.
She split from thesis writing, her husband, Bill, 14 years ago, and is still suffering trauma. Bill was her first boyfriend. He charmed her utterly and master, they married quickly. Then, from the moment of the marriage, he lost interest in her and body religion, frequently erupted in in csr, awful fits of rage. He pinned her up against walls, raped her and controlled her movements. She was not allowed out on on living in a town her own, even to do the shopping. For two and a half hours every morning and every night he yelled at her. Every time she got pregnant, it got worse.
I was sure my husband was going to kill me, she says. Throughout his tirades, Bill hurled Bible verses at master thesis in csr, Louise, telling her to obey him, and accusing her of being Hosea's wife — a prostitute. She longed to thesis graphic kill herself, and one day walked down to the local railway line to throw herself under a train. In Csr? She had not read the timetable, though, and while she was waiting, her daughter ran from her house and found her. Turning to look at her daughter, she realised she could not leave her children alone with their father. Finally, when she was pregnant with her fourth child, she told her pastor what was happening. I actually got down on my knees and begged, I was so desperate, she says. The pastor then arranged for someone to case interview her 12-year-old daughter to see if Louise was telling the truth. They concluded that Bill just had a bad temper. When a pastor from their Pentecostal church came to master in csr visit, he did not make it past the front door.
My ex stood up with that look of graphic, madness in his face and the pastor ran off with his tail between his legs, Louise says. Even this did not trigger alarm bells. The attitude of the church, she says, was cold and callous. Really, really cold. The next person who came to their house was a Christian lawyer from the church who told her bluntly: God doesn't like divorce. Today, more than a decade after her marriage ended, Louise is still shattered. I am a wreck of a person now, I don't function very well, I don't see a soul, I don't have a life. I had been isolated for in csr so long, I don't know how to live a proper life.
Sometimes she gets up on a Sunday morning and gets dressed for church, but just sits on the end of her bed. I am a bit too scared of pastors, of people, she says. We just wanted to do God's will and essay organizer, do what it says in the Bible, and submit to whatever authority. I did believe in female submission — it is meant to be submission to master love. Case Sampling? It is meant to be a relationship of protection and in csr, love. What is required is substantial cultural change, of the scale that was required for the church to take sexual abuse of children seriously, says retired Bishop John Harrower of Tasmania. As far back as 2004, he wrote a piece pointing out the parallels between the mistakes the body essay gender human, church made over the abuse of children with those they have made over the abuse of master thesis in csr, women.
The first response of the church was to not hear, to not believe it was happening, he wrote. The second was to case study sampling treat abuse as a one-off moral failure, which saw perpetrators moved from master thesis, state to state, parish to parish, without being punished for their crimes. Another mistake was to think simply having a quiet word to the abuser and giving advice to the victim to forgive will solve anything, to fail to thesis program consult counsellors — and, surely, police. We have been tempted, he wrote, to master thesis in csr collude with offenders that their behaviour is nothing more than a matter of private morality. If the church colludes in thesis graphic organizer, this sleight of hand, it can find itself, as it did in the matter of master thesis, sexual abuse of thesis essay graphic, children, he wrote, ignoring the fact that these matters are criminal behaviours; and in csr, that they have very real long-term consequences for the victims. What has been lacking in topics for a research, church communities, counsellors say, as it also is in master thesis in csr, the broader society, is first, an understanding of the sampling, psychology of violent men, and a recognition of how unlikely is in csr, it that they can change. The main problem, Roberts says, is mla note, that churches are too easily hoodwinked by the charm and manipulation of abusers: Jesus told his followers they needed to be wise as serpents and harmless as doves, but most churches are not wise about the mentality and tactics of evildoers, nor are they aware of how evildoers masquerade as believers in master in csr, the church. The abuser typically has a Dr Jekyll persona that depicts him (or occasionally her) as a wonderful and godly man, so that no-one would suspect the body essay gender, truth … If the victim reports the abuse to church leaders, the abuser is skilled at master thesis in csr, shifting blame, evading accountability, and pretending repentance and reformation. The vast majority of case sampling, church leaders aren't discerning enough to detect these tactics of abusers for thesis what they are: lies [and] often advise the victim to remain with or return to the abuser.
Second, is an understanding of what domestic violence is. A theme common to all of the interviews ABC News conducted with survivors of intimate partner violence was that they did not know what it was they were suffering until they saw a website, or pamphlet, outlining the nature of case study, domestic violence. This is especially the case for those who were abused not physically but sexually, financially, emotionally and verbally. Almost every single woman who had experienced abuse in her marriage told ABC News her husband had raped her. What has also been lacking, according to Anglican Isabella Young, who left her first marriage because of her Christian husband's violence and abuse, and is now actively trying to force the church to thesis take domestic violence seriously by authoring a book on good topics for a physics paper the subject, is master in csr, a clear indication that abuse is grounds for divorce — not just in the eyes of the case sampling, law, but in the eyes of God.
She says: Confusion still evident among a sizeable proportion of clergy and in published Sydney Anglican Church documents on this issue causes much pain and confusion among abuse victims. Archbishop of Sydney Glenn Davies says divorce should be avoided, but that if it could be proven that a man had ignored and overturned his commitment to master thesis Christ as a Christian man, divorce could be acceptable. Abusive clergy moved to different parishes. As was the case with clergy who abused children, clergy who abuse their wives have also been encouraged — or allowed — to move from state to state. Tabitha, now 59 and living in Sydney, was married to body essay human in medieval an Anglican clergyman who emotionally, financially and sexually abused her for decades, and who was moved to another part of the country when exposed. He controlled the music she listened to, the books she read, the thesis in csr, wine she drank. He demanded to know where she was at all times and she was not allowed to use an ATM or drink lemonade without his permission. He threatened divorce if she cut her hair and constantly accused her of cheating on him.
He was angered by the way she put the cereal container in the cupboard, and so wrote on it in essay, firm black letters: THIS WAY TABITHA. He was the in csr, parish priest. Gender Human In Medieval? Tabitha's self esteem was steamrollered. For years she dreamed of leaving, but it was not until he told her, out on master in csr a walk one day, that if she did not comply with a depraved list of sexual demands, he would divorce her. She refused. She sought the support of local bishops without luck; they refused to believe he had behaved badly. Her husband moved to another state, to head up another parish.
Today, Tabitha has rebuilt her life, is working and thesis program, is finally debt free after enduring a financially crippling divorce. Her two children are almost grown. But she suffers from depression, has no savings and will need to leave Sydney once she retires because she can't afford the rent. She is lonely, and struggles with feelings of failure. She watches a lot of Netflix. Sitting at a conference table in her office, sipping tea, a gently spoken Tabitha told ABC News: Even in the darkest days, I never felt that God had deserted me, only the church.
In one of the very few major arguments I had with my ex after the split, when he was throwing scripture up at me, I remember yelling at him that this was not God-based or scripturally supported and that God was crying buckets over what he was doing, and how dare he bring God into this situation when it wasn't his fault. Names have been changed to protect those in this piece who have survived domestic violence. * Editor's note (10/8/17): As reported in this piece, the research referred to was conducted in the United States. **An earlier version of this piece incorrectly reported that the Catholic Archdiocese of thesis in csr, Brisbane did not respond to requests for for a paper comment. Their efforts to address domestic violence are reported in master in csr, greater detail in the article: Australian church leaders call for thesis essay graphic urgent response to domestic violence .
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Category Archives: Religious titles. Follow AP style, which prefers phrases rather than abbreviations. For example: “She has a master of divinity degree.” (Instead of “She has an M. Master! Div.”) A Roman Catholic diplomat chosen by the pope as his envoy to the church in a nation that does not have formal diplomatic relations with the Vatican. Topics For A Research! See papal nuncio . The highest-ranking clergy person in master thesis a hierarchical religious jurisdiction. The distinction between a Catholic bishop and an archbishop is an honorary one, and an archbishop has no power to tell the bishop of a neighboring diocese how to run his churches.
In some Eastern churches, the corresponding title is metropolitan . In the Anglican Communion, the title archbishop also is used. Capitalize only when used as a formal title before a name, such as Archbishop Donald W. Case Study Sampling! Wuerl . (See exception in archbishop of Canterbury .) On second reference, use only the master in csr last name. On Living In A Small! Lowercase archbishop when it stands alone. The archbishop of Canterbury is the master thesis spiritual head of the Anglican Communion, of which the Episcopal Church is part, and is the most senior bishop of the Church of England. He has no authority over other national Anglican/Episcopal churches but does hold a place of case sampling, honor among them. Capitalize the title when it precedes the holder’s first and last name; on second reference use only the person’s last name. Capitalize Archbishop of Canterbury standing alone, though, when used alongside references to British nobility. The archbishop of Canterbury is also referred to master by the honorific the Most Rev. , as in the Most Rev. Justin Welby, archbishop of Canterbury , but it is sufficient to refer to him as Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby . Pronounced “eye-ya-TOE-la.” A Shiite term for senior clergyman. Capitalize when used as a title before a name, but lowercase otherwise. A major division of Christianity.
In the United States there are more than 70 distinct Baptist denominations or associations. Baptists practice baptism by immersion of persons who profess faith in Jesus Christ. They do not practice infant baptism and generally reject the notion of sacraments. They describe baptism and the Lord’s Supper as ordinances carried out in obedience to Jesus’ commands in Scripture. Baptists are noted for their emphasis on good for a physics personal religious experience and the authority of Scripture, which individuals are free to interpret according to conscience. Some Baptists do not like to be called Protestant because they trace their tradition’s origins to master thesis in csr John the Baptist, but most historians say the Baptist tradition began with several early 17th-century breaks from mla note for research, English congregationalism. The local congregation is the highest church authority for Baptists.
No leader from a regional or national headquarters can tell a congregation what to do, and it is incorrect to refer to in csr any body other than a congregation as the Baptist church . Baptists refer to their church connections as voluntary “ropes of essay, sand.” The most tangible link between a local church and any convention or association is money: Local churches contribute to the state or national organizations and are considered “members” of the organizations they donate to. There are dozens of thesis, associations of Baptist churches. The largest in the United States by small, far is the conservative Southern Baptist Convention. The smaller and more liberal American Baptist Churches USA is based in the northern United States. Master Thesis In Csr! Prominant black Baptist associations include the National Baptist Convention of America, the National Baptist Convention USA and the Progressive National Baptist Convention and gender in medieval religion the National Missionary Baptist Convention of America.
Other major U.S. Baptist organizations include the Baptist General Conference, the Conservative Baptist Association of America, the General Association of Regular Baptist Churches, the General Association of General Baptists and the North American Baptist Conference. The Baptist World Alliance, made up of more than 200 Baptist bodies throughout the world, organizes the Baptist World Congress, which generally meets every five years. The Southern Baptist Convention, a founder of the BWA, left the alliance in 2004 when the SBC leaders accused the BWA of becoming too liberal. All members of the Baptist clergy may be referred to as ministers . Pastor applies if a minister leads a congregation. Master Thesis In Csr! Use the Rev. on first reference before a clergy’s name. Essays! On second reference use only the last name. Beatitude is a formal title of respect for a Catholic patriarch or an Orthodox metropolitan. It should not be used except when it appears in quotations. The Beatitudes is the name given to a well-known portion of the Sermon on the Mount, recorded in the Gospels of Matthew (5: 2-12) and Luke (6: 20-23).
In this section, Jesus describes the master in csr qualities of citizens of the kingdom of heaven. Capitalize when used as a title or when referring to the Beatitudes , but lowercase in on living in a small other forms of reference. Beatitude means “blessed” but can also be translated as “happy.” Pronounced “BHIK-koo.” A fully ordained monk in the Theravada Buddhist tradition; a nun is a bhikkhuni. Thesis In Csr! In the Mahayana tradition, the Sanskrit forms (bhikshu, bhikshuni) are used.
Capitalize when used with a name. In Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican churches and some Protestant denominations that have an topics paper episcopal or hierarchical form of government, bishop is the highest order of ordained ministry. The distinction between a Catholic bishop and an archbishop is an honorary one, and an archbishop has no authority over a neighboring diocese. Some groups, including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Amish and some Pentecostals, use the title bishop for someone who is the pastor of a congregation. Capitalize when used as a formal title before a name. On second reference, use only the cleric’s last name. Lowercase bishop in other uses.
A man who has taken vows in a Christian religious, particularly Catholic or Anglican, order but is master in csr not ordained. Also, a monk or friar who is in seminary preparing for priesthood is called brother if he has taken his vows. Case! In many traditions, especially evangelical, brother is used as a generic, friendly title. Capitalize before a name but not otherwise. On first reference, generally identify the master in csr religious community, for example Franciscan Brother John Smith . Case Study Sampling! On second reference, use the in csr first name if the person is known that way, such as Brother John . Otherwise, use only the for a physics last name on second reference. Buddhism, the in csr fourth-largest organized religion in the world, was founded in essay India sometime between the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, known as the master Buddha, or the “awakened one.” Buddhism teaches that meditation and the practice of moral behavior (and, according to some schools, rituals) can lead to the elimination of personal craving and hence the release of suffering and the attainment of absolute peace (nirvana). This is gradually achieved through successive cycles of rebirth (although some schools say such liberation may be obtained as quickly as within one lifetime). Although Buddhism is frequently described as a nontheistic tradition since the historical Buddha did not claim to be divine and study sampling there is no concept of thesis, a divine absolute God — the vast and complex tradition of Buddhism includes an intricate cosmology of beneficent and wrathful deities as well as transcendent Buddhas and bodhisattvas who can be propitiated to help Buddhist practitioners on the path to in medieval enlightenment.
There are three major forms or “vehicles” of Buddhism: Theravada , found in most of thesis, Southeast Asia, focuses on individual realization, with practices particularly directed to on living in a small monastic life; Mahayana stresses the universality of master thesis in csr, Buddha-nature and the possibility of enlightenment for on living in a small town, all beings. It developed into many variant schools in master China, Japan and Korea; Vajrayana , or Tibetan Buddhism, is found in Tibet, Nepal and Mongolia. Vajrayana developed from the essays in a town Mahayana tradition but is master thesis in csr often considered separately as a third “vehicle.” Titles for Buddhist teachers or masters are capitalized when used with a name but lowercase otherwise. Mla Note! The title of lama generally precedes a name; rinpoche , sensei and roshi generally follow the name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. Master! (For example, a well-known Japanese Zen teacher is case study always referred to as Maezumi Roshi; a well-known American Zen teacher is master thesis Roshi Bernard Glassman.) To determine how to refer to a particular Buddhist teacher, ask or try looking up the name through a database or other Web tool. In Judaism, a synagogue official who leads the musical part of a service.
Capitalize before a name, but lowercase otherwise. A title of honor given to certain Catholics, nearly always archbishops, who are chosen as special advisers to the pope. Their primary function in today’s church is to elect a new pope, but they are assigned to program serve as advisers to important offices in the Vatican bureaucracy. Some have a great deal of behind-the-scenes influence. Most cardinals are archbishops of “cardinalatial sees” — archdioceses that traditionally have a cardinal. However, the master thesis in csr heads of important Vatican offices are usually also named cardinals, and occasionally the pope will name a respected theologian who is past 80 and thus ineligible to vote for a new pope. Sampling! Cardinals are not required to master be archbishops, bishops or even priests.
In the U.S., Jesuit theologian Cardinal Avery Dulles is essay graphic not a bishop. Cardinals should be referred to master thesis in csr conventionally, as in Cardinal Avery Dulles , not Avery Cardinal Dulles . On second reference use only the case study sampling cardinal’s last name. A denomination founded in 1879 based on interpretations of the Bible found in the teachings of Mary Baker Eddy, who wrote Science and Health with Key to thesis in csr the Scriptures . The church’s official title is the Church of on living in a small town, Christ, Scientist. Master! Headquarters are in Boston, with individual and democratically governed branch churches throughout the world. Christian Science teaches that Jesus was primarily a spiritual healer.
It embraces the original Christian teaching and practices of healing sin, sickness and death based on the church’s understanding of the divine principles of Jesus’ teaching and healing. Christian Scientists tend to practice spiritual-based health care rather than relying on conventional medicine, but the church says it does not interfere with members’ health care decisions. Christian Science worship services are led by lay leaders, who are called readers. The faith also has practitioners , who are self-employed healers. Study Sampling! Capitalize these titles before a name and on second reference use only the last name. Do not use the Rev. in any references. The Church of Christ, Scientist, is not recognized as Christian by the Catholic, Protestant or Orthodox churches for a number of master thesis, doctrinal reasons, including its rejection of the doctrine of the Trinity. In stories where this is relevant, journalists should explain the Christian Science beliefs and why other groups say those beliefs do not accord with traditional Christianity.
In stories where different faith groups are mentioned, journalists should avoid judging which groups are Christian. For example, say Baptists, Christian Scientists, Presbyterians and Jewish groups took part in relief efforts rather than Baptists, Presbyterians and non-Christians, including Christian Scientists and Jews, took part in relief efforts. The terms Christian Science Church or Churches of Christ, Scientist, are acceptable in case all references. The church subsidizes the thesis international newspaper The Christian Science Monitor . Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Members of the church are called Mormons or Latter-day Saints ; either is acceptable.
It is preferable to gender use the church’s entire name, the Church of Jesus Christ of thesis in csr, Latter-day Saints , on first reference. The LDS church has asked not to be referred to as the Mormon Church but does not object to adherents being referred to as Mormons . Mormon, LDS and Latter-day Saint can all be used as adjectives, as in Mormon beliefs or LDS practices . The church was founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith, a farm boy in upstate New York. Smith said he was directed to for research a set of golden plates that contained a record of master in csr, ancient inhabitants of the on living town Americas who had migrated from Jerusalem. Smith said he translated this record with divine help and published it as the Book of Mormon. Master Thesis In Csr! The book tells of a visit by cards for research paper, the resurrected Jesus to these inhabitants in the Western Hemisphere, which is why its subtitle reads “Another Testament of Jesus Christ.” Mormons believe that Smith had a vision of God and Jesus Christ and that the church he founded is the restoration of true Christianity. In the 19th century, Mormons were persecuted for master, their beliefs and eventually fled to Utah, where they could practice their faith in peace.
Because of their extra-biblical scriptures and beliefs about God and Jesus (they reject the Nicene Creed, for example), Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant churches do not regard Mormons as Christian. In stories where that is relevant, journalists should explain why Mormons regard themselves as Christian and why other groups say their beliefs do not accord with traditional Christianity. In stories where different faith groups are mentioned, journalists should avoid judging which groups are Christian. For example, say: Baptists, Mormons, Presbyterians, Seventh-day Adventists and Jewish groups took part in relief efforts rather than Baptists, Presbyterians, Seventh-day Adventists and non-Christians, including Mormons and Jews, took part in relief efforts . The church has headquarters in Salt Lake City and case sampling is highly structured. Master In Csr! All worthy males, 12 and sampling older, can be ordained to the priesthood; women are not ordained but can serve in leadership and other positions in master in csr the all-volunteer clergy. The top authority is the thesis “prophet, seer and revelator,” a position held by the most senior apostle, who has the title of church president. He is joined by two counselors, who constitute the governing First Presidency. When the president dies, the First Presidency is dissolved and the senior member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles becomes the new president. Under the First Presidency is the three-member Presiding Bishopric, which governs in temporal affairs. There is in csr also the First Quorum of Seventy, which oversees missionary work and other aspects of church governance.
The church is divided into case study, territories called stakes, and each stake is master headed by on living in a small town, a president, two counselors and a stake high council. Individual congregations are called wards. The leader of master thesis in csr, a ward holds the title of essays on living in a small town, bishop. The only formal titles in the LDS church are president for the head of the First Presidency, apostle , bishop and elder . Female leaders are called sisters. Capitalize all formal titles before a name on first reference, and only use the master thesis person’s last name on second reference. Topics For A Physics Paper! The terms minister and the Rev. are not used. There is no central headquarters or organization for thesis, the Churches of cards paper, Christ, as each congregation is autonomous. Members have traditionally regarded their churches as a restoration of the master in csr New Testament church. Body Gender Religion! They typically do not use instrumental music in worship because, they say, the New Testament does not command it, and whatever is not commanded is forbidden.
Baptism by thesis in csr, immersion is generally regarded as essential for salvation. The minister of a congregation is addressed by members as Brother. Do not use the honorific the thesis essay Rev. for Church of Christ ministers. Do not refer to thesis in csr the space for program, worship as a sanctuary ; auditorium is master thesis in csr usually preferred. Do not refer to the Communion table as an study altar ; use Communion table . Priests, ministers, rabbis and others who are ordained by specific religious bodies to perform official duties. Most denominations have specific requirements for education, training and the selection process. The singular form is cleric . The title of the leader of Tibetan Buddhism and the spiritual and (now exiled) political leader of the in csr people of Tibet. Good Topics For A Physics! Dalai Lama is a title rather than a name, but it is in csr all that is used when referring to the man. Capitalize when referring to the person who currently holds the title; lowercase when referring to the title in general. Each dalai lama is considered to thesis essay graphic be the reincarnation of the last; the current, 14th Dalai Lama left Tibet in 1959 after China’s invasion and resides in Dharamsala, India. Tibetan Buddhists address him as Your Holiness and refer to master thesis him in writing as His Holiness . A group of Christian churches that do not recognize the small authority of the thesis in csr pope in body essay human religion Rome, but, like the master Roman Catholic Church, have roots in the earliest days of Christianity.
The Eastern Orthodox churches split from the Western church in the Great Schism of 1054, primarily over papal authority and whether the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father (as the Orthodox believe) or from the Father and body essay gender human in medieval religion Son (as the Catholics believe). Master Thesis! Included in the Eastern Orthodox churches are the on living town Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Armenian Orthodox, as well as other, smaller churches based on the nationalities of various ethnic groups such as Bulgarians, Romanians and Syrians. Eastern Orthodox clergy comparable to Catholic archbishops are known as patriarchs or metropolitans . They recognize the patriarch of Constantinople, now Istanbul, as their leader. He has the power to in csr convene councils, but he does not have authority over case study, the activities of the other archbishops. The patriarch of Constantinople is known as the ecumenical patriarch.
Working with the master in csr archbishop are other archbishops, bishops, priests and deacons. Archbishops and bishops frequently follow a monastic tradition in which they are known only by best thesis writing, a first name. When no last name is used, repeat the title before the name in master in csr subsequent references. Archbishop may be replaced by topics for a physics research paper, the Most Rev. on first reference. Use the Rev. before the name of a priest on first reference. On second reference use only the cleric’s last name. The churches have their own traditions on matters such as married clergy; for master thesis, example, a married man may be ordained, but a priest may not marry after ordination.
In the United States, the largest Eastern Orthodox church is the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, followed by the Orthodox Church in America. The Episcopal Church is part of the Anglican Communion. Officially called the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. Episcopal Church is best thesis writing acceptable in in csr all references. Two bodies govern the church nationally — the permanent Executive Council and the General Convention, which meets every three years. One bishop holds the good for a physics title of presiding bishop . The General Convention determines national policies, and all acts must pass its House of Bishops and House of Deputies.
Under the council are provinces, dioceses or missionary districts, local parishes and master local missions. A province is composed of several dioceses and has a synod made up of a house of bishops and a house of deputies. Within a diocese, a bishop is the principal official and is helped by the Diocesan Convention, which is essays in a small made up of all clergy in the diocese and lay representatives from each parish. A vestry, composed of the master thesis rector and lay members elected by the congregation, governs the parish or local church. Among Protestant churches, the Episcopal Church has titles that are particularly challenging. Capitalize titles before a name but lowercase otherwise. Note that some positions have more than one title or honorific. Because some U.S. Program! congregations have broken ties with the Episcopal Church and affiliated with Anglican bishops, be sure to make clear in stories about such disputes whether a bishop is Anglican or Episcopal. The presiding bishop is the chief pastor and primate who leads the national Episcopal Church. In Csr! She is addressed as the Most Rev. All other bishops use the title the Rt.
Rev. Physics Research Paper! before their name. Priests and deacons use the title the Rev . Priests who head a chapter, or governing body of a cathedral, are called deans and are addressed as the thesis in csr Very Rev . Archdeacons are addressed with the honorific the Venerable , as in the Venerable Jill Smith . Women and men in religious communities are called brother or sister and may be ordained. Use the Rev . in first reference before the names of writing, Episcopal, Orthodox and Roman Catholic priests. On second reference use only the cleric’s last name. Use Father before a name only in direct quotations. The most supreme religious leader. One can be a grand mufti of a city, region or country. It is thesis a title used mostly by Sunnis.
Capitalize when used before a name. A Sikh leader trained in all aspects of maintaining gurdwara decorum, including reading from and caring for cards paper, Guru Granth Sahib. Master Thesis! Sikhs often use the for research paper terms granthi , gyaani and raagi interchangeably. A granthi is not clergy. Terms such as priest and minister are not applicable. Pronounced “GOO-roo.” Broadly used to refer to a teacher of any subject, but especially of spiritual matters. In Hinduism, one’s spiritual guru is seen to be a representative of the divine, through whom one is given the teachings and practices necessary for enlightenment. Pronounced “ee-MAHM.” In everyday use, any person who leads a congregational prayer. Traditionally, only men have been imams, although women are allowed to serve as imams for master in csr, other women. To lead prayers, one does not have to for a physics paper be a cleric.
In a more formal sense, an imam is a religious leader, but can also be a political leader. Many Shiites believe imams are intercessors with God; many also believe in the Twelve Imams, descendants of Prophet Muhammad whom they consider his rightful successors. The Twelfth Imam disappeared from the world in 873, but followers of Twelve Imams Shiism believe that he is still alive and will return as the in csr Mahdi, or “the guided one,” who will restore righteousness before the essay end of the world. Master In Csr! On first reference, uppercase imam when preceding a proper name. On second reference, use only the person’s last name. Uppercase imam when referencing the Twelve Imams. Religion founded in seventh-century Mecca by the Prophet Muhammad, who said Allah (God), through the Angel Gabriel, revealed the body essay human religion Quran to him between 610 and 632, the year of his death. Followers of Islam are called Muslims . They worship in a mosque, and their weekly holy day is thesis Friday. Islam is the second-largest religion in sampling the world, after Christianity. After Muhammad’s death, Islam split into master in csr, two distinct branches — Sunni and Shiite — in an argument over who would succeed him. Sunnis make up an estimated 85 percent of on living small, all Muslims.
Shiites are the majority in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and master thesis in csr Bahrain, while Sunnis are the majority in other Islamic countries. In Sunni and Shiite Islam, there are various madhhabs, or schools of thought, and other theological traditions. There is no central religious authority, so theological and legal interpretations can vary from essay human in medieval religion, region to region, country to country and even mosque to mosque. Capitalize all Islamic titles when used before a name and lowercase otherwise. Use the title and name on first reference and only the person’s last name after that. Shiites and Sunnis use a few of the same religious titles but differ on others. Shiites have a more-defined hierarchy than Sunnis. For example, Sunnis call people who lead congregational prayers imams , while Shiites almost exclusively reserve imam to refer to master thesis any of the 12 descendants of the Prophet Muhammad who Shiites believe were his rightful successors. Sheikh , on the other hand, is used in both communities, but can be used either as term of respect — to address older men, for example — or for a formally trained scholar. Among Sufi Muslims, sheikh holds a more exclusive status that is reserved for highly trained scholars and heads of good, Sufi orders. Among Shiites, mullahs are lower-level clergy who generally have only rudimentary religious education.
A hujjat al-Islam is more learned than a mullah but does not have the authority to issue legal rulings. Mujtahids and faqihs are jurists with the authority to issue rulings. Thesis In Csr! A higher-level mujtahid is a marja , the most educated of whom are called ayatollahs . In addition to imam and sheikh , Sunni titles include mufti and grand mufti , which indicate a higher status usually conferred by body human, an institution. Grand muftis are usually the top religious scholar in a country. Because the Quran is in master thesis Arabic, it is a common misconception that all Arabs are Muslim and all Muslims are Arab; neither is true. A member of the for research paper laity, rather than the clergy. The terms lay person and lay people are each two words. Layman and laywoman , however, are each one word. In the Eastern Catholic and Orthodox churches, a metropolitan heads an ecclesiastical province, a metropolitan see, and ranks below the patriarch.
In Orthodoxy, a metropolitan is said to govern a metropolia , while the Eastern Catholics call it an archeparchy . In the Western churches, the thesis in csr corresponding terms are archbishop and archdiocese . Most Protestant denominations use the term minister to describe their clergy, but it is cards for research not a formal title and master is not capitalized. Thesis Essay Graphic! It is also used in Catholicism, with a strong distinction drawn between ordained ministers (priests and deacons) and lay ministers (including, for thesis in csr, example, Eucharistic ministers, who take Communion to the sick, and topics for a paper youth ministers). The Nation of Islam also uses the term, and in that case it is a title and in csr should be capitalized before the person’s name. A term often applied to any man in a religious order, it should be restricted to members of contemplative orders, such as Benedictines, Cistercians and Carthusians. Friar is the name given to members of the mendicant orders, such as the good paper Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians and Carmelites, which are pledged to live on free-will offerings. In Csr! Brother is on living small town a title given to laymen who take vows as members of religious communities. Monks and friars can be, but often are not, ordained priests. Thesis! Brothers remain in the lay state but as vowed members of the community.
All monks, friars and paper brothers who are not ordained can be addressed as Brother in conversation and on first reference, such as Brother John Doe . On second reference, continue to master use Brother and the first name if the person is human in medieval known that way, such as Brother John . Otherwise, use only the last name on second reference. An honorary title given to some diocesan priests by the pope. Capitalize before the name on thesis first reference. Topics Physics Research! Do not use the abbreviation Msgr . or the master in csr titles the Very Rev. or the sampling Rt. Rev. Editor’s note : While the Catholic Encyclopedia disputes this definition, the CNS Stylebook and thesis other Catholic reference books mirror the above definition. A Shiite term for lower-level clergy. Body Essay Human! Capitalize the title when it precedes a name. Generally, the head minister or priest of a Christian church, although in some denominations any ordained minister is master called pastor . It means shepherd and is also used in reference to bishops and to the pope.
One of the ancient fathers of Judaism and body human in medieval Christianity — Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. In the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, a patriarch is the highest-ranking bishop. Capitalize if used before a name. In the Roman Catholic Church, the patriarch is the bishop of Rome and is called pope. Unlike the pope, who has jurisdiction over all Roman Catholic territories, the authority of Eastern and Oriental patriarchs is more limited. They have a great deal of enforceable jurisdiction in their own territories but no authority over each other’s. A religious title used by a variety of traditions, including Santeria, Wicca, paganism and neo-paganism.
Christian traditions that ordain women to the priesthood, such as the Episcopal Church, call them priests . Hebrew word for teacher and thesis in csr the title used by Jewish clergy. On first reference, capitalize before a name. On second reference use only the cleric’s last name. Guidance on case study sampling titles in specific faith traditions can be found below. More explanation is usually offered under the individual entry on that group, or, sometimes, under an entry on the title itself. Not all faith traditions are listed here. In Csr! This entry highlights the major religious traditions as well as traditions in which titles are likely to be unfamiliar to many journalists. For all faiths, the title Dr . is generally not used before the names of program, scholars or clergy who hold academic doctorates. Thesis! If the person’s academic credentials are important to the story, it is better to give specifics, as in Jane Doe, who holds a doctorate in systematic theology, led the discussion . Never combine Dr . with other titles, such as the thesis essay graphic organizer Rev.
Dr. Baptist churches: All members of the Baptist clergy may be referred to as ministers . Pastor applies if a minister leads a congregation. Use the Rev. on first reference before a clergy’s name. On second reference use only the master in csr last name. Buddhism: Titles for Buddhist teachers or masters are capitalized when used with a name but lowercase otherwise. The title of lama generally precedes a name; rinpoche , sensei and roshi generally follow the name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. Thesis Graphic! (For example, a well-known Japanese Zen teacher is always referred to in csr as Maezumi Roshi; a well-known American Zen teacher is study sampling Roshi Bernard Glassman.) To determine how to master refer to a particular Buddhist teacher, ask or try looking up the graphic organizer name through a database or other Web tool. Teachers may be addressed by their titles (e.g., “Rinpoche, may I ask a question?”). Dalai Lama is capitalized when referring to the man who holds the title and in csr no name is used; dalai lama is lowercase otherwise. Buddhists address the Dalai Lama as Your Holiness in person and His Holiness in writing. Ordained monks in Theravada Buddhism are given the mla note honorific Venerable before their names. Church of Christ, Scientist: This denomination, also called the Christian Science Church, has lay leaders called readers who lead its worship services.
The faith also has practitioners , who are self-employed healers. Capitalize these titles before a name, and on second reference use only the last name. Do not use the Rev . in any references. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Apostle is a title used for the church’s highest-ranking members. The senior, or longest-serving, apostle serves as the church president and carries that title. Other titles used by thesis, Mormons are bishop , elder and sister . Capitalize all of sampling, these when used before a name. The terms minister and thesis the Rev . are not used. Eastern Orthodox churches: The patriarch of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) is known as the ecumenical patriarch ; he is regarded as “the first among equals.” Capitalize this title if used before a name, but not otherwise. In the Eastern Catholic and Orthodox churches, a metropolitan heads an ecclesiastical province, a metropolitan see, and good topics for a research paper ranks below the master in csr patriarch. Capitalize metropolitan when used as a title before a name.
Eastern Orthodox archbishops and bishops frequently follow a monastic tradition in which they are known only by a first name. In those cases, repeat the title before the name in subsequent references. Archbishop may be replaced by the Most Rev . on first reference. Use the organizer Rev . before the name of a priest on first reference; on second reference use only thesis in csr his last name. Episcopal Church: Among Protestant churches, the Episcopal Church has titles that are particularly challenging. Capitalize titles before a name but lowercase otherwise. Note that some positions have more than one title or honorific. Because some U.S. congregations have broken ties with the Episcopal Church and affiliated with Anglican bishops, be sure to make clear in stories about such disputes whether a bishop is essay graphic Anglican or Episcopal. The presiding bishop is the chief pastor and primate who leads the national Episcopal Church. She is addressed as the thesis Most Rev . All other bishops use the title the Rt. Rev. before their name.
Priests and deacons use the title the writing program Rev . Priests who head a chapter, or governing body of a cathedral, are called deans and are addressed as the Very Rev . Archdeacons are addressed with the honorific the Venerable , as in the Venerable Jill Smith . Women and men in religious communities are called brother or sister and master in csr may be ordained. A diocesan bishop has jurisdiction over a diocese and is sometimes known as the Ordinary . They may be assisted by other bishops, known as bishops suffragan . In addition, bishops who retire or resign from their diocese may assist in another diocese in some capacity; the in a small town church variously refers to them as assistant bishops, bishops assisting or assisting bishops . The archbishop of thesis, Canterbury is the study sampling spiritual head of the Anglican Communion, of which the master thesis in csr Episcopal Church is part. Topics Physics Research Paper! Capitalize the title when used before the thesis holder’s name. He is also referred to essays in a small by the honorific the Most Rev ., as in the Most Rev. Justin Welby , archbishop of Canterbury , but it is sufficient to refer to him as Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby . Hinduism: Hindus have no formal clergy but do have spiritual teachers, or gurus. Capitalize guru before a name on first reference, and use only the last name on second reference. In Csr! Swami is a title of respect and reverence conferred on a religious teacher and, in particular, one who has taken vows of celibacy and thesis writing program renunciation; it, too, should be capitalized before a name.
Islam: Capitalize all Islamic titles when used before a name and master lowercase otherwise. Use the title and name on topics for a research paper first reference and master thesis only the person’s last name after that. Shiites and Sunnis use a few of the same religious titles but differ on others. Shiites have a more-defined hierarchy than Sunnis. For example, Sunnis call people who lead congregational prayers imams , while Shiites almost exclusively reserve imam to refer to any of the 12 descendants of the Prophet Muhammad who Shiites believe were his rightful successors. Sheikh , on the other hand, is used in both communities, but can be used either as a term of respect – to good for a paper address older men, for example — or for in csr, a formally trained scholar. Best Thesis Writing! Among Sufi Muslims, sheikh holds a more exclusive status that is reserved for highly trained scholars and heads of Sufi orders.
Among Shiites, mullahs are lower-level clergy who generally have only master thesis rudimentary religious education. Case Sampling! A hujjat al-Islam is more learned than a mullah but does not have the authority to issue legal rulings. Master! Mujtahids and faqihs are jurists with the authority to issue rulings. A higher-level mujtahid is a marja, the most educated of whom are called ayatollahs . In addition to imam and sheikh , Sunni titles include mufti and grand mufti , which indicate a higher status usually conferred by an institution. Grand muftis are usually the top religious scholar in a country. Jehovah’s Witnesses: Jehovah’s Witnesses have no formal clergy titles and do not use honorifics such as the Rev . On Living In A! They refer to thesis in csr baptized members who evangelize as publishers and human those who devote greater time to ministry activities as regular pioneers . Full-time workers are called special pioneers . Judaism: Rabbi and cantor should be capitalized before a name on first reference. On second reference, use only the person’s last name. Nation of Islam: Its clergymen use the title minister , which should be capitalized on first reference before a name.
On second reference, use only the person’s last name. Pentecostalism: There are dozens of Pentecostal denominations as well as many nondenominational churches that are Pentecostal, so titles vary greatly. Common titles are bishop, minister, elder and master thesis in csr superintendent ; capitalize them before a name. Evangelist is topics research paper another common title, but do not capitalize it, even with a name. Some clergy use the title of the Rev ., but some do not.
Protestant churches: Customs vary in different traditions. Many, but not all, use the Rev . before a clergy member’s name on thesis in csr first reference. Good Topics Research! Do not include the honorific unless you are certain it is acceptable in that tradition. Among those that do not use the Rev . are Churches of Christ and master the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Some Protestants use other titles for thesis, their clergy, including pastor , bishop or brother . Capitalize when used before a name. Quakers have no recognized ranking of master in csr, clergy over lay people. Their meeting officers are called elders or ministers , and these terms should be capitalized when used before a name. Many Quaker ministers in the Midwest and West use the Rev . before their names. On subsequent references to Protestant clerics, use just the last name. Roman Catholic Church: A pope should be referred to by his full papal name on first reference, as in study Pope Benedict XVI . On subsequent references, use the pope , the in csr pontiff or just his papal name (without Roman numerals), as in Benedict.
Catholics also refer to the pope as the Holy Father , a term that should be used only in quotes. For cardinals, archbishops, bishops and deacons, capitalize the title when used with a name on first reference, as in Cardinal Bernard Law , but lowercase otherwise. On second reference, use just the person’s last name. For priests, use the Rev . before the name on first reference; on case sampling subsequent references, use just the last name. Monsignor can be substituted if a priest has received that title. Catholics commonly address priests as Father ; use this only in quotes, and capitalize it with or without a name attached, as in She said, “We asked Father what we should do.” For nuns, sisters and brothers, capitalize sister, mother or brother before the name on master thesis first reference. In subsequent references, use just the last name for those who keep surnames; otherwise, continue to use the good for a research full name, as in Mother Teresa . The title Venerable is applied to a person posthumously if a pope has approved the first stage in his or her official cause for canonization, as in thesis in csr Venerable Fulton Sheen . Sikhism: Sikhism has no clergy, but spiritual guides may be called gurus ; capitalize this title before a name. An attributive form of address given to many but not all ordained Christian and Buddhist clergy. Do not use this honorific form unless you are sure that the particular denomination accepts its use. Thesis! Follow AP style of using the article the to precede the abbreviation Rev . Never use the Rev.
Dr. together before a name. See religious titles for guidance. Pronounced “RAHN-poh-shay.” Literally “precious one,” rinpoche is a title of respect for thesis in csr, a Buddhist teacher, often signaling one considered to be an incarnate lama. The title of best, rinpoche generally follows a name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. Capitalize when used before or after a name. See lama and tulku . Title for Zen Buddhist master, literally “old teacher.” It generally follows a name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. Capitalize when used before or after a name.
A spiritual leader in a tribal society who heals people by channeling spirits, often in an altered state. Sometimes referred to as a medicine man or witch doctor. It is a description rather than a formal title; do not capitalize, even when used with a name. Most Islamic clergymen use the title sheikh like a Christian cleric uses the Rev . Sheikh also is used as a secular title. Thesis! Capitalize it when used before a name, but lowercase otherwise.
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In Advani’s Silence, the Sum of thesis All Fears. L.K. Advani. Credit: Reuters. Lal Krishna Advani’s isolation mirrors the retreat of Indian politics. But then that is what the autumn of the gender in medieval, patriarch is like in the Hindu varnashrama dharma – he spends a lifetime building a house only to find that when the edifice is master thesis in csr ready, he is out of it. Not for him the courtyard, he stays put on essay human in medieval the threshold. Day after day, and days stretch to years, he remains there in the hope that someone from inside will call out to him – if not the son, then the daughter-in-law; if not the grand-daughter, then the grandson. When that doesn’t happen, he himself starts crying out in a hoarse voice. On occasion he even steps inside, but finding the house empty, returns to his threshold spot.
Every now and then he threatens to renounce the world and go to Haridwar, but doesn’t budge an inch from the threshold. In the last three years whenever Advani ji has been seen in public, he has had the demeanour of master thesis in csr a man consumed with guilt, who wants to speak out but won’t on writing account of some unknown fear. Before the television cameras he has been plain evasive. Thesis In Csr? Watch all the videos of the last three years and you will know what I mean. He seems to have lost his voice. It is as though he has been locked up by someone in a glass tank, with the steadily rising water drowning out cards, his screams for help.
The camera glides past him for he is absent even when he is present. Advani is master like that jaded shirt that has been permanently hung out to dry, weathering the barbs of rain, the gender in medieval, shriveling heat of the sun and collecting dirt. One day it falls to the ground patchy with dust and slush. Thesis In Csr? The shirt knows that the one who washes has other shirts too – new ones at writing program that. I wonder, does Advani cry when he is alone? Does his body heave with sobs? Does he scream, call out for somebody when the walls of the room seem to be closing in on thesis him? Does he pace around in his room every now and then or, hearing the footfalls of fear, does he quietly go back to essay gender religion, his chair? Does anyone call out to dada apart from his daughter?
Does any chief minister, central minister or ordinary politician pay him a visit? These days every minister is quick to tweet photographs of his/her stately progress from the bath to the food-bite; he/she even tweets pictures of in csr birthday bashes of politicians from other parties. These ministers have the whole world on their timeline, but not Advani. It’s an open secret. The message is clear – meet Advani at case study sampling your own peril; to thesis in csr, meet Advani now is to become him. When he wakes up to the loneliness of isolation every morning, what is the image that swims before his eyes – the good for a research, present or the past? Does he immerse himself in newspapers all day or stare unseeingly at news channels?
Does he wait for the telephone to master in csr, ring? But who would want to case, meet Advani – he doesn’t chant Modi’s name and, more importantly, there is nobody chanting his name. In Csr? More to in a town, the point, why does he not chant Modi’s name if that is what it takes to remain relevant? If his stance signals a personal protest or rebellion, then why doesn’t he place it on record? Prior to the 2014 general elections Advani had created a blog. Even now he can put it to good use.
There’s so much happening in the world, he can safely write about that. Like so many others he can take to the lecture circuit. He would have much to say on the subjects of leadership and organisation. If nothing else, his government residence must be studded with flowers, plants and trees – he must have surely forged a bond with them by now to write about them. He can definitely write film reviews. Had he done that, he would have been an Advani other than the Advani he is. Thesis? The question is best thesis writing – why is he not? There was a time when Advani had had a hall constructed in his residence for holding press conferences.
How confident and assured he must have been about his relevance in the scheme of things then. Does he feel tempted to step into the hall at least once a day, reliving the animated buzz of master in csr cameras and questions? I am told some sounds burrow into walls and echo through the small town, ages. Is that hall there still? Advani is ensconced in his isolation like a man without a past.
The new narrative that the BJP seems to be exploring is thesis one in which Advani is gender conspicuous by his absence not only in its present but also in its past. Master Thesis? It’s as though he was never there. He doesn’t look to be in Delhi as much as in the Andaman, where the sea waves relentlessly crash against the walls of the Cellular Jail and essays, there is no land in sight for miles. Is it possible that he is keeping a diary – a diary of Delhi’s Andaman? Think about it – the Congress may have suffered the loss of power, but it is Advani whose name and existence has suffered a total erasure. Sonia Gandhi continues to have a presence in Indian politics. Thesis? Witness the fact that as soon as the NDA presidential nominee’s name is topics for a physics paper decided, the thesis, prime minister calls up the president of the party he wants to deliver India from. I wonder if he telephoned Advani ji as well. While India is essay gender human still not Congress-free, today’s BJP has succeeded in becoming Advani-free. The party is willing to accommodate politicians from the Congress, Samajwadi Party and Bahujan Samaj Party, but not its founder, Lal Krishna Advani. Has anybody come across any tweet from the prime minister about having had a conversation with Advani about the NDA presidential nominee?
Will Ram Nath Kovind pay a visit to master, the Margdarshak Mandal (Council of mla note cards Elders supposed to show the way to the party) – a council which has neither any elder nor a way? The BJP’s founder is leading a life of displacement. He is not to be found anywhere in master in csr, his party’s narrative of culture or nationalism. I have no liking for those who sympathise with Advani but I don’t care for those who make fun of him either. Advani embodies our collective fate. We are all fated to become Advani in our lives one day – displaced from for a physics power, institutions and society. What I want to do is study his silence in master in csr, a context where those claiming to be sanyasis , or renouncers, are becoming relevant in mla note cards for research, Indian politics, but Advani, who is staying clear of master thesis renunciation, is becoming irrelevant. Advani is unfolding like an event right before our eyes; to read it as a mishap or tragedy is to miss the point. Those who had suggested that the opposition should nominate Advani as their presidential nominee are insulting his disciplined existence. Besides, they seem to be blithely unaware of the fact that the opposition is in the same boat as Advani. By making this suggestion, Advani sympathisers are being as insensitive towards him as his own people.
Advani is guilty on one count: he has flouted the fundamental condition of being alive, which is to speak. If he is not speaking up even though he continues to be in politics, then he is betraying politics even as politics is betraying him. What he should be doing is screaming his lungs out thesis essay, or sobbing so hard that his voice bursts forth from its confinement. If his silence does not contain a note of rebellion, then he should clarify that too. He can say, I am happy, I don’t fear anybody. My silence does not indicate a fear of thesis in csr anybody. Advani’s silence is the most dramatic screenplay of our times – it’s a screenplay in search of a climax. Picture the best, scene: in the thick Delhi fog, an old man with a ramrod straight bearing is walking down Rajpath. In a while the in csr, tapping sound of a walking stick can be heard. He is coming closer. Mla Note Cards For Research? As his old speeches on cultural nationalism echo all around, a convoy of tanks speeds past him.
The tanks have secured the discourse on nationalism and culture has done the master thesis in csr, same with the cow. The patriarch’s stance conveys his diffidence. He starts speaking haltingly and organizer, then raises the pitch of his voice. Then he starts sobbing. But his voice is drowned out by the tanks’ rumble. Master In Csr? So long is the convoy that he lapses into silence again. The film camera swerves from the tanks to case study sampling, capture the old man in a close-up.
But that is the founder of in csr BJP, Advani! What is he doing on Rajpath and that too with Guru Dutt’s shawl draped around his shoulders? Look, he has opened his arms wide and is looking towards Raisina Hill as if making the actor’s classic refrain his own – ‘yeh duniya agar mil bhi jaaye toh kya hai’ (what does it matter even if the world were to be within my grasp?). At a distance, the president’s entourage, flanked by red-liveried cavalrymen, is seen to be moving towards parliament. Gradually, another figure comes into the frame. Topics Physics Research Paper? It’s Deepak Chopra, charioteer of Advani’s rath and an incomparable companion of Advani’s loneliness. Chopra is looking towards Advani. In his hand is a diary containing the names of those who once used to queue up for master, appointments with Advani.
The same names are meeting somebone else these days. From the direction of town Raisina Hill a reporter comes running. Deepak ji , why are you with Advani ji and not with the rest of them in parliament, he asks. The camera is fixed on Deepak’s face. His lips are drawn in a half grimace. The unfathomable dark depths of his eyes reflect the image of a broken chair – the power that is not – as well as some old photo frames showing Advani meeting important leaders.
Eyes partly closed, a smile playing on his lips, his hands are clasped in the traditional form of greeting. In Csr? Every frame has Deepak Chopra in it. The reporter has got the answer he wanted. He now asks a second question. Will Advani ji speak up now? Is he isolated? Does he cry? Has he been silent all day? Does he get any visitors? Why is the founder of the party enduring his displacement so?
Is all of this a Congress conspiracy? Deepak Chopra remains silent. The director says ‘cut’ but does not call for pack-up. Human Religion? He tells his team to wait and see which way the old man turns from Rajpath or if he remains rooted to the spot for eons. In Csr? The assistant director asks, sir, are we shooting with sound or without?
The director replies, if I had wanted sound, I would have been in parliament where the new president is being duly welcomed to the sound of brand new slogans. I have come here to good for a physics research, shoot the deafening silence – to capture the fear etched on Advani ji ’s face this very moment. That fear itself is his silence. Suddenly a page from Advani’s blog enters the thesis in csr, camera frame in essay graphic, a close-up shot, with the master thesis in csr, words ‘A Man of Words and Action’ written on it. Sir, will this be the title of the film, asks the assistant director. No, replies the director. The film will be titled, ‘A Man of in a town No words and No Action’. What he is suffering is the wrath of Lord Rama. Thesis? No redemption for such sinners. He is the root cause of all the misuse of the name of the Lord, so he has been punished in this way. I don’t know about essay graphic organizer, Lord Rama and his wrath.
But you are absolutely right when you say that it is LK Advani more than any other individual who is responsible for the cultural/ moral morass that India finds herself in today. Sounds too dramatic/ hyperbolic? Think of a triumphant Advani in 1989 atop his Rath – the vehicle that traversed the length and breadth of our country and master thesis in csr, brought murder and mayhem in its wake. Good Topics For A Research? Ravish Kumar is dead right when he talks of the edifice being made ready through painstaking, dedicated efforts, only for the builder to realise that he has no claim now to the fruit of his labours. Only here, poetic justice is playing out in some sense.
Ironically — or perhaps, inevitably — the instrument that delivers that justice here is several notches above Advani, or anybody else, in wickedness and in csr, devilry. Advani’s silence might also be a sulk, arising from dismay that others are reaping what he sowed. He started it all, and I have no qualms in labelling him as the FIRST TRUE ANTI-NATIONAL. Well done, sir! The flame that you struck 28 years ago has lit a thousand fires all over our land, with many more to come. I wonder – do you not feel even the slightest guilt at what you have unleashed? Of course, it is a sulk, and much else besides.
Like Tantalus’s cup, the prime ministerial throne came so near, and yet remained elusive. It took Advani quite a while to body essay gender human, come to terms with the realisation that this was the master thesis in csr, end of the road for him. — Of course, we have every reason to call him anti- national, because, as the topics for a, true Sanghi, he stands for everything that is alien to the idea of India. But crediting him with the capacity for self-criticism and master in csr, remorse would perhaps be going a little too far. Like pure goodness, pure evil also does not know itself. Those whom the gods love die young … Why should any politician believe that he should be in best program, the rat race / reckoning till his last breath ? He had his innings, surely there should be a time and place for thesis, retirement.
In the meanwhile, the trial beckons, for we must pay our dues, here on earth. Article makes no sense. It seems like it is essays on living in a town lifted off some cheap novel. Just rambles on. What you sow, so you reap!
This is the law of Karma. So, no needless tears! It is master thesis a fact that Shri Advani was one of the founders of the thesis writing program, BJP party with Shri Vajpayee and others. It is also a fact that it was Sri Advani who proposed Modi as the CM of in csr Gujarat and even stood by him when Sri Vajpayee was upset over the 2002 riots and wanted a change in the leadership in Gujarat. But Modi has always put himself before anyone else or the party. Modi has devised methods to sideline Advani and on living small town, some other senior leaders of the party by using the Peter Principle of giving them a so called higher status without any significance. Master Thesis? To please some, Modi on the right dates,visits him and essay graphic organizer, Vajpayee and in csr, pays lip service of complements without any significance. Advani at topics physics 87 needs to in csr, review his role as an elder statesman and founder of the party and avoid his presence on d some occasions more as a spectacle for the world and party to case, see but without any consideration of his role as an thesis, elder.
With Amit Shah as the party President and his ally, all other leaders in essays on living in a small, the party can only contiunue as lackeys or faithful and obedient “”servants””. Perhaps the only one who escapes such a disregard is the RSS chief. It is master a fact that Shri Advani was one of the in a small town, founders of the BJP party with Shri Vajpayee and others. It is also a fact that it was Sri Advani who proposed Modi as the CM of master thesis Gujarat and even stood by him when Sri Vajpayee was upset over the 2002 riots and wanted a change in the leadership in study, Gujarat. But Modi has always put himself before anyone else or the party. Modi has devised methods to master, sideline Advani and some other senior leaders of the party by body essay gender using the thesis in csr, Peter Principle of giving them a so called higher status without any significance. To please some, Modi on the right dates,visits him and Vajpayee and pays lip service of sampling complements without any significance. Advani at 87 needs to master in csr, review his role as an elder statesman and founder of the good topics for a research, party and master thesis in csr, avoid his presence on d some occasions more as a spectacle for the world and party to thesis organizer, see but without any consideration of his role as an elder. With Amit Shah as the master, party President and his ally, all other leaders in the party can only body essay in medieval religion contiunue as lackeys or faithful and obedient “”servants””.
Perhaps the only one who escapes such a disregard is the RSS chief. A series that attempts to draw a comprehensive picture of those weeks and months when entire geographies and histories changed forever. To contribute an master, article to The Wire or enquire about syndication, please write to on living in a small, firstname.lastname@example.org. Make sure you follow our submission guidelines. If you want to comment on an article, please post your comment on the relevant story page.
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