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Health and safety in the work place essays

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awa essays for gmat We all know that the essays on health and safety in the essays the GMAT are scored separately and that the schools don’t care as much about the essay scores. We also know we have to write the essays first, before we get to the more important quant and verbal sections, so we don’t want to use up too much brain-power on the essays. On Frederick Douglass. Still, we can’t just bomb the essay section; the schools do care about the in the place essays, essays somewhat. Formal Format. So how do we do a good enough job on work essays the essays without expending so much energy that we’re negatively affected during the multiple-choice portion of the test? We need to develop a template, an ma courses organizational framework on which to “hang” our writing. The template will not, of health and safety in the essays course, tell us exactly what to write. For that, we need the actual essay prompt, which we won’t see until we take the test. We can, however, determine how to organize the information ahead of essays on frederick time, as well as the in the, general kinds of messages we need to convey at various points throughout. The template should tell us: how many paragraphs to use the primary purpose of each of those paragraphs the kinds of thesis spring information that need to be conveyed in each paragraph. The template will vary a little bit from in the work place essays person to person; the important thing is to have a consistent template for yourself that you’ve worked out in advance of the official test . In addition, we will need slightly different templates for the two different kinds of essays, so take note of the differences below. Thesis. As a general rule, essays should have either four or five paragraphs total.

The first paragraph is always the introduction, the last paragraph is always the health and safety work essays, conclusion, and the body (middle) paragraphs are for binder, the examples we choose to use. In The Work. Each paragraph should contain certain things; these are listed in the below sections. The information does not need to thesis spring, be presented in the given order below, though; just make sure that each paragraph does contain the necessary information in some sort of clear and logical order. In addition, the and safety in the work place essays, information listed below is the minimum necessary info; you can certainly add more where appropriate. summarize the issue state a thesis acknowledge that the other side does have some merit introduce your examples. The first paragraph should contain a brief summary of the issue at hand in your own words (don't just repeat what the essay prompt said). Nebraska. For an Argument essay, briefly summarize the conclusion of the given argument. For the in the work essays, Issue essay, briefly summarize the issue upon which the lincoln nebraska, prompt has asked you to health and safety in the work, convey your opinion. For either, you don’t need more than a one to two sentence summary. The first paragraph should also contain a thesis statement. The thesis is typically one sentence and conveys to writing ma courses uk, the reader your overall message or point for the essay that you wrote.

For the Argument essay, you can write most of your thesis sentence before you get to health place essays, the test! You already know that the Argument will contain flaws, and that you will be discussing how those flaws hurt the author’s conclusion. Guess what? That’s your thesis! “While the argument does have some merit, there are several serious flaws which serve to undermine the validity of the author’s conclusion that XYZ.” DON’T USE THAT EXACT SENTENCE. List Celta Resume. They’re going to get suspicious if hundreds of people use the same sentence. (Besides, that’s my sentence. Come up with your own!)

Note the opening clause: “While the argument does have some merit.” This is what’s called “acknowledging the other side.” We don’t say, “Hey, your argument is and safety in the work place completely terrible! There’s nothing good about it at all!” We acknowledge that some parts may be okay, or some people may feel differently, but our position is spring binder that the flaws are the most important issue (that is, our thesis is the most important thing). On the Issue essay, you won’t be able to write your thesis statement ahead of time, but you do know you’ll have to work place, do two things: (1) establish one clear position for yourself and (2) acknowledge the other side. (“While it’s certainly true that some people like Pepsi, more people prefer Coke.”) Notice one other thing that I don’t say: I don’t say “I think [blah blah thesis blah].” I state my thesis as though it is means fact and reasonable people surely agree with me. That’s a hallmark of and safety essays a persuasive essay. Finally, the first paragraph needs to introduce whatever examples we’re going to use in in writing means the body paragraphs below. Don’t launch into health in the work place essays, the examples fully; that will come later. You can choose to use either 2 or 3 body paragraphs. List Celta Resume. (I use 2 body paragraphs, personally. Remember, we just need to be “good enough!”) introduce one flaw explain why it is a flaw suggest ways to fix the flaw. introduce one real-world example give enough detail for reader to understand relevance of health and safety in the work place example show how example supports your thesis. The body of an essay is where we support our thesis statement. Celta Resume. For the argument essay, your support will come from the prompt itself: brainstorm several flaws from the and safety in the work place essays, argument (try to find the biggest, most glaring flaws).

Each flaw gets its own paragraph, so you’ll need either two or three, depending upon how many body paragraphs you want to dr essay, write. Explicitly explain why this flaw makes the health in the essays, conclusion less valid in some way, and then discuss how the author might fix that flaw. For example, let’s say that an argument claims that firing half of a company’s employees will help the company to reduce costs and therefore become more profitable. While it’s certainly true that chopping half of celta your payroll will reduce costs, it doesn’t necessarily follow that the company will become more profitable! That loss of personnel may reduce productivity, hurt morale of the remaining employees, and so on. The author of such an argument could bolster the claim by, for example, showing evidence that half of the employees are fully redundant and firing them wouldn’t affect the company adversely (if such evidence actually exists, of course!). For the health work, issue essay, your support will come from essay discuss your brain: you’ll have to brainstorm some real-life example ( something that actually happened in the past ) in order to support your thesis. That example could be something from health work essays your own life (work history, school, friend of a friend) or from the list celta resume, broader world (business, history, and so on).

Stating that Coke’s market share is higher than Pepsi’s, for example, would bolster your claim that more people prefer Coke. There is no inherent advantage to health and safety in the work essays, a personal example versus a broader world example, but if you use a personal example, be sure to in writing, provide enough detail that the reader can understand the health and safety in the place essays, relevance. When you use real-world examples that the readers are likely to know, you don’t have to worry about, for example, explaining what Coke and resume, Pepsi are. Finally, make sure to tie your example specifically back to your original thesis. Don’t make the reader connect the and safety in the essays, dots: tell him or her exactly how this example supports your thesis. re-state your thesis (using new words) re-acknowledge the other side (using new words) briefly summarize how your examples supported your thesis (using new words) minimum 3 sentences; ideally 4 to 5. Are you noticing a theme within the essays and slavery, above bullet points? Basically, the and safety in the work essays, conclusion paragraph isn’t going to contain much new information. In Writing Essay. It’s a conclusion; the major points should already have been made earlier in the essay.

What you’re doing now is tying everything together in health in the work place one neat package: yes, the “other side” has some merit, but here’s my point-of-view and, by the way, I proved my case using these examples. Before you go into formal format, the real test, you should have a fully developed template, so that all you have to do is come up with your two examples and your thesis statement, and health in the work place essays, then “hang” your words on your framework. Practice with the above as a starting point until you develop something with which you’re comfortable. Don’t forget to leave some time to proof your essay; it’s okay to have a few typos, but systematic errors will lower your score.

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The Origins of World War I: Assessing the Historiography. Spurred by modern warfare’s advanced technology, World War I proved to be an unprecedented display of death and devastation. Place. From the ma courses, rubble and smoky haze of the war’s aftermath emerged the equally unprecedented practice of seeking out and punishing those deemed responsible. Confused and traumatized by health essays, the horrors of the Great War, Europeans demanded an explanation, triggering—for the first time in history—a large-scale campaign waged by governments, politicians, journalists, novelists and scholars to ascribe blame to the guiltiest nation. This debate, debuting at essays on frederick and slavery, the war’s start and ever intensifying with no end in health and safety essays, sight, has resulted in what historian Christopher Clark describes as “an historical literature of unparalleled size, sophistication, and moral intensity.” [1] The pervasive and enduring discussion of entangling alliances and fierce international competition provides modern leaders with a case study in decision making. John F. Writing Uk. Kennedy, for example, requested that his cabinet read Barbara Tuchman’s famous analysis of WWI, The Guns of work place essays August, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, while President Jimmy Carter has written about the value of considering the war’s origins when confronting today’s international crises. [2] In the past century, a variety of hypotheses regarding responsibility has been presented and certain schools have fallen in and out of esteem. Essays And Slavery. The debate—originally centered on in the place essays Germany’s alleged war-guilt—eventually drifted towards notions of collective culpability, giving rise in the1930s to the conviction that no single nation was to blame, only armaments, alliances, failed diplomacy and imperialistic capitalism. [3] But this school has its inherent problems. Writing Ma Courses. The position relies on the examination of broad forces and trends (like imperialism) at the expense of the actions of individuals. Its followers fail to take into account the unique nature of each of the great powers and the distinct ways in and safety in the, which nations pursued the very types of policies they criticize. The debate gradually subsided throughout the list resume, 1940s and 50s.

That is, until West German historian Fritz Fischer’s explosive work in the 1960s inspired new scholarship, portraying WWI as a conscious German design for either power or distraction from its growing social unrest. [4] Like other schools, these polemics have their merits, but they fail to fully answer the war-guilt question. In The Work. Fischer and his followers give the Second Reich too much credit for its ability to be efficient and organized. In fact, the lincoln, Kaiserreich was particularly disorganized. Germany’s rootless policy and ill-defined ambitions would have been significant obstacles to any strategic planning and execution of war. More recent scholarship tends to examine individual countries. The British, French, and Russians have all been indicted, to varying degrees, for and safety place, their isolation of Germany. Austria-Hungary has been blamed countless times for its methods in dealing with Serbia. Celta. If the vast historiography has reached any consensus, it is that no country can be completely absolved of guilt. The tendency of the German nation, however, after 1890, to place essays, act with negligence and a lack of focus in its misguided efforts to grapple with domestic turmoil and navigate the European system, resulted in a dangerously unpredictable, alienating policy, setting the stage for general conflagration in 1914. Dr Essay Lincoln. The encyclopedic discussion and dissection of the war, and Germany’s role in particular, exposes a certain ambivalence in the Second Reich’s politics.

Germany is regularly found at health in the, the root of many of the causes of conflict that are examined in WWI literature and the war’s extensive historiography—a historiography with as compelling a story as the binder, war’s origins itself. According to historian Dennis Showalter, “The understanding of the First World War is connected more than that of any other modern conflict with the war’s historiography” because its written history developed as soon as fighting did. At the health and safety in the place, onset of war in August 1914, “color books,” named for each country’s uniquely hued cover, were written for “domestic and international consumption” in an attempt to dr essay lincoln nebraska, rally support at home and health in the work, sympathy abroad. [5] The Belgian Grey Book , the Austrian Red Book , the formal, French Yellow Book , the Russian Black Book and the German White Book were edited collections of work place highly selective and dubious (half of the Deutsches Weissbuch ’s thirty documents are believed to be forgeries) political papers released by the state in order to prove the defensive, and uk, therefore justifiable, nature of the respective government’s decision to and safety place essays, fight. Dr Essay Lincoln. [6] Efforts continued in September as a German government-sponsored committee wrote a defense of its country entitled Truth about Germany: Facts about the War . In England, six Oxford historians were charged with a similar task, producing Why We Are at War: Great Britain’s Case, a highly critical account of the Second Reich’s alleged militarism and expansionist aims. [7] In May 1919, Germany published a second White Book, Deutschland Shuldig? ( Germany Guilty? ), as a means of and safety work essays preempting the coming Treaty of Versailles. [8] The Treaty, signed June 28, 1919, dispensed harsh punishment to the war’s losers, forcing Germany to reduce its military, cede significant territory and essays on frederick and slavery, pay reparations. The conditions of the agreement were justified by a clause, Article 231, which expressly blamed Germany for the twentieth century’s great disaster. Horrified by the financial and moral implications of this “war-guilt clause” (a French idea), Germany worked with alacrity to health work place essays, disprove the charges, granting unprecedented access to sources and intro, archives to patriotic, nationalistic—and often government-funded—historians, encouraging pro-German work and investigations into the “war-guilt lie.” [9] In 1921, the Weimar Republic created the War Guilt Section. This government body consisted of one branch dedicated to disseminating literature to health and safety in the work place essays, trade unions and various clubs and another concerned with scholarly research in Germany’s defense. [10] By 1930, this mass propaganda distribution center had 1,700 to essay means, 2,000 organizations working to undermine the legitimacy of the treaty as well as its own academic journal, Die Kriegsschuldfrage . [11] Historians Albrecht Menolelssohn-Bartholdy, Johannes Lepsius and Friedrich Thimme were asked to create a definitive defense and in the essays, collection of German documents, leading to the controversial, forty-volume Die Grosse Politik der Europaischen Kabinette , published over the course of 1922 to 1927. As German government official and industrialist Walter Ratheneau told the Reichstag on June 13, 1922, the essays douglass, book was intended to and safety work essays, absolve Germany morally, once and for all. [12]

Fearing the prospect of a WWI historiography dictated by Germany, Europe responded. Britain, France and dr essay nebraska, the newly-formed Soviet Union were quick to counter with their own edited accounts of the health and safety in the place essays, war, strategically placing blame where they saw fit. [13] London released British Documents on the Origins of the War 1898-1914 , an official collection ordered by formal essay format, Foreign Secretary Ramsay MacDonald, in installments from 1926 to 1938 as an answer to Die Grosse Politik. In France, Raymond Poincare, president during the war, originally resisted any publications for fear they might undermine the presumption of German war guilt. Nonetheless, he eventually begged the high-ranking diplomat, Maurice Paleologue (who preferred a posthumous publication) to release documents, recognizing that the and safety place, debate would carry on with or without France. The Ministry of Public Instruction, the government body responsible for on frederick, historical inquiry into the war, created the health and safety place essays, journal, Revue d’histoire de la guerre mondiale , and published its own definitive collection, Documents diplomatiques francais 1871-1914 , in 1936. [14] Russian WWI historiography has a unique origin. Creative Ma Courses Uk. The Bolshevik Party came to work place, power in November 1917 with an ostensible commitment to abolishing secret diplomacy. [15] In keeping with that promise, the essay discuss means, Soviet government vowed to release war-relevant documents, which were ultimately published through scattered sources and in an unfinished three-volume work. [16] The Soviets were also equally dedicated to, as historian Niall Ferguson says, portraying the health in the work place essays, war as “an imperialist self-immolation scene,” thus incriminating the tsarist regime. [17] A brainchild of the state, the journal Krasnyi Arkhiv , which published 106 issues from 1922 to 1941, focused on exposing the previous capitalistic, imperialistic government. [18] In an attempt to legitimize the revolution, the Soviet Union, unlike other nations, strategically selected documents in hopes of implicating its own country in discuss means, the war’s origins. The harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles sparked non-state sponsored debate as well. A school of thought emerged in the 1920s that questioned the extreme notion of Germany’s sole responsibility and work place essays, hoped to formal essay intro format, eradicate the war-guilt clause and massive reparations. Health Work Place Essays. These “revisionists” sought to find a more moderate truth, while some even proposed the resume, idea of Triple Entente, specifically British, French and Russian, culpability.

Naturally, these ideas took the strongest hold in Germany. A pioneer in revisionism, German historian Max Montgelas came to the defense of and safety in the essays his country in The Case for the Central Powers , making claims that Germany and Austria-Hungary had only ma courses intended to health in the essays, maintain the status quo. Intro Format. Instead, he argues, it was the health and safety work place essays, Franco-Russian alliance that harbored belligerent goals, specifically the reclaiming of Alsace-Lorraine and the Straights that connected the Black and Mediterranean Sea. Lincoln Nebraska. [19] Writing in health and safety in the place essays, 1927 at Leipzig University, historian Erich Brandenburg admitted his country’s possible “short-sightedness,” but insisted vehemently that Germany had never intended to incite a war. [20] Outside of Germany there were very few European scholars calling for binder, the revision of Article 231, though British historians G. P. Gooch and Edmund D. Morel and French historian George Demartial did argue against essays, their profession’s complacency and lincoln nebraska, advocated for truth over in the work essays patriotism. [21] It was in fact the United States that became the biggest target for binder, war-guilt propaganda. The German Foreign Ministry corresponded with American Senator Robert L. In The Place Essays. Owen, requesting a review of the war-guilt clause. List Celta Resume. This partnership engendered overseas discussion, prompting a speech before the U.S. Senate on health and safety in the work place December 18, 1923 in essay intro, which Senator Owen made appeals on Germany’s behalf. [22]

Many American scholars, like Harry Elmer Barnes, came to accept the revisionist philosophy. His work, The Genesis of the World War: An Introduction to the Problem of War Guilt is an angry critique of the historiographical status quo and a fierce condemnation of the Versailles Treaty. In his 1926 treatise, he contends that Germany had every right to health in the work place, assemble a navy or expand its empire in the twentieth century just as all European powers had. In fact, Poincare and Russian diplomat Alexander Izvolsky were incendiary figures from the start, looking to convert Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Sazonov to their “war party.” [23] Another respected American historian, Sidney Bradshaw Fay, published Origins of the World War in 1928, which, while not an outright indictment of the Entente, supports much of what Barnes argues. [24] The German government went to in writing discuss means, great lengths to encourage this kind of American revisionism, regularly inviting Fay to contribute to in the work place, its historical journal, and purchasing 250 copies of his book to be issued to diplomats. The War Guilt Section provided Barnes with research material, propagated his writings, funded visits to Berlin, Munich and Vienna and translated his book into essay discuss, German and French to be distributed overseas. [25] The revisionists inevitably spawned the anti-revisionists, a group whose work was highly censored in health work, the Weimar Republic. The scholarship of Bernadotte Schmitt, a professor of modern history at the University of Chicago, was never translated into German. [26] His study, The Origins of the First World War , upheld traditional views depicting Austria-Hungary as the creative writing ma courses, instigator of in the work essays war and Germany as its all-important ally and supporter. [27] Prominent French scholar, Pierre Renouvin, a professor of thesis contemporary history at the Sorbonne, published The Immediate Origins of the War in 1927 and was one of the first historians to directly respond to and criticize the revisionists. [28] Also from the Sorbonne, Professor Camille Bloch wrote in health, defense of the Versailles verdict in 1935 in formal essay intro format, The Causes of the World War, claiming that the German Kaiser and Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg had intended violent conflict in hopes of work place essays capitalizing on France’s and Russia’s unpreparedness. In Writing Discuss. [29] The debate’s extreme, polarizing nature waned as the end of the 1920s and beginning of the 1930s gave rise to a new, more palatable view.

A belief in shared culpability and a sort of fortuitous stumbling into conflict gained in popularity as nations tried to put the tensions of the in the work essays, First World War behind them. The rise of Marxism and a general criticism of the post-industrialized society worked in dr essay nebraska, concert with a more liberal Europe’s attempt to heal itself after the war, leading to the creation of a new school of thought based on a collective responsibility. WWI was deemed by many a “war that no one wanted”—a “failure of systems rather than a product of decisions.” [30] Failed diplomacy, the arms race and the entangling alliances that dominated the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were seen as chief causes for fighting’s outbreak. And Safety In The Work. [31] The release of many famous wartime memoirs reinforced this idea. Bethmann-Hollweg’s and British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey’s accounts, published between 1919 and 1921, and in 1925, respectively, are descriptions of the impossible positions in which politicians found themselves in July 1914. Dr Essay. First Lord of the Admiralty at the start of the war, Winston Churchill’s The World Crisis , published between 1923 and 1931, as well as the and safety in the work essays, memoirs of Prime Minister David Lloyd George (1933), depict the world struggle as an inevitable phenomenon beyond anyone’s control. [32] This change in historiography offered a chance to formal essay, improve international relations—a development even more desirable after World War II. Health. With the international community of scholars moving towards a consensus of formal essay intro collective accountability, French and German historians met in 1951 in Paris and Mainz to eliminate one-sided textbooks and create an agreed-upon, uniform, historical curriculum. [33] The conclusions of the French, led by Renouvin, and the Germans, under the leadership of historian Gerhard Ritter, marked a shift toward moderation on health place essays both sides: the portions of the report regarding WWI describe the Franco-Russian pact as merely a natural product of the alliance system and any German aggression as the manifestation of creative writing ma courses very legitimate fears of encirclement. [34] Even those who preserved the health and safety work place essays, creed of German guilt in the post-WWII era did so in ma courses, a much more moderate way. Health In The. Italian historian Luigi Albertini’s three-volume treatise, Le origini della guerra del 1914, published in creative ma courses uk, Milan between 1942 and 1943, asserts that Germany urged Austria-Hungary to strike against Serbia in work place essays, 1914, but not with the intro format, intent to health in the work, ignite a general conflict. While Albertini’s work ascribes most of the blame to the Central Powers, namely Austria-Hungary and Germany, it appealed to readers on writing uk both sides of the debate, as his scholarship is also highly critical of Poincare, Grey and Sazonov. [35] In 1954, historian Raymond Aron published The Century of Total War . Although the work builds on the belief of Renouvin that the statesmen of Berlin and Vienna wrongfully risked war, it illustrates the complexities of the conflict that Aron contends cannot be reduced to health in the work place, the guilty and the guiltless. [36] The idea that war was accidental or simply a product of the flawed European system continued to appear in WWI literature.

One of the most legendary and popular portrayals of this stumbling into essays and slavery, war was The Guns of in the essays August , published by historian Barbara Tuchman in writing, 1962. Tuchman claims that as July 1914 came to a close and war looked more and more probable, “governments struggled and twisted to fend it off,” but “it was no use.” [37] In a famous investigation into the power of army schedules released in 1969, British historian A. J. P. Taylor asserts that the extreme focus on speedy and efficient military timetables forced countries to become increasingly unwilling to health work, turn to diplomacy, for fear of formal essay becoming weeks, days, or even precious hours behind in their plans. [38] Taylor lays most of the responsibility on and safety the Central Powers, yet he fits partially into the collective culpability school, believing the war was in no way “deliberate,” but actually “produced by muddle.” [39] Historian David Stevenson suggests in “The Politics of the Two Alliances” that while alliances were not solely to blame for war, it is impossible to explain the decisions made by formal intro format, the major powers during July 1914 without considering the hostile, two-bloc European system. [40] Equally concerned with international relations, historian John Keegan’s corpus describes a world that was turning away from diplomacy and and safety work essays, towards military action. Keegan concedes that A. J. P. Taylor was too extreme in his conclusion that military timetables had caused war, but asserts that Prussia’s success with timetables in 1870 prompted Europe to become increasingly concerned with mobilization dates and further entrenched in formal intro format, secret alliances and inflexible war plans. “Secret plans,” Keegan claims, “determined that any crisis not settled by sensible diplomacy would, in the circumstances prevailing in Europe in 1914, lead to general war.” [41] Historian Paul Kennedy similarly cites the European environment, plagued by the effects of modernization, industrialization and urbanization, as a cause of war.

In The Rise and Fall of the in the place essays, Great Powers , Kennedy focuses on the growing suspicion and rivalries in Europe, coupled with the creation of agreements and military pacts. Dr Essay Lincoln Nebraska. This coalition mentality, Kennedy argues, encouraged countries to act in health in the work essays, haste during crises like that of July 1914. [42] Modris Eksteins, a historian also concerned with the active underlying forces of European society, goes so far as to depict WWI as a sort of social conflict. Essay Intro. He argues that a more progressive, avant-garde Germany was forced to assert itself to the conservative, old-fashioned Anglo-French. [43] There are fundamental problems with any school of thinking that holds all, or none, accountable. In her book, The War that Ended Peace: The Road to 1914 , historian Margaret MacMillan even describes it as “dangerous thinking” to accept WWI as an inevitability. Of course there were underlying factors—trends and circumstances—that helped to create an work environment conducive to essays douglass, war, but there were also individuals responsible for their countries’ policies and decision-making. [44] Leading up to in the place, the conflict, Europe was a web of provocative alliances. Stevenson makes a valid point that general war was much more likely after “industrialization…transformed the thesis spring binder, power to produce and destroy” and because “central military antagonism polarized the two big blocs.” [45] This arms race and sense of rivalry, however, is not evidence in itself that all nations were equally culpable.

More important is how the powers responded to this environment, and that one nation, above all, still felt powerful enough to compete on the world stage, but that its position was becoming increasingly precarious. Germany, in other words, felt as though the window of opportunity to prove itself in this type of tense, competitive Europe was quickly closing. [46] There is no significant evidence that any nation hoped for or designed a world war, but the Second Reich, with its fatalistic mentality, maintained a unique willingness to resort to violence. By 1912, most German military commanders painted a very bleak picture for their civilian government. They were convinced that the international geopolitical situation was turning against their country and that Europe’s other armies were poised only to become more potent and better equipped as time went on. [47] As early as December 8, 1912 at the now infamous “war council” held at the Royal Palace in Berlin, German government officials were already discussing the importance of British neutrality, the production of U-boats and efforts to popularize war. And Safety In The Work Essays. [48] At the meeting, Germany’s leaders expressed confidence in the likelihood of a victory for their nation as long as fighting were to creative writing, take place before Russian armament increases in 1916; as Helmuth von Moltke, the health in the work essays, German chief of staff put it: “War the sooner the better.” [49] Although this conference did not result in, as some historians would argue, a design for war (the specific naval expansion and propaganda campaign proposed by the Kaiser never came to fruition), it showed, as Christopher Clark says, that Berlin was “strikingly untroubled by the prospect of such an nebraska outcome.” [50] More important, it exhibits the way in which the German generals doubted there being any chance to health, break their country’s encirclement through peaceful measures. [51] In the years leading up to war, the Second Reich’s leaders did not want to lincoln nebraska, fight, but felt increasingly like they might not have a choice. As conflict seemed more and more inevitable, historian Michael Howard argues, “war avoidance” became a low priority. [52] In their clumsiness, the Germans even exposed their frighteningly cavalier attitude towards combat to the international community when, in health in the essays, November 1913, King Albert of Belgium met with Wilhelm in Berlin. Essays. The Belgian military attache reported that the and safety in the place essays, Kaiser talked of marching on essay format Paris while Moltke spewed similar bellicosities about the likelihood of an impending war with France. [53] Even in the first half of 1914, a peaceful time when conflict seemed less likely than it had in the past, men like Moltke and Generals Alfred von Waldersee and Alfred von Schlieffen still insisted war would prove unavoidable. [54] Moltke and Bethmann-Hollweg believed that if fighting must break out, it was imperative that it be before French and Russian military expansion in one or two years’ time. [55] Waldersee even wrote in his personal journals that though Germany had no reason to fear any imminent attacks, they had equally little reason to avoid war, as their success seemed probable. And Safety Place Essays. [56]

Some historians have nonetheless chosen to focus on systems, rather than these types of dr essay lincoln nebraska statements from individuals. The shift in historiographical thinking in the 1930s, coupled with the rise of Marxism, also led to health in the place, a more literal Marxist interpretation of the Great War—a view in which gluttonous capitalism and competitive imperialism were to blame for hostilities. In Writing Means. [57] This school had early origins with Lenin’s pamphlet “Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism” in in the work essays, 1916. Thesis. Lenin states that “under capitalism the home market is inevitably bound up with the health and safety in the place essays, foreign market” and because the nebraska, capitalistic countries of the world had already seized and divided up all unoccupied territory by the turn of the twentieth century, only redistribution, and therefore conflict, was possible. He also expresses his own perspective on the nascent historiography extant at the time of his work’s publication: “bourgeois scholars,” writes Lenin, were defending imperialism “in veiled forms” as they fumbled with “partial and secondary details,” ignoring the real crux of the issue. [58] Lenin laid the groundwork for a less widely-accepted way of thinking, but one that continued to appear periodically in WWI historiography. Some researchers investigating the origins of the work, First World War went so far as to say that the private sector—businessmen and manufacturing companies—encouraged governments to declare war, hoping to profit from the lucrative armaments market.

One German historian, Willibald Gutsche, rationalizes WWI as the work of nebraska greedy steel and mining companies, large banks, engineers and shipping firms. [59] Left-wing British politician, Konni Zilliacus, makes the claim in health and safety work place essays, his Mirror of the Past: A History of Secret Diplomacy (1946) that the plutocracy financed organizations like Navy, Air and Empire Leagues, Colonial Societies, and British capitalist parties, which lobbied successfully for imperialism, protectionism and armaments. Essays On Frederick Douglass And Slavery. Zilliacus also asserts that each country was “defending its imperial interests” and, in health and safety place, a sense, fought a preventative war, attempting to preemptively restrain other powers from achieving economic dominance on the continent. [60] Similarly focused on imperialism, historian Eric Hobsbawm’s Age of Empire , published in 1987, scrutinizes the pre-war fixation with competition and formal conquest. Dr Essay Lincoln. He concedes that the Marxist interpretation is not a complete explanation, but believes that “the development of capitalism inevitably pushed the world in health and safety in the place essays, the direction of state rivalry, imperialistic expansion, conflict, and war” and hurried along the “uncontrolled slide” into catastrophe. [61] Although, as historian Roland Stromberg observes, the idea that capitalism was at the root of WWI is essays on frederick douglass and slavery, “as old as the war itself,” this thesis is far from an answer to the war-guilt question. [62] The biggest problem with this rationale is that Anglo-German trade had seen dramatic increases between 1904 and 1914. During this time, Great Britain was Germany’s best customer, and Germany was Great Britain’s second largest export market. [63] The overwhelming belief in London in the twentieth century was that war would induce economic chaos, not prosperity, and possibly even political dissent from the left. A motion put before the House of and safety essays Commons in essays douglass, April 1897 had called attention to inadequate food production in England, leaving the nation’s leaders wary of the fiscal implications of in the fighting or blockade up until and throughout the war. [64] Furthermore, the most outspoken German advocates of and slavery war, like the Pan-German League and in the work essays, Parti Colonial were comprised of mostly teachers and list, intellectuals who had virtually no connection to health and safety in the work, big business. [65] Capitalism did have its effect on world events in that the imperialism it helped, in formal essay format, part, to in the work place essays, inspire was a major source of tension and one of the chief catalysts in creative uk, triggering confrontation. Countries like China, Morocco and Egypt became highly sought-after prizes and diplomatic battlegrounds as each country pursued its own goals of economic expansion and worldwide prestige. As colonies and foreign markets were divided up among the powers, conflict naturally ensued and the world changed: according to historian Joachim Remak, had it not been for pressures and disagreements in Africa and Asia, British Foreign Secretary Lord Lansdowne would not have considered abandoning non-alignment when he came to power in health in the work place essays, 1900 or felt it necessary to negotiate a defensive agreement with the French—the Entente Cordiale—In 1904 . [66] It was German imperialism, though, and German foreign policy that did the most irreversible damage.

Not unified until 1871, Germany had to on frederick douglass and slavery, organize and industrialize rapidly to and safety in the work place, stay on par with the rest of the top nations of the world. It did not acquire many useful colonies—Germany had come late to the imperialistic party—and always felt left behind and inadequate as a world power. [67] When the country was ready to embrace overseas expansion, most of the and slavery, world’s valuable possessions had already been claimed. Ironically, as historian Zara Steiner states: “It was the British example which provided both the and safety work, impulse and the obstacle to German expansion.” [68] The Second Reich’s leaders in 1890 did not heed the words of in writing means their former Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, that Germany was in fact a territorially satiated nation. [69] Instead, they adopted a bizarre foreign policy and embarked on ever-changing, ambiguous goals of arbitrary imperialism. Health And Safety Essays. Great Britain was never against legitimate German efforts to expand. Grey was only concerned about British possessions, not, for instance, German efforts to secure ports and coaling stations, penetration of Sweden, Denmark and Holland, or work on the Berlin-Baghdad Railroad. [70] Writing in a memorandum, British diplomat Sir Eyre Crowe acknowledges that his nation should not deter peaceful and legitimate German expansion. In the same document, however, Crowe describes Teutonic expansion as vague and unpredictable, instilling in him a genuine fear that Germany may be more forceful in further attempts to assert itself to the rest of Europe. Means. [71] It was not the idea of German imperialism per se that led to a hostile Europe, but rather the way in which its policies were carried out. Great Britain was left constantly guessing at work, the Germans’ actual aims, leading the British to misconstrue their motives. Formal Essay Intro Format. As Remak states, with an expanding industry, Germany had the right to health and safety in the, seek out markets and natural resources, but so often its foreign policy defied “rational explanation” and was just “action for action’s sake.” [72]

Historian Richard Hamilton characterizes Wilhelmine imperialism along the lines of “bullying tactics.” In 1894 alone, Germany instigated arguments over Samoa, the Congo, the Sudan, Morocco, Turkey, and Portugal’s African colonies. “The tactics,” Hamilton says, “were unpleasant and spring binder, the apparent lack of motive confused and annoyed the British without producing any serious gain for Germany.” [73] The effects of this alienating, alarming and seemingly random foreign policy became most apparent during the Moroccan Crises, as indiscriminate attempts to weaken Anglo-French relations only resulted in further German isolation. [74] In March 1905, the Kaiser landed in Tangier, Morocco and publicly announced his support for its independence. He then asked for an international conference to vote for an open door policy and health in the, prohibit the French’s exclusive influence in the northwest African country. Despite France’s willingness to compromise (the influential anti-German diplomat, Theophile Delcasee, was dismissed and uk, a part of health and safety in the work essays Morocco was offered to Germany), the Wilhelmine government insisted on staging the conference, which convened in Algeciras in nebraska, 1906. Remak describes the British as “disturbed” by the “German bullying” and when a vote was finally taken, only health work Austria-Hungary sided with Germany. [75] The incident at Tangier not only creative uk intensified the growing British suspicions of the place essays, Second Reich, but the initial capitulation of the French exposed Paris’s weakness, and London’s need to protect its fellow Entente member. The Anglo-French relationship became stronger than ever before. [76] While no binding agreements were reached, the Moroccan Crisis sparked informal military discussions between the essay intro format, French and health and safety work place, the British about theoretical army sizes and coordinated strategies. [77] In 1911, there was a native revolt in Morocco, which warranted French military intervention.

The Germans, in a theatrical attempt to remind the French that Morocco was still nominally independent, yet ostensibly to protect German citizens in South Morocco (in true clandestine and unintelligible German fashion, the ma courses, foreign ministry only used this excuse well after the event), sent a gunboat, the Panther , to health and safety in the work essays, Agadir during the essays on frederick douglass, crisis. [78] Germany had no real designs in Morocco. There were no hopes for gaining territory or any need to defend its commercial interests there. And Safety In The Work Place. The Germans were simply motivated by misguided efforts to binder, cultivate prestige and weaken British and French relations. [79] In fact, although Germany intended to force France into negotiations, the Germans were in Morocco for an entire month before they decided what it was that they were demanding. Eventually, 100,000 square miles of territory in Central Africa was given to Germany in exchange for its recognition of a French protectorate over Morocco. Health And Safety In The Place Essays. [80] For such little actual gain, the Germans suffered significant diplomatic losses in the Agadir Crisis: the Anglo-French Entente grew stronger once again due to the growing mistrust in their mutual enemy and European leaders felt increasingly certain that they would never be able to understand or predict Germany’s opaque foreign policy. [81] Yet in the 1930s, WWI historiography’s early years of dissecting imperialism, many believed that colonization in general, not one country’s actions, generated enough conflict and competition to precipitate war. As shared responsibility remained the formal essay, consensus among the scholarly community continuing into the 1940s, and in the, Europe was distracted by the plunge into another world war, the once loud and heated debate fell nearly silent. Overshadowed by the horrors of essays on frederick douglass WWII and in the work essays, with a sense that the question had been answered, the war-guilt discussion lay dormant for many years. Nowhere in dr essay nebraska, the world was there more unanimity about the war’s origins than in health in the place, Germany.

The Weimar Republic’s innocence campaign had been so successful and so pervasive that German historians followed suit, becoming increasingly entrenched in their views and unapologetic in their defense of the Second Reich. Moreover, in the time of the Third Reich, those who voiced their support of the Versailles verdict risked losing their jobs. Thesis Binder. Hitler put a stop to all WWI inquiry, fearing his regime might be undermined or eclipsed by memories of the Kaiserreich . In the 1940s and and safety work, 1950s, Germans continued to believe that their country held no–or at in writing discuss, worst–secondary blame for WWI. [82] It was in this environment that historian Fritz Fischer published Griff nach der Weltmacht in West Germany in 1961. His book, eventually translated into English as Germany’s Aims in in the work place essays, the First World War , though claiming to be “neither an indictment nor a defense,” implicated the Germans as being chiefly responsible for on frederick douglass and slavery, the war’s outbreak. Fischer describes Germany as unrelenting in its quest for world power, a navy comparable to England’s, a central European customs union and an opportunity to overturn the colonial status quo.

The controversial historian argues that the Second Reich’s war-time goals and campaigns for dominance and annexation as laid out by Bethmann-Hollweg’s Septemberprogramme— German plans created in the first few weeks of WWI — were not a matter of opportunity, but a continuation of fully-formed ambitions discussed well before fighting began. As early as 1912, he contends, Rathenau had completed plans for a Central European customs union, approved by Bethmann-Hollweg. Before the war, the German chancellor was concerned about Russia’s abundant natural resources and and safety work place, manpower and believed France to be a chief obstacle that needed to on frederick, be eliminated. Germany, Fischer maintains, encouraged Austria-Hungary to confront Serbia in health and safety, 1914. The Second Reich did so with “eyes wide open,” knowing that Russia would never let the dual monarchy “act in dr essay lincoln nebraska, the Balkans unopposed” and that a general war was not only possible, but likely. [83]

The book sparked a furious backlash. In the introduction to a later, translated version, historian James Joll describes the work as being at “the centre of one of the most violent academic controversies,” reigniting the debate over a question thought to be long answered in West Germany. [84] Internationally, Fischer did not present an entirely new view on health work place the issue (his work agreed, in large part, with the popular and widely accepted scholarship of Albertini and formal essay intro format, Taylor), but domestically, it was a scandal. In an almost blasphemous betrayal of the patriotic self-censorship that had evolved as German tradition, Fischer became the in the work essays, first major West German historian to denounce his country as the principal instigator of list celta resume WWI. These findings had serious implications. As Joll states: “One can understand why those Germans who are willing to accept Hitler’s responsibility for the Second World War and even, to health in the work place, some extent, Germany’s responsibility for lincoln nebraska, Hitler, find it hard to reopen the whole question of war guilt in the First World War.” [85] If Prussian militarism was responsible for the entire twentieth century, Hitler was not the in the, anomaly. As a result, Fischer and uk, his “Hamburg School” of followers suffered personal attacks. Fischer was impugned by some as being supported by East Germany, a government striving to discredit its predecessors. In The Essays. [86] West German historian Wolfgang J. Mommsen wrote “The Debate on German War Aims” in resume, direct response to Fischer, criticizing him for exaggerating evidence and ignoring context and the circumstances in and safety in the, which decisions were made. [87] Gerhard Ritter, known at the time as the “dean of German historians,” called Fischer an “old Nazi” and accused him in dr essay, 1964 at the Congress of the German Historical Association in in the, West Berlin of fabricating sources.

In that same year, the West German government cancelled funding for Fischer’s U.S. tour. Ma Courses. [88] Ritter continued to be Fischer’s fiercest critic. In his work, he accuses Fischer of in the place taking politicians’ words out of context and formal intro format, confusing nationalist, patriotic rhetoric for actual political intentions. [89] He criticizes Germany’s Aims as being too exaggerated in its depiction of a unique German preoccupation with world power and health and safety work essays, makes the case that other nations harbored expansionist strategies too. Formal Intro. [90] Ritter believes that only the health and safety in the place essays, Second Reich’s generals pushed for annexation. He stands firm with the West German status quo that had developed up until the time of Fischer’s scholarship, depicting the army and the civilian government as having very different agendas, defending the chancellor and ascribing all notions of aggression to the armed forces. [91] Fischer’s disciples include historians like Dirk Stegmann, Barbara Vogel and Peter Christian Witt who went on to expand his theory. [92] The most outspoken defender of Fischer’s thesis was his student, Imanuel Geiss, a professor of modern history at the University of Breman. In his work, Geiss disputes what he sees as the illusion of encirclement, describing the two bloc alliances as springing mostly from German militarism and bad policy in their quest for power. [93] He believes that, in writing ma courses uk, the time leading up to the events of work place essays 1914, the German empire constituted the dr essay, biggest threat to health and safety work place, peace. Germany’s world policy, he maintains, “made war inevitable,” while its pact with Austria-Hungary and Italy was quickly transformed from discuss means a defensive agreement to a “basis for health and safety in the place, German ambitions as a fledgling world power.” [94] As the Fischerite point of dr essay view gained more traction around the world and its stigma in West Germany began to erode, the position inspired further theories of a German preemptive strike or an especially aggressive Second Reich bent on world domination—ideas that have occasionally appeared in WWI historiography ever since.

Historian John C. G. Rohl believes that Germans were in fact trying to establish hegemony on the continent and that the Kaiser and his staff saw the controversy in July 1914 as a “golden opportunity” to fight the Franco-Russians. Health. [95] In the legacy of Fischer, historian Jerzy Marczewski argues that Wilhelmine policy was nothing short of “maximum expansion,” while historian David Fromkin believes that Moltke and German General Erich von Falkenhayn seized control from the Austro-Hungarians during the Serbian crisis and list celta, crafted the preventative war they had always wanted. [96] Fischer’s treatise reignited an important dialogue and appropriately refocused scrutiny on the most deserving country, but did so through an over-extended, problematic philosophy. Germany was chiefly responsible for WWI; it was the health in the place essays, most seemingly aggressive nation in the years leading up to war. The Germans should be held responsible, though, not for their assertive, defined goals, but their lack thereof. After Bismarck’s dismissal in 1890, German foreign policy and government decision-making took a dangerous turn.

His less cautious and less able successors abandoned his complex, well-structured plans for list celta resume, a poorly executed, haphazard pursuit of status and prestige. [97] While Germany’s policies were without a doubt the most alarming and troublesome of that of all the powers, they were not the foundation of a bid for world domination, but were, rather, a result of the government’s unclear aims and inability to navigate the European system. After 1890, Margaret MacMillan asserts, there was a degree of “indifference” in health and safety in the place, German foreign policy as leaders allowed their country to “drift” further into dependency upon the Triple Alliance. Thesis. [98] Even within that relationship, Germany caused tension and confusion. Vienna was fearful of Germany’s inconsistent policies and their overtly aggressive propaganda and naval armaments. [99] Austria-Hungary was not even sure whether it could regularly count on the support of its much stronger ally. In November 1912, at his hunting lodge, the and safety in the place, Kaiser personally promised Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand outright support in the First Balkan War (1912-1913), but as conflict broke out, Berlin eventually worked to restrain Vienna and cooperated with Britain in maintaining peace and undermining its partner. [100] Germany never had concrete plans to exploit tensions between the two blocs of powers and, in fact, even confused and essay format, alienated its own ally. The Second Reich maintained bizarre relationships with the other powers as well. Health Work Place. The post-Bismarck era was marked by increasing British and French uncertainty of their Teutonic neighbors and their aims, which, as Paul Kennedy notes, “looked ambitious and dangerous” because they were so often unclear. On Frederick. [101] In 1898, the Germans rejected British statesman Joseph Chamberlain’s offer for a defensive alliance with the British, fearing that an agreement of work that kind would dash the hopes for good relations with the Russians. [102] Just a few years later, however, in 1901, Germany changed its strategy, aspiring to ally itself with Great Britain and, accordingly, was hesitant to commit to supporting the thesis spring, French in Morocco. Nevertheless, in their usual desultory fashion, the Germans never reached out to the British to health place, initiate any cooperation over the course of the six months following their rejection of the French. In the meantime, France, apprehensive from the failure to come to an agreement with Germany, began looking to the British for support. [103] It was Germany’s wandering policy, not a well-designed scheme that set the country on the path towards isolation. The Kaiser’s personal attempts to cultivate alliances or control foreign policy often exacerbated the situation for the Germans. In 1905, while cruising together on creative writing uk the Baltic, Wilhelm convinced the Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II, to sign an impromptu defensive treaty, effectively neutralizing Russia’s treaty with France. Afterwards, both governments were outraged at the actions of their respective heads of state and the agreement was immediately annulled, but the close call did have lasting effects for Germany.

Great Britain, which was already intrigued by the Franco-Russian alliance, grew suspicious of the inscrutable, underhanded game Germany seemed to be playing and reevaluated its relationship with Russia, concluding that it may need further security in the face of the Teutonic menace. In The Work. Once again, it was mere German clumsiness that repelled other nations. During his rule, the Kaiser often alienated the international community. His erratic and unstable personality was worrisome to other nations; Europe’s leaders were unsure whether or not to take him at his word in his calls for German dominance and belligerence. Essays On Frederick Douglass. Wilhelm’s bellicose speeches, bold correspondences and angry marginalia became infamous, as historian Max Hastings sardonically suggests, “the exclamation mark was his favoured instrument of health in the place essays policy-making.” [104] The German emperor’s intentions were often ridiculous and ephemeral (for a brief period he wanted to nebraska, create a South American “New Germany” and encourage colonization in and migration to Brazil), but had little effect on in the actual policy. [105] While the country and the Kaiser’s ostensible aggression had a direct role in both bringing the Triple Entente closer together and creating tension between the two opposing blocs, Wilhelm was not the mastermind behind a designed crusade for hegemony.

Even the aggressive rhetoric recklessly thrown around by the Kaiser and his government was just that—rhetoric—and not an expression of tangible objectives. The principle of Weltpolitik , or world policy, perpetuated by Bulow and other leaders, included vague notions of German expansionism and a dedication to finding its imperial “place in the sun.” This was inherently problematic—most land was either taken or, as in dr essay lincoln, China, highly contentious. [106] As the health and safety, Second Reich promoted propaganda and commissioned endless speeches constructed around Weltpolitik and the German call for ascendancy, neighboring powers naturally grew concerned. Great Britain in particular knew that its empire was the greatest obstacle to German expansion and feared that a more autocratic state like Germany could transform grandiloquence into action overnight. [107] While Weltpolitik was a major contributor to the formation of a hostile Europe, it was not the basis of a German attempt at dr essay lincoln, world domination. The policy, first of all, was impossible to define. Bulow never publicly expressed any of its actual aims. In The Place. [108] Even within the government there was confusion. Waldersee wrote in his journal: “We are supposed to pursue Weltpolitik. If I only knew what that was supposed to be.” [109] MacMillan describes the creative uk, oscillating foreign policy of Germany between 1890 and 1897 as “incoherent.” In 1894 Leo von Caprivi, chancellor at the time, told the German ambassador to London that the essays, Solomon Islands were a crucially important imperialistic target, yet within two months, Berlin lost all interest there. Essay Format. [110] The German world policy never resulted in many actual gains.

Its practical achievements after 1897 included only the modest acquisition of the and safety in the place, Caroline Island and a segment of Samoa. Creative Uk. [111] With its forceful rhetoric, aggressive speeches, and Weltpolitik, the German government postured itself as a threat to peace, seriously alarming the major powers and and safety essays, isolating the writing uk, Second Reich. This heavy-handed approach had a direct effect on Europe at and safety in the work place essays, large, and set the stage for war in 1914. German stratagem remained at its core, however, illogical, indefinable, and without conscious design. Among the scholars involved in resume, the historiographical debate, many came to and safety in the essays, see this point of view, questioning the essay intro format, extremism of Fischer’s thesis, while some still took a strong stance in his defense. Others were inspired by health and safety in the place essays, his work to explore new ways of thinking about WWI. One particular offshoot, the “domestic crisis school,” argues that local, not global politics, was at thesis, the center of the war’s outbreak. [112] The work of West German historian Eckart Kehr (a contemporary of Fischer whose ideas were actually published before Germany’s Aims ) became increasingly popular in the midst of the Fischer controversy, and his theory of der primat der innenpolitik , or the primacy of domestic politics, offered a new perspective. Kehr contends that solely considering diplomacy is health in the place essays, not a thorough enough investigation. He argues that the Second Reich was chiefly responsible in starting the First World War, but only in lincoln, that the state’s foreign policy was “a means to their domestic ends.” Essentially, much of Germany’s pre-war decisions were conservatives’ attempts to quell the social conflicts that arose in the 1890s and health work essays, preserve patriarchal, agrarian capitalism. Kehr notes that the German agrarian elites originally rejected the building of a naval fleet in 1890, but came to embrace the dr essay lincoln nebraska, idea at the turn of the century in the spirit of Anglo opposition because the British—an industrialized power—victory over health in the the Boers—an agrarian society—represented a blow to their traditional position of power. [113] Arno Mayer, a historian from Princeton University, takes the argument even further, claiming that because of internal turmoil, German policymakers were especially willing to engage in violence in 1914; their fear of revolution trumped their fear of formal essay combat. [114] In essence, the Second Reich fought a counter-revolutionary, diversionary war. And Safety Place. [115] Historian Michael Gordon, writing in 2014, agrees that a sole focus on foreign policy is insufficient in understanding the First World War.

He describes the elites of the list celta, Wilhelmine era as living in an “anxiety-ridden condition,” disturbed by the societal vicissitudes that accompanied Germany’s budding modernism and remarkably quick industrialization. Inevitably, Gordon believes, this uneasiness informed subsequent government decision-making. [116] While the fear of social upheaval in pre-war Germany may have been very real, any organized attempts to combat the issue or divert attention from it were not. The labor strikes that occurred in Germany and elites’ trepidation over a new, more progressive lower class were not unique problems, but ones that the Second Reich was especially ill equipped to manage. Their unreliable political system included a federal parliament, the Reichstag , which maintained the power to approve the national budget and a federal council, the Bundesrat , which oversaw foreign affairs and the army and navy. The council never amassed much power. In Bismarck’s time, he designated himself not only Chancellor, but Prussian Minister-President and Foreign Minister, running foreign affairs out of the Prussian Foreign Ministry. And Safety Place. With such broad control, when Bismarck was gone, it became unclear where responsibility and final authority lay. In this atmosphere, the Reichstag often tried to establish some sort of control and influence government policy by withholding approval of budgets, resulting in devastating political paralysis in times of crisis. [117] Social uproar shed light on the inefficiency of the German system, but did not inspire notions of using war as a distraction. In fact, Bethmann-Hollweg believed that this environment made war even riskier—defeat could open the door to revolution. [118]

The internal distress of the Second Reich was more of an indirect cause of intro WWI. Dissent led Germany to adopt certain policies that helped to create an environment hospitable to war in 1914. Just as Volker Berghahn, a historian who wrote on health in the place Germany’s domestic situation, argues, internal and external factors are interdependent. [119] In the late nineteenth century Bulow, the Kaiser and conservative advisors adopted a policy of Sammlungspolitik —a program dedicated to in writing essay means, galvanizing nationalist support and health and safety work place essays, undermining socialism through, in part, an active foreign policy. Bulow once revealed that the formal essay format, Germans had taken Samoa, knowing it to be of no use, solely in work, hopes of inspiring pride and patriotic fervor at home. Formal Intro Format. [120] Sammlungspolitik also involved state-sponsored propaganda. There were films, pamphlets, battleship launches and health in the place, public ceremonies celebrating the fortitude of Germany.

Even naval armament, to ma courses, some extent, had its origins in the quest to quell social unrest. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz and and safety in the work essays, other officials believed the expansion of the navy could inspire German prestige and celta, develop as a project for citizens to rally behind. [121] However, this ostentatious bellicosity used as means of health and safety in the work essays uniting Germans only worked to instill fear in nebraska, the rest of the health and safety in the work place essays, world. [122] Throughout the dr essay, historiography of the war, the tense relationship between Great Britain and Germany—one exacerbated by health in the place essays, the naval race—has been examined endlessly, yielding various hypotheses about how competition between the two nations was allowed to escalate into armed conflict. Spring. A viable, but less popular view, defended wholeheartedly by Ferguson in 1999 in and safety in the essays, The Pity of War , contends that London, not Berlin, was at spring binder, the center of the sour relations. Health In The Work. The author claims that any chance at Anglo-German cooperation broke down, not due to Germany’s strength or aggression, but as a byproduct, in writing ma courses, fact, of its weakness: Britain felt it needed to appeal to stronger allies like Russia, France, or the health in the essays, United States, even if it meant marginalizing others. There is no doubt that Germany was outpacing Britain and France economically and industrially, Ferguson admits, but it was not beating them financially. By 1913, Britain had accumulated 3.9 billion pounds of foreign assets, while France had about half as much, and formal intro, Germany only a quarter. [123] The historian also argues that Grey and health work essays, his government were constantly overestimating the belligerence of the Second Reich, wrongly accusing them of Napoleonic schemes.

The threat posed by list celta resume, the German navy, for example, was exaggerated. In 1912, Germany had nine dreadnoughts to the British’s fifteen; at the start of war, the Entente had forty-three warships, while the Central Powers had only twenty. As other historians and defenders of the Second Reich often point out, Tirpitz’s plan for naval armaments were never connected to any specific offensive campaigns. [124] Although Germany never formulated explicit plans for the navy, the program remained the most incendiary element of Anglo-German relations. Even a historian like Keegan, who tends to health and safety essays, lay blame on abstract concepts, like diplomacy and rivalry, admits that the worst rivalry of all was the one actively provoked by the Germans when they decided to embark on building a fleet comparable to the best in the world—the British navy. [125] Although the British always maintained their naval supremacy, the celta resume, German fleet was still a direct threat to health and safety in the work essays, Britain, a country whose defense and security was based on the water. It was also a country that relied heavily on imports: Britain imported seven-eighths of its raw materials (excluding coal) and half of its food supply. [126] An enemy blockade would be devastating. In addition, an agreement between Grey and French diplomat Paul Cambon specified that the French fleet protect all Entente interests in the Mediterranean while the British fleet protect the Channel. Therefore, Germany’s more realistic goal of building a navy as strong as France’s had huge implications for the British as well. [127] Germany already maintained the biggest army of the twentieth century. Naval expansion, then, was an especially antagonistic, alarming practice as Britain and essays on frederick douglass and slavery, the other major countries worried that too much power would be concentrated in the hands of health in the work place one nation. [128] Like much of Germany’s inexplicable policy, naval development was also seemingly unnecessary.

Tirpitz and Bulow made claims that a fleet would benefit the Germans’ colonial exploits, and yet there was very little economic significance to their colonies after 1897. On Frederick And Slavery. [129] As Geiss writes: some politicians in health in the work place essays, Britain were “disturbed and even frightened by the menace of the German fleet, of Germany’s vague, ill-defined demands, her pretensions and essay means, the ostentatious display of and safety work essays her military and naval power.” [130] Unable to discern the actual motivations behind the fleet, Great Britain and the rest of thesis Europe often assumed the worst. The British were effectively alienated once again as a result of another German diplomatic blunder in January 1896. The incident—known today as the in the place, Kruger Telegram—involved a congratulatory message from the Kaiser to creative writing uk, Paul Kruger, the president of the South African Republic, commending his work in repelling British invasion. Regarding Great Britain’s efforts in South Africa, most powers were in fact privately in support of Kruger, but were prudent enough to remain publicly neutral. Health In The Work Essays. [131] As Remak states: “the Germans did not even possess enough good sense to avoid policies that were bound to create friction…with Great Britain.” [132] Limited by their own tunnel vision, Germans remained seemingly blind to list resume, the realities of the world and unwittingly agitated the British with their unnecessary and unwise policies. Beyond the historical investigation of prewar Britain, much of the literature on health work the Great War’s origins also seeks to explain the nature of formal essay format Franco-Russian tension with Germany. In the tradition of revisionists like Barnes, some recent scholarship still maintains Russia and France were motivated in going to war, or at least in entering into their surprising and provocative alliance, because of their respective hopes of claiming the health in the work place essays, highly sought-after Straights and to essays on frederick and slavery, recover the lost provinces of Alsace and in the work, Lorraine. [133] In other words, the partnership was based on expansion and revenge. In his 2011 book, The Russian Origins of the First World War , historian Sean McMeekin argues in this same vein, claiming that much of essays on frederick douglass and slavery Russia’s foreign policy was centered on finding a warm water port and a fear that an improving Turkish army would make that objective difficult. He argues that the historiography focuses more on health and safety in the place essays Germany’s war aims only because its army’s early success provided the opportunity for leaders to writing ma courses uk, consider expansion and more aggressive ambitions. And Safety In The Essays. If a battle like Tannenberg had had a different outcome, more historians would be debating Russia’s bellicosity. [134]

There is very little evidence that either France or Russia designed a war for spring binder, expansion. French revanche has been dispelled by recent scholarship as a myth, and though a thorn in the side of France, lost territory was far from a reason to risk world war. In fact, Alsace-Lorraine was a profitable center for the nations on and safety in the work place either side as it served as the thesis spring, nexus between the very successful Franco-German banks and health and safety in the essays, industry. [135] In 1914, the Tsar and the Russian government had even less reason to provoke conflict, knowing that their country would be much better prepared in two years time upon the completion of their military plans and armaments production. [136] The Franco-Russians cannot be considered blameless—their decision alone to ally with one another was antagonizing, turning German fears of resume encirclement into a reality. Their partnership, however, did not inspire, but rather was a result of health work place essays a mutual distrust of Berlin and its strange policies and disturbing rhetoric. [137] In fact, it was the same strange German policy that directly led to its enemies’ union.

As historian George F. Kennan writes in dr essay lincoln nebraska, The Fateful Alliance , “the decline of the special Russo-German relationship was the prerequisite for the establishment of health and safety work any significant political and military intimacy between Russia and France.” [138] When in 1890 the Tsar made an creative uk offer to the Kaiser to renew the Reinsurance Treaty (an agreement designed by in the, Bismarck three years earlier in which both nations consented to remain neutral if the other were to end up at writing uk, war), the Germans rejected the Russian proposal, worried it may contradict their arrangement with Austria-Hungary. In The Work Essays. None of Bismarck’s successors had his propensity for list celta resume, judiciously maintaining foreign relations and skillfully fitting the country’s agreements and treaties neatly together. As a result, the place, Russians, fearing isolation, turned to the French, while the Germans became intrinsically more reliant on their only viable ally—Austria-Hungary. [139] More often than the Franco-Russians, the Austro-Hungarians have been cited as the principal instigator of WWI due to their provocative ultimatum to Serbia on July 23, 1914. Landlocked Serbs wanted to expand, access more markets, and encourage subversion in list celta, the multi-cultural Austria-Hungary. [140] Their country, due to the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, increased in size by 80 percent, while the dual monarchy was left in a very precarious position as a world power. [141] It was no secret then that Austria-Hungary was looking to health in the work, absorb its chief rival and biggest threat, Serbia, and that its chief of staff of the armed forces, Franz Conrad von Hotzendorf, was a zealous hawk who had been agitating for action against the Serbs since 1906. [142] Historian Max Hastings is among many who reserve harsh judgment for formal essay format, the Austro-Hungarians, criticizing their desperation to health and safety in the, become a more formidable world power and essay intro, the speed with which their military leader’s impulse turned violent. Between January 1, 1913 and June 1, 1914, Hastings notes in his book Catastrophe 1914: Europe Goes to War, Conrad asked his government for war a total of twenty-six times. [143] Austria-Hungary should bear secondary blame for the war. Its failure to and safety work place, act swiftly and decisively following the essay discuss, assassination of the and safety, Archduke Ferdinand on binder June 28, 1914 opened a window of in the work place essays opportunity for controversy and intro format, allowed events to escalate into health in the work place essays, chaos. The international community was initially sympathetic to the nation whose heir to intro, the throne had just been murdered and had always considered Serbia an inherently violent and backward place.

If the dual monarchy had taken immediate, punitive action, there likely would have been no opposition. It was Austria-Hungary’s decision to wait nearly a month (which incited fears that the Central Powers were planning a much larger war) and include its more powerful allies in a situation unrelated to and safety in the, them that led to the outbreak of general conflict. [144] If Austria-Hungary should be held accountable for mishandling the events of dr essay nebraska July, the Germans should be afforded as much blame in the blind support of their inept ally. After the assassination, the Second Reich acted according to its typical reflexive and impetuous behavior. On July 5, 1914, Austria-Hungary’s foreign minister, Count Leopold Berchtold, sent Alexander Hoyos, his chief of staff, to Berlin to arrange a meeting between the Austro-Hungarian ambassador to Germany, Laszlo Szogyeny, and Wilhelm II to work, see what role the Germans were willing to thesis spring binder, play in the dual monarchy’s plans for action. Despite confessing the need for final confirmation from his chancellor, the Kaiser ultimately offered his nation’s support. By July 6, Bethmann-Hollweg had also sent the allies word of his agreeing to whatever aid the and safety work, country requested in its strike against Serbia. This unwavering promise of support came to dr essay nebraska, be known by historians as the “blank check.” The blank check, issued casually and without much consideration of the devastating alliance mechanism it could initiate, was vital in Austria-Hungary’s decision to take action. The question of German support had been on every leader’s mind since the commencement of discussions of and safety in the work place essays revenge. [145] The Austro-Hungarians, militarily and economically relatively weak, and lincoln, certainly isolated without the health in the work place, help of Germany, would have been far less likely to engage in list celta, conflict without the help of their ally. In fact, their monarch, Franz Joseph, refused to sign off on war until he was assured of German support. [146]

This blind faith—a pledge of support without hesitancy or reflection—was typical of the Second Reich, always plunging into the tides of conflict without sticking a toe in the water first. The issuing of the blank check was only the grand finale in a series of German indiscretions and careless decision-making. And Safety In The Work Place Essays. The famous Prussian efficiency of the writing uk, army never carried over into the civilian government in the forms of diplomacy or foreign policy, as German leaders, with vague dreams of success, always seemed to health and safety place, have their hand in twice as many matters as the thesis, rest of the world, but with only half the results. The Germans’ reassurance to Austria-Hungary, a country which holds secondary responsibility for its direct role in health in the work place essays, precipitating conflict, was the essays, tipping point in a world disposed toward war—a world created, in large part, inadvertently by Germany. The Triple Entente is not blameless in the events leading up to WWI. The British, the French and the Russians all participated in the same arms race and and safety in the work place, secret diplomacy that made Europe such a powder keg in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. They were quick to grow suspicious and often acted on fears grounded in an overestimation of German belligerence. At the root of many of the Entente nations’ decisions, however, was German recklessness. Nevertheless, the Second Reich never forged concrete plans to spark a world war. Like so many of its gestures, the call to fight or desire to prove themselves was mostly rhetoric, uttered without thinking and without intention. Even the formal essay, clearest expression of health and safety in the work place belligerence communicated by the men in Berlin on December 8, 1912, though alarming and proof of creative a unique German perspective, never resulted in the actual war preparations that were discussed.

It was Germany’s clumsy attempts to flourish, not devious, calculated plans that led to war. Encumbered with domestic turmoil, and and safety in the work, suffering a sense of inadequacy on the continent, Germany’s policies unraveled in confusion and intro format, isolation after Bismarck’s dismissal in 1890. Patriotic, truculent propaganda and the insistence on developing a world-class navy were intended to serve the in the place essays, German people in celta resume, their time of disunion, but only managed to inflame the international community. The Kaiser, prone to his fits of rage and his perpetually changing plans; Weltpolitik with its menacing bombast; and Germany’s seemingly arbitrary, antagonistic foreign policy (including the work place essays, Moroccan Crises and the rejection of the Reinsurance Treaty), culminated in formal format, an anxiety-ridden Europe and an estranged two-bloc system. This Europe, crafted unskillfully by Teutonic leaders, was poised perfectly for war in health and safety in the place, July 1914.

With one bullet, one pledge of essay intro format support, and one ultimatum, the world that Germany had unintentionally created, spiraled into and safety work essays, an unprecedented catastrophe. Like other nations, the Second Reich was fearful of war, but less so. Leaders and politicians, like Wilhelm and Bethmann-Hollweg, and format, military men, like Schlieffen and Waldersee, often expressed belief in health place essays, the war’s inevitability. Intro. Moltke’s insistence on “war the sooner the health and safety in the work place, better” has now become infamous and cited innumerable times throughout the voluminous historiography of WWI. Essay. In the literature of the past century, historians have focused on quotes like these and tried to make sense of the devastation and failure to in the essays, compromise in 1914. The majority place responsibility on Germany, to varying degrees, but countless other creative and cogent theories have been promulgated. Nonetheless, the blame game is less about condemning those from our past and more about ensuring the brightness of our future. As the investigation continues, without a conclusion in sight, historians provide the writing uk, world with an in depth dissection of rivalry and conflict—knowledge that may give the world a better chance at fending off the demons of division, competition and violence that plagued Europe in 1914. [1] Christopher Clark, The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to in the place, War in 1914 (New York: Harper, 2013), xxiii. [2] Holger Afflerbach and David Stevenson, eds ., An Improbable War? The Outbreak of World War I and European Political Culture before 1914 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2007), x-xii.

[3] Annika Mombauer, The Origins of the First World War: Controversies and Consensus (London: Pearson Education Limited, 2002), 106. [4] Frederick Hale, “Fritz Fischer and the Historiography of World War One,” [6] Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War: Explaining World War I (New York: Basic Books, 2009), xxxiii; Holger Herwig, “Of Men and Myths: The Use and Abuse of spring History and the Great War,” in The Great War and the Twentieth Century , ed. Jay Winter, Geoffry Parker and Mary R. Habeck (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 301. [9] John W. Langdon, July 1914: The Long Debate, 1918-1990 ( Oxford: Berg Publishers Inc., 1991), 2. [12] Keith Wilson, ed., Forging the Collective Memory: Government and International Historians through Two World Wars (Providence, RI: Berghahn Books, 1996), 11-12. [14] Jay Winter and Antoine Prost, The Great War in History: Debates and Controversies 1914 to the Present (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 9. [19] Max Montgelas, “The Case for the Central Powers,” in The Outbreak of the First World War: Who Was Responsible?, ed. Dwight E. Lee (Boston: D. C. Heath and health work place essays, Company, 1963), 5. [20] Erich Brandenburg, “From Bismarck to the World War,” in essay format, Lee, 8. [22] Herman Wittgens, “Senator Owen, the Schuldreferat, and the Debate over War Guilt in and safety in the essays, the 1920s,” in Wilson, 128-129. [23] Harry Elmer Barnes, The Genesis of the World War: An Introduction to the Problem of War Guilt (New York: Howard Fertig, 1970), 46-48, 138. [24] Sidney Bradshaw Fay, “Origins of the World War,” in Lee, 16, 19. [25] Holger Herwig, “Clio Deceived: Patriotic Self-Censorship in spring, Germany after the Great War , ” in Wilson, 105. [27] Bernadotte E. Schmitt, “The Origins of the health place essays, First World War,” in Lee, 74-75.

[29] Camille Bloch, “The Causes of the World War, in Lee, 22, 25. [34] Franco-German Textbook Commission, Franco-German Agreement on Controversial Issues in European History , in Lee, 64. [36] Raymond Aron, “The Century of Total War,” in list resume, Lee, 68. [37] Barabara Tuchman, The Guns of health work essays August (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1964), 72. [38] A. J. P. Taylor, War by Timetable: How the First World War Began (New York: American Heritage, 1969), 15, 18. [39] A. J. Celta Resume. P. Taylor, “Fritz Fischer and His School,” The Journal of Modern History 47, no.

1 (March 1975): 121, accessed August 26, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1878926. [40] David Stevenson, “The Politics of the in the place, Two Alliances,” in Winter, Parker and Habeck, 78. [41] John Keegan, The First World War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999), 26-28, 48. [42] Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (New York: Random House Inc., 1987), 199, 249, 252-254. [43] Modris Eksteins, Rites of Spring: The Great War and essay intro format, the Birth of the Modern Age (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989), 82-83. [44] Margaret MacMillan, The War that Ended Peace: The Road to 1914 ( New York: Random House, 2013), xxvi, xxxv. [45] David Stevenson, Armaments and the Coming of War: Europe 1904-1914 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), 9, 15. [48] Clark, 329; Max Hastings, Catastrophe 1914: Europe Goes to War (New York: Random House LLC, 2013), 30.

[52] Michael Howard, “The First World War Reconsidered,” in Winter, Parker and Habeck, 22-23. [54] Holger Afflerbach, “The Topos of health Improbable War in Europe before 1914,” in Afflerbach and Stevenson, 162-163, 167. [58] V. J. Lenin, “Imperialism: The Highest Stage of nebraska Capitalism,” (New York: International Publishers, 1982), 68, 76, 109. [60] K. Health And Safety Work Place. Zilliacus, “Mirror of the dr essay lincoln nebraska, Past: A History of Secret Diplomacy, ” in Lee, 46. [61] Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Empire: 1875-1914 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1987), 56, 315. [62] Roland Stromberg, “ On Chercher Le Financier : Comments on the Economic Interpretations of World War I,” The History Teacher 10, no. Health In The Work. 3 (May, 1977): 435-436, accessed July 24, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/491853. [63] Zara Steiner, Britain and the Origins of the First World War (New York: St. Discuss. Martin’s Press, 1977), 62.

[64] David French, “The Edwardian Crisis and the Origins of the First World War,” The International History Review 4, no. Health And Safety Work Essays. 2 (May 1982): 208, 210, 216, accessed August 19, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40105199. [66] Joachim, Remak, The Origins of World War I: 1871-1914 (New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and formal essay, Winston, 1967), 37. [67] Volker Rolf Berghahn, Germany and the Approach of War in and safety in the work essays, 1914 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1973), 19-20; H.W. Koch ed., Origins of the First World War: Great Power Rivalry and German War Aims (New York: Palgrave Taplinger Publishing Co., 1972), 2. [71] Imanuel Geiss, “Origins of the writing ma courses, First World War,” in Koch, 50. [73] Richard F. And Safety In The Work Place. Hamilton, “The European Wars: 1815-1914,” in The Origins of World War I , ed.

Richard F. Hamilton and Holger Herwig (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 83. [74] Michael Ekstein, “Sir Edward Grey and Imperial Germany in 1914,” Journal of Contemporary History 6, no. 3 (1971): 123, accessed July 14, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/259883. [79] David E. Kaiser, “Germany and the Origins of the First World War,” The Journal of Modern History 55, no. 3 (September 1983): 452, accessed June 22, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1878597. [83] Fritz Fischer, Germany’s Aims in the First World War (New York: W. W. Norton Company Inc., 1967), 8, 10-11, 28-29, 34-35, 52, 63. [84] James Joll, introduction to Fischer, xviii. [87] Wolfgang J. Mommsen, “The Debate on German War Aims,” in 1914: The Coming of the First World War , ed. Spring Binder. Walter Laqueur and George L. Health And Safety. Mosse (New York: Harper Row Publishers Inc., 1966), 54-55. [90] Klaus Epstein, “Gerhard Ritter and the First World War,” in Laqueur and Mosse, 188, 192. [93] Imanuel Geiss, “The Outbreak of the First World War and German War Aims,” in Laqueur and Mosse, 76-77.

[94] Imanuel Geiss, “Origins of the First World War,” 36-37, 45. [95] Holger H. Herwig, “Germany,” in Hamilton and Herwig, 150; John C. G. Rohl, “The Curious Case of the essays on frederick, Kaiser’s Disappearing War Guilt: Wilhelm II in July 1914,” in Afflerbach and health and safety work essays, Stevenson, 78-79. [96] Jerzy Marczewski, “German Historiography and the Problem of Germany’s Responsibility for World War I,” Polish Western Affairs 12, no. 2 (1977): 289, accessed August 26, 2014, http://proxy3.noblenet.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true#038;AuthType=ip#038;db=30h#038;AN=46400273#038;site=ehost-live#038;scope=site; David Fromkin, Europe’s Last Summer: Who Started the Great War in 1914? (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004), 290-291. [97] Michael Epkenhans, “Was a Peaceful Outcome Thinkable?: The Naval Race before 1914,” in Afflerbach and douglass and slavery, Stevenson, 116. [99] Samuel R. Williamson Jr., Austria-Hungary and the Origins of the First World War (New York: St.

Martin’s Press, 1991), 86-87, 143. [103] John F. V. Health And Safety In The Essays. Keiger, France and the Origins of the First World War (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1983), 18, 21. [113] Eckart Kehr, Economic Interest, Militarism, and Foreign Policy: Essays on means German History , ed. Health And Safety Place Essays. Gordon A. Lincoln Nebraska. Craig, trans. Grete Heinz (Berkeley: University of and safety essays California Press, 1977), 23-24, 27. [115] Michael. Formal Essay Intro. R Gordon, “Domestic Conflict and the Origins of the First World War: The British and the German Cases,” The Journal of in the work essays Modern History 46, no. Celta. 2 (June 1974): 193, accessed August 1, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1877519, 193. [127] Sean McMeekin, July 1914: Countdown to War (New York: Basic Books, 2013), 72-73.

[130] Geiss, “Origins of the First World War,” 48. [134] Sean McMeekin, The Russian Origins of the First World War (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011), 30-31, 77. [137] D. C. B. Lieven, Russia and the Origins of the First World War (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1983), 27. [138] George F. Kennan, The Fateful Alliance: France, Russia, and the Coming of the First World War ( New York: Pantheon Books, 1984), xii.

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It's a Frame Up: Helping Students Devise Beginnings and Endings. Date: Winter 2001. Summary : Hillebrand describes how a carefully crafted frame can give a piece of writing a deeper sense of meaning and a way into and out of the assignment that escapes the in the place essays, over-used traditional patterns. A carefully crafted frame can make satisfying metaphorical. connections for both reader and writer, giving the paper a deeper sense of meaning and a way into and out ma courses uk of the assignment that escapes the. traditional pattern and work place quandary of old hat. Oftentimes, getting an essay started and getting it concluded can trouble my college sophomores and spring binder juniors more than finding something to say in between. They can always rely, of course, on the old standbys: the traditional introduction and health and safety work essays the traditional conclusion to the traditional essay, telling the resume, audience what will be said and concluding with what has been said.

Granted, this approach works well in speeches or with lengthy writings, but in in the place shorter essays, these crusty techniques come off as predictable and boring. I encourage my students to find instead a single word, a literary/historical reference, or a personal narrative that can provide a fresh way into and out of their writing, surrounding it much like a window frame surrounds a glass pane or a decorative frame surrounds a picture or mirror. Creative Uk? Just as the right picture frame becomes one with the painting, the right rhetorical frame becomes one with the composition, enhancing as well as complementing. This frame not only starts and concludes the writing, but can also reinforce the main idea, offer a broader perspective, or even interject a bit of humor. A set of ungraded papers can appear a burden to the instructor, but framed essays more often than not make reading less a chore and more a pleasant, entertaining, and, at times, informative experience. Last year, a student in my research class wrote a lengthy paper on and safety in the place, the relationship between humans and plants, beginning her rather serious topic with a reference to a well-known nursery rhyme: Ring around the dr essay lincoln nebraska, roses, a pocket full of place, posies . . . . She explains that the in writing essay means, pocket full of flowers masked the stench of death during the time of the black plague, only one of the many useful purposes of plants that have benefited us throughout the health and safety place, ages. The paper ends with a reinforcement of the warning that we depend on plant life to add quality to our own lives: Without plants, life on Earth would cease to exist as we know it: `ashes, ashes, we all fall down.' On a much different note, a student in my rhetorical conventions class wrote a short paper that manipulates his memories of essay, a particular odor into a framing device. Health In The Work Place Essays? Students were assigned reflective memoirs, which for this student provided an opportunity to describe his first car-purchasing experience. He opens the piece by detailing the musty smell of the used car and the Blue Bouquet air freshener that made it his.

He ends with a description of his strongest memory: Regardless of where I am or what I am doing, whenever I smell the thesis spring, scent of a Blue Bouquet air freshener, I can hear the rumble of the place essays, exhaust behind me, feel the air rustling my hair, and essay discuss means sense the urge to slam the pedal to work place essays the floor so I can feel the ma courses uk, sheer bone-crunching power of acceleration. A good place to find rhetorical frames commonly used by professional writers is in newspapers that run feature articles and columnists. In 1985, flying home after a trip to Mexico, I sat next to and safety place Los Angeles Times columnist Jack Smith. He explained that in essay intro most of his articles, he connected the first and last sentences after taking readers on a journey of other ideas, a pattern that made writing a daily column less onerous. Syndicated columnist William Safire often relies on a single word as a framing device. In a 1994 article, he calls on tsunami, the Japanese word for a great wave caused by underwater seismic shock, to frame an article on the shock that caused the conservative wave of that year. His introduction connects the definition of and safety place essays, tsunami with the formal intro, main idea of his article: the majority of voters shook up legislators to express their lack of faith in an ever-growing government. And Safety Work Place Essays? The column ends with a second mention of the discuss means, tsunami, identifying it as a shock that does indeed change everything and that leads to exciting days politically, an analogy that reinforces his (but not everyone's) opinion.

A writer can seduce a reader into considering relatively abstract ideas by creating a framing device that links these ideas to everyday images and experiences. Health And Safety Place Essays? In another column, Safire decries the new disloyalty that seemingly affects our culture at every level of douglass, business and politics. He has his teeth into a large concept, but he introduces his thoughts about a fickle public, fickle corporate world, and fickle government by making a down-to-earth confession: Over the years, Safire says, he has been a toothpaste hopper. Health And Safety Work Place? He writes that the discuss, avuncular tones of Harry Von Zell got him to switch to long-forgotten Ipana from even more forgotten Kolynos. Since then, other new products have encouraged this lack of health and safety in the place, brand loyalty. Safire moves on to take on Disloyalty with a capital D; he worries that we have become a disposable culture all too ready to thesis spring binder relegate even people to the discard pile.

In his concluding paragraph, he asks that we stop this worldwide devaluation of essays, loyalty. Celta Resume? He ends, however, with a mundane image echoing his opening. Pick a brand of toothpaste and health and safety place stick with it. This little idea connects to the far more serious one, oddly enough offering a broader perspective. The smallness of formal essay intro, his framing device may seem incongruous, but this very element awakens us to the exigency of our everyday actions. Literary references also make effective framing devices.

In our local newspaper, a letter to the editor from an angry professor responds to an editorial in and safety in the work which the editorial writer is accusing the university teachers of salary whining. The professor puts to work Edgar Allen Poe's The Cask of Amontillado as a literary framing device, quoting Poe's opening sentence as his opening sentence: The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as best I could; but when he ventured upon insult I vowed revenge. The writer uses the words of Poe's narrator to convey his own indignation at being flagrantly wronged. The body of the letter details the dr essay, professor's resentment at what he considers to be the editorial writer's insults, but the final sentence refers again to Poe's story: Ah, for a fresh batch of cement, a stack of bricks, and a good trowel, the very tools, readers of Poe will recognize, that the story's narrator uses to work his revenge on Fortunato. And Safety? By humorously framing hostile feelings, the professor gently emphasizes his point: Overworked and underpaid, he and intro his colleagues do not appreciate editorials claiming otherwise.

Many students feel, correctly enough, that they do not have the command of literary allusion that this writer demonstrates. However, almost all have an intimate knowledge of some folk and health and safety in the place essays fairy tales that may serve them as they create framing devices. One student, writing about her struggle with obesity, puts to use the question that opens Snow White: Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the fairest of them all? The student quickly explains that, in her world, fairest is changed to lincoln fattest. Health And Safety Place? She further connects the spring, device by describing her despair each time she stands before that cruel mirror. After revealing her struggle and her growing awareness of and safety, others who, for various reasons, do not fit in, the paper ends with a new version of the mirror question: Who is the on frederick and slavery, healthiest of them all? While the in the work place essays, framing device gives an added dimension of poignancy to the narrative, the newly recast, final question concludes it on an uplifting note. Personal Experience as a Framing Device.

Personal experience can also provide a frame in which to set the discussion of a larger issue. Boston Globe columnist Ellen Goodman provides a personal experience to in writing essay frame an opinion piece calling for labels in clothing to guarantee consumers that child labor has not produced newly purchased garments. Standing at a checkout counter, she looks at the various tags and health work place essays labels affixed to a pair of shorts she has decided to purchase. The labels tell her much: price, size, washing instructions, even country of origin. Left unasked is the question Who has produced this pair of formal essay format, tennis shorts? As she ponders the origin of these shorts, she creates a transition from the frame to the article's purposeasking consumers to make a connection between what we wear and the people who make it. Health And Safety In The Work Place? Goodman concludes her argument by referring once again to her own purchase, calling herself an uneasy consumer of one pair of tennis shorts who would like to initiate change by asking one simple question: How about labels for labor? Students often use personal experience narratives similar to Goodman's as a way into and out of writing uk, papers on such topics as racism, the environment, or political and school concerns.

By calling on an incident or event from work place his or her life, the writer adds an extra dimension to the topic as well as an authenticity. When the list resume, concluding sentence refers to health in the work essays this opening experience, the reader is left with a satisfying sense of closure. The paper projects a wholeness, a coming full circle, that essays with traditional, often ordinary conclusions sometimes lack. In a particularly effective paper on essay means, the negative impact television violence can have on children, one of my students begins with a description of health in the work, his family's extended Thanksgiving dinner. The student explains that the celta, peacefulness he felt as the family members gathered to health and safety in the give thanks for all their blessings vanished once he entered the family room where his younger cousins were mobilized in front of the television for dr essay nebraska, the Power Rangers program. After watching intensely physical confrontations, the normally docile three- to twelve-year-olds turned into miniature fighting machines. They eagerly kicked and essays punched any interloper, forcing the narrator to leave and causing him to seriously question the writing uk, laissez faire child-rearing attitudes of the children's parents. Work Place Essays? This incident acts as a segue that connects the creative uk, family experience with his topic: the growing problem of children's viewing of television violence and possible solutions to health and safety in the work this problem. The writer concludes by offering a plan for dr essay lincoln nebraska, handling the situation at the next Thanksgiving dinner: I may not be the health work place, most popular cousin for turning off the Power Rangers, but what is popular is not always right, and what is right is not always popular. I can live with not being popular.

For many students, the personal experience that becomes the framing device for an essay triggers the piece's central idea, rather than the other way around. One student, writing about student/teacher relationships in list resume elementary schools, describes a rather upsetting incident she witnessed during a week of observation. A crying second grade student who had been teased beyond endurance ran to his teacher's arms for comfort, only to be shoved away by the teacher. This observation begins the in the work essays, student's essay and inspires the central idea of the dr essay lincoln nebraska, piece: when teachers touch students, they have reason to fear the consequences. The paper ends with the writer once again referring to health in the place the incident of the spurned second-grader. She mentions how troubled she was at the time, but after doing research on the subject, she explains, I clearly understand her reasons for not offering comfort and for not hugging him back. When I first introduce the framing device lesson, I caution students against a couple of traps I have seen former students fall into when they use this technique.

Sometimes a framing device can take on a life of formal intro, its own, becoming more developed than the content. This I call the runaway frame. I recount a former student's essay that describes a supposedly distasteful fast-food job she held in one town while living in another. For her introduction and conclusion, she gives a hair-raising account of her forty-minute commute to work over health work place, black ice. Although the purpose of her paper was to dissuade readers from taking a position at the partic-ular restaurant where she worked, the binder, overly long framing device was far more compelling.

No reader would want to live down that hill after reading about the slippery road, the in the work, traffic, the delays, and the danger. There's another trap that students fall into. They do not make clear the relation between their framing device and the body of the paper. One student began and ended a paper on the Cuban missile crisis with quotes from Hamlet. To be or not to be, the paper begins, ending with the essay intro format, lines, whether `tis nobler in the mind to suffer the slings and arrows of health and safety essays, outrageous fortune, or to nebraska take arms against a sea of troubles, and by opposing end them . . . . One may imag-ine many connections between these words from Shakespeare and the events of the Cuban missile crisis, but the writer did not articulate any of them. Health In The Essays? As we help students revise, we need to be on the lookout for these connections that have not yet made it from the writing uk, student's mind to his paper.

Keeping these caveats in health and safety in the place essays mind, however, a carefully crafted frame can make satisfying metaphorical connections for both reader and writer, giving the paper a deeper sense of meaning and a way into and out intro format of the assignment that escapes the traditional pattern and quandary of old hat.

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Accounts Payable Specialist Resume Example. As an place, accounts payable specialist, your skills are in demand, and employers across almost every industry are urgently searching for candidates with your combination of proven abilities and personal traits. Use your resume to highlight your professional background, your education credentials, your certifications and your on-the-job accomplishments. List Celta Resume! Start with a summary that highlights the overlap between what you have and what your employers need. Health And Safety Essays! Then divide the rest of your document into subheadings for education, experience, and specialized skills.

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Regardless of what part of the country you reside in, having a concrete job search plan can go a long way. Health In The Place Essays! Here are some tips for in writing, finding jobs as a accounts payable specialist and the surrounding area. Health And Safety In The Work! 1. During periods of unemployment, many jobseekers find themselves faced with endless amounts of free time. You can use this time to learn new skills or research the job market. 2. Planning ahead can drastically improve your chances of finding employment. Work with a career coach to create a cohesive plan for finding a job, or simply create one on your own.

Either way, a plan will help you remain focused and in writing, motivated. 3. Boosting your social media presence is a great way to in the work place, increase your chances of finding a job. Our society is becoming increasingly reliant upon dr essay lincoln nebraska the internet, and many companies are turning to health and safety, social media to find prospective employees. Creative Writing Ma Courses! 4. Health In The! No one wants to be blindsided during an interview, so you should brush up on your interview skills. Make a list of commonly asked questions, and practice crafting the celta, appropriate response. You can enlist the help of and safety in the work place a friend or family member for celta, this exercise. 5. For many jobseekers, self-employment may seem like a pipe dream. This can be true in many cases, but if you possess marketable skills or expertise, you may want to consider creating your own job. Accounts Payable Specialist Job Seeking Tips. No matter what part of the country you live in, submitting a stellar resume is wonderful way to attract career opportunities.

Regardless of your industry, you should always attempt to write the best resume possible. The following tips will help you create a resume that will impress even the most discerning hiring manager. 1. Using a unique format and layout is a great way to stand out from the crowd. No one wants to create a ˆ?cookie-cutterˆ resume, and writing your own resume from scratch can help you avoid this. 2. You should always include important contact information on your resume. This includes your name, phone number, geographic location, and e-mail address. Make sure that you only in the place include one phone number ˆ“ this will eliminate any potential confusion. 3. Avoid overused or robotic phrases such as ˆ?responsible forˆ or ˆ?duties included. ˆ This will only make your resume sound uninteresting and bland. Always attempt to dr essay lincoln nebraska, use more emotionally-charged language. 4. Your information should always be organized using bullets.

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Finalize and download your resume in multiple formats. Improve your resume with our pre-written text. Health Work Place! Accounts Payable Specialist Resume Example. Company: Pure Technologies US, Inc i? Columbia, MD. Date Range: January 2014 to dr essay nebraska, January 2016. Always made a point to keep an open and positive understanding of the interrelationship between the US regional office and our headquarters in Calgary, Canada Developing a non-existing Account Payable department for Pure Us headquarters for a quick growing company. Set up an AP invoicing process to ensure accuracy and work place essays, productivity. Maintain and distribute all incoming via email invoices for both US and Calgary. Restructured the AP vendor files to maintain organization and structure for writing ma courses, easy access. Good working relationship with vendors to actively prevent any conflicts or discrepancy before they arise. Partner with Procurement and Receiving department to reconcile purchase orders and month end reports.

Reconciled monthly intercompany invoices and composite a monthly accruals spreadsheet for place essays, the finance department. Backfill for AP team when needed. Employees in the Calgary finance department. Accounts Payable Specialist Resume Example. Company: Food Services of creative writing America Contracted through Ledgent Accounting #038; Finance i? Scottsdale, AZ. Date Range: Mar 2014 to health and safety place, May 2014.

Reconciled a high volume of Trade invoices through OnBase. Processed and essay intro format, reconciled purchase orders; three way match. Managed SSA AP email and responded accordingly. Utilized three software programs: Onbase, Tuaca and Tequila. Accounts Payable Specialist Resume Example.

Date Range: 06/2008 to Current. Handled daily A/P processes; managed vendor/supplier relations; and oversaw the timely, accurate processing of health place essays invoices, purchase orders, expense reports, credit memos and payment transactions. Maintained, adherence to corporate accounting issues, from employees and vendors regarding accounts payable; and ensured accurate and celta resume, compliant A/P files and records in health in the place essays, accordance with company policies. Processed and audited Employee Expense Reports utilizing American Express Reporting System. Resolves collection and invoice discrepancy matters. Review agency invoices for proper approvals.

Document G/L number and if applicable non-billable job number on invoices, expense reports and check requests. Agree agency invoices to Purchase Orders. Dr Essay Lincoln! File and work place, monitor unpaid vendor invoices. Essay! Reconcile monthly corporate credit card statement. Responsible for weekly check run and wire transfers. Setup and Process of 1099 vendors and yearly reporting to Internal Revenue Service. Responsible for Prepaid journal entries, general ledge reconciliation, A/P reconciliation. Work closely with Auditors during bank and yearly audit. Accounts Payable Specialist Resume Example. In The Work Place Essays! Company: Accounting Service Center of the United States Postal Service.

Date Range: December 2003 to celta, March 2011. Reviewed all invoices for appropriate documentation. Processed invoices using 3-way matching. Prioritized invoices according to cash potential and payment terms. Created and maintained vendor files. Researched and resolved problems promptly. Responded to vendor inquiries. And Safety In The Essays! Assisted in month-end closing and other projects as needed.

Accounts Payable Specialist Resume Example. Spring! Company: New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology ˆ“ Socorro, NM. Date Range: 09/2015 to health place, 03/2016. Entered numerical data into databases in a timely and accurate manner. Scanned documentation and entered into the database.

Obtained scanned records and uploaded them into the database. Organized forms, made photocopies, filed records and prepared correspondence and reports. Added new material to file records and created new records. Assisted with receptionist duties, file organization and research and development. Assisted in the #8220;check run#8221;, this being the writing, final phase of making sure the payment for vendors is correct. Accounting and Finance Resume Samples. Health And Safety In The Essays! Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to dr essay, help land the job you want.

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You Can Prevent Colorectal Cancer. Get the facts about screening. Health And Safety In The Essays. Learn More. What to Expect During a Colonscopy. Follow a patient's first-hand experience in this. educational video Watch Video. Promote Colorectal Cancer Awareness. Download, print, and post graphics on social media to celta resume, raise colorectal cancer awareness. Download Now. Removal of a pre-cancerous polyp Watch Video. Know the latest facts about the number 2 cancer killer in the United States.

Assess your risks. Know your screening options. Learn why training and experience of the endoscopist are vital to a thorough colonoscopy. Watch a video. Listen to a Podcast. Get the answers to your most pressing colonoscopy questions. ACG Colorectal Cancer Awareness Graphics. This infographic illustrates in a powerful, easy to understand way, the risks of health and safety in the essays colorectal cancer and the impact of getting screened.

Don't take a gamble on your health. This infographic is based on an important statistic from the American Cancer Society: Of the 50,830 people expected to means, die of colon cancer in 2013, screening (or use of early detection tests) could have saved more than half of them. View infographic. Shared Goal: Reaching 80% Screened for Colorectal Cancer by 2018. ACG supports the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable’s (NCCRT) new initiative “80% by 2018.” With the American Cancer Society and NCCRT, we are working toward the shared goal of health and safety reaching 80% of eligible adults screened for colorectal cancer by 2018.

Find a doctor. Compared with other ethnic groups, African-Americans are diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a younger age and those with colorectal cancer have decreased survival. ACG recommends African Americans begin screening at age 45. Learn more. Audio Podcasts: ACG Experts Answer Your Most Common Questions. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Navigating the Options. Not sure what screening test is right for you? Dr. Mark B. Pochapin offers insights on colorectal cancer prevention and detection tests and essays on frederick and slavery, describes ACG guidelines and recommendations to help patients make sense of in the work place essays their options. Family History, Lynch Syndrome and Other Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors.

Dr. Carol A. Burke and her patient Anita, who has Lynch Syndrome, share their insight on CRC risk factors, like family history, and the life-saving importance of screening-whether or not you have symptoms. Thesis Binder. Listen Now. Colorectal Cancer and African Americans: Don't be Afraid to Live. Dr.

Fritz Francois explains the special concerns for African Americans and why screening should begain at age 45. His patient, Vincent, shares his experience with colonoscopy and offers advice to those who are apprehensive about work place, this potentially life-saving test. Listen Now. Colorectal (large bowel) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in intro the inner lining of the colon or rectum. Together, the colon and rectum make up the large bowel or large intestine. The large intestine is the and safety in the place, last segment of the resume, digestive system (the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine are the first three sections). The large bowel's main job is to reabsorb water from the contents of the health and safety place essays, intestine so that solid waste can be expelled into the toilet. The first several feet of the dr essay nebraska, large intestine is the colon and the last 6 inches is the rectum. Most colon and health and safety in the work place essays, rectal cancers originate from benign wart-like growths on the inner lining of the colon or rectum called polyps.

Not all polyps have the potential to transform into cancer. Those that do have the potential are called adenomas. It takes more than 10 years in most cases for an adenoma to develop into cancer. This is why some colon cancer prevention tests are effective even if done at 10-year intervals. This 10-year interval is too long, in some cases, such as in persons with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's colitis, and in persons with a strong family history of colorectal cancer or adenomas.

Colorectal cancer is the in writing discuss means, third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States when men and and safety work place essays, women are considered separately, and the second leading cause when both sexes are combined. It is expected to cause about 50,310 deaths during 2014. Excluding skin cancers, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and dr essay, women in health and safety place essays the United States. The American Cancer Society's estimates for the number of colorectal cancer cases in dr essay the United States for 2014 are: 96,830 new cases of colon cancer 40,000 new cases of rectal cancer. Source: American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts Figures 2014. What are the Colorectal Cancer screening options? Talk to your doctor about what colorectal screening tests are right for you.

Guidelines from the American College of Gastroenterology distinguish between colorectal cancer prevention tests and colorectal cancer detection tests. Health And Safety In The Place. According to ACG, prevention tests are preferred over detection tests. Preferred Colorectal Cancer Prevention Test: Colonoscopy. Colonoscopy every 10 years is the preferred colorectal cancer prevention test. Essay Intro Format. For normal risk individuals, the American College of Gastroenterology recommends colonoscopy beginning at age 50, and age 45 for African Americans. Preferred Cancer Detection Test: Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) Annual fecal immunochemical testing is the preferred colorectal cancer detection test. FIT is a relatively new test that detects hidden blood in the stool. If results are positive, a colonoscopy is performed.

CT Colonography every 5 years. CT Colonography is an X-ray designed to look for colon polyps and cancers. Health And Safety. CTC every 5 years is an alternative to colonoscopy for patients who decline colonoscopy. Intro Format. If polyps are detected, a regular colonoscopy is required to health and safety in the work, remove these pre-cancerous growths. While CTC is good at detecting polyps larger than 1 centimeter in size, CTC is not equivalent to format, colonoscopy because it is unreliable at detecting smaller polyps, which constitute 80 percent of growths in the colon. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy every 5 to and safety in the place essays, 10 years. Annual Hemoccult ® Sensa ® Fecal DNA Testing every 3 Years. Most early colorectal cancers produce no symptoms.

This is why screening for nebraska colorectal cancer is so important. Symptoms of colorectal cancer vary depending on the location of the cancer within the colon or rectum, though there may be no symptoms at all. The prognosis tends to health in the work, be worse in symptomatic as compared to asymptomatic individuals. The most common presenting symptom of creative ma courses uk colorectal cancer is rectal bleeding. Cancers arising from the left side of the colon generally cause bleeding, or in their late stages may cause constipation, abdominal pain, and obstructive symptoms. On the other hand, right-sided colon lesions may produce vague abdominal aching, but are unlikely to present with obstruction or altered bowel habit. Other symptoms such as weakness, weight loss, or anemia resulting from chronic blood loss may accompany cancer of the right side of the colon. You should promptly see your doctor when you experience any of these symptoms. Remember to essays, promptly see your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms: New onset of abdominal pain Blood in or on the stool A change in stool caliber or shape A change in and slavery typical bowel habits, constipation, diarrhea.

Adenomas can grow for years and transform into health and safety in the work place essays, cancer without producing any symptoms. By the celta, time symptoms develop, it is often too late to cure the cancer, because it may have spread. Screening identifies cancers earlier and actually results in cancer prevention when it leads to health, removal of adenomas (pre-cancerous polyps). The cause of formal format colorectal cancer in most cases is health and safety in the essays unclear. However, most colorectal cancers develop from polyps, which are abnormal growths in writing ma courses the colon. If polyps grow unnoticed and are not removed, they may become cancerous. And Safety Place. Screening tests can find precancerous polyps so they can be removed before they turn into cancer.

The development of more than 75-90 percent of thesis spring binder colorectal cancer can be avoided through early detection and removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Everyone age 50 and older . The average age to develop colorectal cancer is 70 years, and 93% of cases occur in persons 50 years of age or older. Current recommendations are to and safety in the work essays, begin screening at age 50 if there are no risk factors other than age for colorectal cancers. A person whose only risk factor is formal essay intro format their age is said to be at in the work essays average risk. Men and women Men tend to dr essay lincoln, get colorectal cancer at an earlier age than women, but women live longer so they 'catch up' with men and thus the total number of health and safety work place essays cases in men and binder, women is equal. Anyone with a family history of colorectal cancer . If a person has a history of health and safety work place two or more first-degree relatives (parent, sibling, or child) with colorectal cancer, or any first-degree relatives diagnosed under age 60, the overall colorectal cancer risk is three to six times higher than that of the general population. For those with one first-degree relative diagnosed with colorectal cancer at age 60 or older, there is an writing uk, approximate two times greater risk of colon cancer than that observed in in the work the general population. Special screening programs are used for those with a family history of creative uk colorectal cancer. A well-documented family history of adenomas is also an important risk factor.

Anyone with a personal history of colorectal cancer or adenomas at any age, or cancer of endometrium (uterus) or ovary diagnosed before age 50. Health Place Essays. Persons who have had colorectal cancer or adenomas removed are at increased risk of list celta developing additional adenomas or cancers. Women diagnosed with uterine or ovarian cancer before age 50 are at increased risk of colorectal cancer. These groups should be checked by colonoscopy at regular intervals, usually every 3 to 5 years. Woman with a personal history of breast cancer have only place a very slight increase in risk of colorectal cancer. African Americans are diagnosed with colorectal cancer at thesis spring a younger age than other ethnic groups, and African Americans with colorectal cancer have decreased survival compared with other ethnic groups. Guidelines from the American College of Gastroenterology recommend that African Americans begin colorectal cancer screening at age 45 rather than 50 years.

Data support the recommendation that African Americans should begin screening at a younger age because of the higher incidence of colorectal cancer and a greater prevalence of proximal or right-sided polyps and cancer in this population. The strategy for and safety in the work place reducing colorectal cancer deaths is simple—CRC screening. For normal risk individuals, screening tests begin at age 50 and the preferred approach is a screening colonoscopy every 10 years; an alternate strategy consists of annual stool test for blood and a flexible sigmoidoscopic exam every 3 to 5 years. Spring Binder. African Americans should begin colorectal cancer screening at and safety in the place essays age 45 rather than 50 years. Colonoscopic surveillance (also called screening colonoscopy) needs to essay format, be available at more frequent intervals for individuals at high risk for colon cancer (for instance, those with a personal history of colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyps; family history of colorectal cancer; non-hereditary polyposis; colorectal cancer; or a pre-disposing condition such as inflammatory bowel disease. (Medicare provides for and safety in the work surveillance colonoscopy no more frequently than once every two years for those at high risk.) For both average and high risk individuals, all potential pre-cancerous polyps must be removed. Recent observations suggest regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin, reduce the chances of colorectal cancer death by 30-50%. These drugs also have risks, particularly intestinal bleeding, and dr essay lincoln nebraska, patients should consult their physician as to health and safety in the work place essays, whether regular use of these agents is appropriate.

Folate, calcium, and post-menopausal estrogens each have a modest protective benefit against colon cancer. Essays On Frederick. A high fiber (vegetables) and low fat diet, regular exercise, maintenance of normal body weight and cessation of smoking are also beneficial. None of the health work place, measures is uk as effective as or should replace colorectal cancer screening. Colorectal Cancer Screening Options. Talk to your doctor about what colorectal screening tests are right for you. Guidelines from the American College of health and safety in the work place essays Gastroenterology distinguish between colorectal cancer prevention tests and colorectal cancer detection tests. According to ACG, prevention tests are preferred over detection tests. Preferred Colorectal Cancer Prevention Test: Colonoscopy. Colonoscopy every 10 years is the preferred colorectal cancer prevention test. For normal risk individuals, the American College of Gastroenterology recommends colonoscopy beginning at age 50, and age 45 for African Americans.

Preferred Cancer Detection Test: Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) Annual fecal immunochemical testing is the preferred colorectal cancer detection test. FIT is a relatively new test that detects hidden blood in the stool. If results are positive, a colonoscopy is performed. CT Colonography every 5 years. CT Colonography is an X-ray designed to look for colon polyps and cancers. CTC every 5 years is an alternative to colonoscopy for patients who decline colonoscopy. If polyps are detected, a regular colonoscopy is required to remove these pre-cancerous growths.

While CTC is good at detecting polyps larger than 1 centimeter in size, CTC is creative ma courses uk not equivalent to colonoscopy because it is unreliable at health and safety in the work place detecting smaller polyps, which constitute 80 percent of list growths in the colon. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy every 5 to and safety in the place essays, 10 years. Annual Hemoccult ® Sensa ® Fecal DNA Testing every 3 Years. Please see National Cancer Institute resource pages: Colonoscopy is a procedure which enables a physician (usually a gastroenterologist) to directly image and writing, examine the entire colon. It is effective in the diagnosis and/or evaluation of various GI disorders (e.g. colon polyps, colon cancer, diverticulosis, inflammatory bowel disease, bleeding, change in bowel habits, abdominal pain, obstruction and health and safety place essays, abnormal x-rays or CT scans) as well as in providing therapy (for example, removal of polyps or control of bleeding).

It is also used for screening for colon cancer. Essays On Frederick And Slavery. A key advantage of this technique is that it allows both imaging of abnormal findings and also therapy or removal of these lesions during the same examination. This procedure is particularly helpful for identification and removal of precancerous polyps. A colonoscope is a flexible and steerable instrument to evaluate the entire colon (large intestine). In The Place Essays. The large intestine is approximately 3 – 4 feet long. A colonoscope is engineered such that biopsies of intro format suspicious areas can be obtained, and polyps (which may turn into cancer) can be removed.

Your lifetime risk (defined as life to health and safety in the work place essays, 85 years old) is approximately 6% (male or female). Your risk is roughly doubled if one (1) first degree relative (parent, sibling or child) had colon cancer or polyps after age 50, and is higher if the discuss, cancer or polyps were diagnosed at a younger age or if more members of and safety work your family are affected. Certain inherited disorders, for example, polyposis syndromes and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, can increase your risk of developing colon cancer, but those are rare. Other important risk factors include obesity, cigarette smoking, inflammatory conditions in the colon such as Crohn’s, colitis and ulcerative colitis, and resume, excessive alcohol consumption. Your doctor is in the best position to discuss whether your personal or family history suggests one of those conditions. Yes.

Colonoscopy accomplishes this by detecting and removing polyps, and detecting early cancers. Recent data show that both the number of new cases of colon cancer (incidence) and deaths from the disease are decreased when colonoscopy is performed according to established guidelines (see Question 11). The most common reason patients cite for health work not getting a colonoscopy is that their doctor did not discuss it with them. The next most common reason is fear or avoidance of the preparation (“prep”), which involves taking a laxative which causes temporary diarrhea for list resume several hours. Health And Safety In The Place Essays. In addition, many people are simply unaware that they need colon cancer screening. This is an important obstacle in the eyes of many patients to resume, getting a colonoscopy, but it need not be! There are a variety of preparation methods for colonoscopy ranging from liquids (of varying quantity) with or without enemas, to pills, which rid your colon of health in the place essays feces. Thesis Binder. A clean colon is essential to allow for a careful examination for polyps or other abnormalities. Your doctor can discuss and prescribe the health and safety place essays, most appropriate preparation method for you, taking into account various factors such as your age, personal preferences, kidney function and physical stamina. The most popular preparation used for colonoscopy involves drinking a volume of creative ma courses uk solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG). This solution causes a diarrhea that effectively rids the colon of its contents.

Various fruit flavors are available and patients have several hours to drink it. In The Work Place. Usually a patient will have clear liquids the day of the preparation (day before the colonoscopy) and list, then take half of the prep in the late afternoon or that evening. Health And Safety. The other half is done approximately 5 hours before coming in for the test the creative writing, following day. Patients are encouraged to drink a lot of and safety work place essays fluids and to continue clear liquids up until 2 hours before their scheduled procedure. Before going to bed, many doctors also prescribe a laxative pill (e.g. Dulcolax®) that helps with the evacuation process. Smaller volumes of solution (e.g.

MoviPrep®, HalfLytely®) or pill preparations (e.g. OsmoPrep®) have also recently become available with similarly good outcomes to PEG for people who dread the thought of large volumes of liquid. Another preparation involves a phosphate solution (called Fleet® Phospho-soda) which consists of two (2) rounds of ma courses uk phosphate rich liquid of 45ml each the night before and day of the exam. It is essential to drink at health in the work place essays least 2 quarts of water with these preps to replace losses. Alternatively, a phosphate tablet preparation of about 30 pills is dr essay lincoln available and is also very effective for health in the essays colon cleansing and is preferred by some patients. This preparation also requires that you drink at least 2 quarts of water to replace losses. Phospho-soda® prep should be avoided in patients with significant heart or kidney problems, in elderly patients who have difficulty maintaining hydration and with caution in patients with significant liver problems. The best method of colonic preparation should be discussed with the gastroenterologist so that a method that suits the patient’s preference may be selected. No, colonoscopy is essays usually not painful!

Almost all colonoscopies can be performed using “intravenous sedation” or “twilight sedation” in which you are very drowsy, but comfortable and health in the place essays, still breathing on your own. The most common type of sedation also has a mild amnesiac effect, so most patients do not even remember the procedure! Your doctor can discuss with you the in writing, best form of sedation to suit your needs. Medicare (and most third party payers) will pay for colonoscopy for health in the work place essays colon cancer screening, thanks to the hard work of advocacy groups and the efforts of national organizations such as the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG). Regrettably, a recent study showed a low compliance rate for screening (less than 30%) among Medicare patients.

Yes, but potential complications are associated with virtually every form of testing done in medicine. Clearly, colonoscopy has been found to be extremely safe when performed by a well trained physician such as a gastroenterologist. Although quite rare, most complications are related to sedation administration (cardiac and respiratory problems); the creative ma courses uk, colon may also become partially torn (perforated) and this may require surgery. Rarely, bleeding from polyp removal or from the procedure itself may require additional treatment such as hospitalization and/or blood transfusions. As one reads about these procedures, the health and safety, reader should weigh these low risks against the far more frequent complication of developing colon cancer if appropriate testing is NOT done. If you have no colorectal symptoms, family history of colon cancer, polyps or inflammatory bowel disease you should have your first exam at list celta resume age 50 whether you are a man or a woman since colon cancer affects both EQUALLY! Recent evidence suggests that African Americans should begin screening earlier at the age of 45. If one or more first degree relative (parent, sibling or child) has had a precancerous polyp or colon cancer, the general guideline is to begin colon cancer screening 10 years younger than the youngest age of the family member with colon cancer, or age 40, whichever is younger.

There are additional guidelines for suspected or confirmed rare syndromes, and you should discuss these options with your doctor. For patients with ulcerative colitis involving the entire colon and patients with Crohn’s disease, screening for colon cancer should begin 8 – 10 years after the health and safety work place essays, initial diagnosis is made. Questions and discuss means, Answers about Quality in Colonoscopy. Although colonoscopy has been available in clinical practice for more than 40 years, only in the past 15 years has awareness developed that the success of colonoscopy in preventing colorectal cancer and minimizing complications is very dependent on the skill and work essays, competence of the spring, colonoscopist. Colonoscopists differ substantially in the number of precancerous polyps they detect during colonoscopy and in how often they perform colonoscopy in response to both normal and abnormal findings. Awareness of health in the essays these differences led the U.S. Multisociety Task Force on Colorectal Cancer in 2002, as well as a joint task force of experts from the American College of Gastroenterology and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in 2006, to propose quality indicators that colonoscopists can use to measure how effectively and celta, safely they perform colonoscopy. Obviously, patients have an interest in undergoing the most effective and safe colonoscopy possible, and in the work, achieving these goals requires a colonoscopist who is committed to dr essay lincoln nebraska, high quality. Studies have shown average performance of colonoscopy by gastroenterologists to be superior to health and safety work place, that of primary care physicians in three different areas of colonoscopy performance. First, three population-based studies have found that gastroenterologists performing colonoscopy are less likely to miss colorectal cancer than are primary care physicians who perform colonoscopy. This may reflect the more extensive training that gastroenterologists receive in this procedure and writing, their higher volumes of colonoscopy in practice.

Second, gastroenterologists’ patients are less likely to incur serious complications during colonoscopy, such as perforation or making a hole in the colon, compared to primary care physicians. Third, gastroenterologists are less likely than both primary care physicians and general surgeons to perform colonoscopy at intervals that are considered too short according to current guidelines. Whether this difference reflects a lack of confidence among primary care physicians and place essays, general surgeons in the quality of their colonoscopy or lack of awareness of current guidelines is unknown. Even though gastroenterologists have on average the list resume, highest level of training and and safety work place, their examinations have been shown on average to be superior to primary care physicians, there is considerable variation among gastroenterologists in their detection rates of precancerous polyps. Therefore, it is essential that every colonoscopist, regardless of in writing essay specialty, makes measurements to establish that their examinations are effective. And Safety In The Place Essays. It is formal intro format very reasonable and appropriate for patients to ask questions of their colonoscopist about whether quality measurements are being made and their results. The measurement that best reflects how carefully colonoscopy is performed is and safety in the work place a doctor’s adenoma detection rate. This rate is defined as the percentage of patients age 50 and older undergoing screening colonoscopy, who have one or more precancerous polyps detected. This rate should be at least 25% in men and 15% in women. A secondary measure of careful examination is that doctors should have an average withdrawal time of at least six minutes.

The withdrawal time is the time it takes to remove the dr essay, scope from the colon. Health And Safety Work. This interval is important because this is the phase of list colonoscopy when most doctors actually examine the colon systematically for polyps. It is perfectly reasonable to expect doctors to have measured their adenoma detection rate and to health in the work place, record their withdrawal time. It is also reasonable to ask for creative writing uk a copy of the colonoscopy report that documents that the colonoscope was advanced to the very beginning of the colon and that the landmarks of that portion of the colon (called the cecum) have been documented by notation in the report and by photography. Colonoscopy is a video examination of the health in the work place essays, colon.

The video camera and the colonoscope, like any other video camera, cannot see through solids. Therefore, the colon must be thoroughly cleansed to creative writing ma courses uk, provide the and safety essays, doctor the thesis spring, best opportunity possible for and safety place essays a thorough and detailed examination.Be sure to pick up and read your written bowel preparation instructions at thesis binder least several days before your colonoscopy. Go over the instructions and make sure you have all of the materials needed to complete the preparation.The most effective bowel preparations involve split dosing of the health and safety in the place essays, laxatives, in which half of the thesis spring, preparation is taken on the morning of the examination, usually 4 to 5 hours before the time of the scheduled colonoscopy, and completed at least 2 to 3 hours before that time. If you are scheduled at 7 or 8 in the morning, this will mean getting up very early to take the in the work place essays, second half of the preparation. If the instructions call for split dosing, do not alter the timing of the doses.

It is worth the inconvenience of getting up in the middle of the night to make sure that you have a very effective preparation. The timing of the second dose in relationship to the colonoscopy is critical. If too long an interval is allowed between the end of the second half of the creative uk, preparation and the timing of the colonoscopy, mucus and secretions will come out of the small intestine and stick to the cecum and right colon. To ensure an effective and safe colonoscopic examination, find a well-trained colonoscopist who is committed to making quality measurements. It is fair to ask the colonoscopist to be sure to do a slow and careful examination and to provide a copy of the report that documents and photographs the health and safety in the work essays, complete extent of examination. Spring Binder. Take the bowel preparation instructions seriously. Pick up the written instructions early, read them early, and health, follow them carefully. When colonoscopy is done carefully and with an nebraska, effective preparation, it is a very powerful cancer prevention technique. Your Doctor has Ordered a Colonoscopy: What Questions Should You Ask? A Gastroenterologist is a specialist in gastrointestinal diseases and has received special training in colonoscopy.

Gastroenterologists perform more colonoscopies by far than any other specialty. Non-gastroenterologists are five times more likely to miss colorectal cancer during colonoscopy than Gastroenterologists. 1. 1 Rex DK, Rahmani E, Haseman JH, et al. Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema. Proper training in colonoscopy is necessary not only to health in the work place essays, increase the chance that the procedure can be completed and any necessary treatments applied, but also to be sure that abnormal results can be properly interpreted. Celta Resume. The American Society for work place Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends that persons performing colonoscopy complete a fellowship program in gastroenterology or receive training in colonoscopy during a surgical residency. How many perforations has the doctor had?

Many Gastroenterologists have performed many thousands of binder colonoscopies. A colonoscopist should know the rate at health in the work place which their procedures have been associated with a perforation or making a hole in the colon. This rate should certainly be below 1 in 500 examinations and many experts have rates of perforation well below 1 in essay intro format 1000. Experienced colonoscopists reach the very beginning of the large intestine (the cecum) in and safety in the place essays more than 90% of cases and in more than 95% of patients who are undergoing screening. Screening is the intro, process of checking people who have no symptoms for colon polyps and cancer. Persons performing colonoscopy must be trained in and safety place the removal of thesis binder polyps. Although even Gastroenterologists may refer a patient with a large polyp to a special expert in work place the removal of polyps, a trained colonoscopist can remove the essays and slavery, overwhelming majority of routine polyps. A Gastroenterologist is a physician with dedicated training management of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Gastroenterology is the study of the normal function and diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and rectum, pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts and liver. It involves a detailed understanding of the in the, normal action (physiology) of the gastrointestinal organs including the movement of material through the stomach and intestine (motility), the digestion and absorption of nutrients into the body, removal of list celta waste from the system, and the function of the liver as a digestive organ.

It includes common and important conditions such as colon polyps and health and safety work place, cancer, hepatitis, gastroesophageal reflux (heartburn), peptic ulcer disease, colitis, gallbladder and biliary tract disease, nutritional problems, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), and celta resume, pancreatitis. Health And Safety In The Place Essays. In essence, all normal activity and disease of the digestive organs is part of the study of Gastroenterology. A Gastroenterologist must first complete a three-year Internal Medicine residency and is then eligible for additional specialized training (fellowship) in Gastroenterology. List Celta Resume. This fellowship is generally 2-3 years long so by the time Gastroenterologists have completed their training, they have had 5-6 years of place additional specialized education following medical school. Gastroenterology fellowship training is an resume, intense, rigorous program where future Gastroenterologists learn directly from nationally recognized experts in health and safety in the essays the field and develop a detailed understanding of gastrointestinal diseases. They learn how to and slavery, evaluate patients with gastrointestinal complaints, treat a broad range of conditions, and in the work place, provide recommendations to maintain health and prevent disease. They learn to care for celta patients in the office as well as in the hospital. Gastroenterologists also receive dedicated training in endoscopy (upper endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy) by expert instructors. Endoscopy is the place, use of narrow, flexible lighted tubes with built-in video cameras, to celta, visualize the in the place essays, inside of the intestinal tract. This specialized training includes detailed and intensive study of essays on frederick how and health in the place, when to perform endoscopy, optimal methods to complete these tests safely and effectively, and the use of sedating medications to ensure the comfort and safety of patients. Celta. Gastroenterology trainees also learn how to perform advanced endoscopic procedures such as polypectomy (removalof colon polyps), esophageal and and safety, intestinal dilation (stretching of narrowed areas), and hemostasis (injection or cautery to stop bleeding).

Importantly, Gastroenterologists learn how to properly interpret the nebraska, findings and biopsy results of these studies in order to and safety, make appropriate recommendations to treat conditions and/or prevent cancer. Some Gastroenterologists also receive directed training in format advanced procedures using endoscopes such as endoscopic biliary examination (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or ERCP), removal of tumors without surgery (endoscopic mucosal resection or EMR), placement of internal drainage tubes (stents) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). This provides them with the training necessary to health and safety place essays, non-surgically remove stones in the bile ducts, evaluate and treat tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and liver, and provide minimally invasive alternatives to surgery for creative writing ma courses uk some patients. The most critical emphasis during the training period is attention to detail and incorporation of their comprehensive knowledge of the entire gastrointestinal tract to provide the highest quality endoscopy and consultative services. The final product is a highly trained specialist with a unique combination of broad scientific knowledge, general Internal Medicine training, superior endoscopic skills and experience, and the ability to integrate these elements to provide optimal health care for patients. This advanced fellowship training is and safety essays overseen by national societies committed to ensuring high quality and uniform education.

These groups include the in writing means, American Board of Internal Medicine, the American College of Gastroenterology, the American Gastroenterological Association, and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. These groups carefully scrutinize the educational experience of each program to ensure that every Gastroenterology trainee receives the highest quality training. Health And Safety In The. Once fellows successfully complete their training they are considered “Board Eligible.” They are then qualified to take the Gastroenterology board certification test administered by the American Board of creative uk Internal Medicine. Once they have successfully completed this examination they are “Board Certified.” Some Gastroenterologists receive special recognition from national societies when they demonstrate extraordinary achievement in research, teaching, or other unique service to the field of Gastroenterology. The American College of health and safety Gastroenterology and the American College of Physicians designate such physicians as “Fellows” and the suffixes FACG and FACP are added to denote these honors. This means that these physicians have fulfilled the ma courses uk, respective organizations’ rigorous requirements to gain this added distinction. The unique training that Gastroenterologists complete provides them with the ability to provide high quality, comprehensive care for patients with a wide variety of gastrointestinal ailments. Health And Safety Essays. Gastroenterologists perform the bulk of dr essay lincoln nebraska research involving gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures as well as the interpretation of health in the place essays results, and are considered experts in essay the field. Studies have shown that Gastroenterologists perform higher quality colonoscopy examinations and comprehensive consultative services when compared to and safety in the place essays, other physicians.

This translates into more accurate detection of polyps and cancer by colonoscopy when performed by Gastroenterologists, fewer complications from essay procedures and health in the work, fewer days in the hospital for many gastrointestinal conditions managed by trained gastroenterology specialists. It is this ability to provide more complete, accurate, and thorough care for patients with gastrointestinal conditions, which distinguishes Gastroenterologists from other physicians that provide some similar services. Colorectal Cancer Awareness Audio QA Podcast Series. ACG continues its Colorectal Cancer Awareness QA Podcast Series this year featuring a more informal discussion format with physician experts answering some of the most common questions about essays on frederick douglass, colorectal cancer. New this year—two of the podcasts also feature patients and and safety work, provide a more in-depth look at the risk factors related to thesis spring binder, colorectal cancer, including family history, Lynch Syndrome, and the special concerns of and safety in the essays African Americans. A third podcast helps make sense of conflicting media reports about the various screening options with the celta, latest expert insight so you can gain a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of each test—and decide with your doctor which test is right for you or loved one. Previous podcasts include common questions about colorectal cancer screening, what to expect during colonoscopy and how to get the and safety, highest quality exam. Learn why colonoscopy is ACG’s preferred screening strategy, how to decipher fact from fiction when it comes to spring, bowel preps, and health essays, more, from creative ma courses uk ACG physicians in health place these insightful audio QAs. Colonoscopy Bowel Prep—Myths Realities - Jack A. Essay Means. Di Palma, MD, FACG.

Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Screening - Carol A. Burke, MD, FACG. Colorectal Cancer Screening Options - Douglas K. Rex, MD, FACG. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Navigating the Options - Mark B. Pochapin, MD, FACG. Colorectal Cancer and African Americans - Fritz Francois, MD, MSc, FACG. Early Accurate Detection of Colon Polyps: Impact on and safety work place essays Survival - Roy K.H. Wong, MD, FACG. Family History, Lynch Syndrome and essays on frederick and slavery, Other Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors - Carol A. Burke, MD, FACG. How to Ensure You Get a Quality Colorectal Exam - David A. Johnson, MD, FACG.

Importance of Colorectal Cancer Screening - Philip O. Health In The Work. Katz, MD, FACG. Risk Factors Recommendations for African Americans - A. Steven McIntosh, MD, FACG. What to Expect from Colonoscopy - Immanuel K.H. Ho, MD, FACG. Find an ACG member gastroenterologist with a specialized interest in liver disease.

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IGCSE and GCSE Geography Coursework (Paper 4) Paper 4 is the alternative to coursework paper that is worth 27.5% of your final IGCSE grade. The coursework paper tests your understanding of how coursework is carried out. And Safety In The Place. The paper is 1 hour and 30 minutes long and divided into two 30 mark questions. Essay Format. You answer all the questions on health in the work place the examination paper, most questions are short in length, between 1 and 4 marks. The paper requires a combination of knowledge and uk, skills. The questions usually focus on coursework to do with; coasts, rivers, settlements or weather. As a IGCSE geographer it is possible to carry out in the essays coursework on many aspects of the essay discuss means course. Possible topics and areas of study may include: Changes in in the river velocity from source to mouth Changes in load (shape and size) from source to mouth Changes in channel depth, width, cross-section and wetted perimeter from source to mouth Changes in discharge from thesis spring source to place mouth Changes across a meanders cross section Changes in river gradient from source to mouth Changes in valley size and gradient from essay source to mouth Changes in land use a long a river Changes in pollution along a rivers' course (you need proper equipment for health and safety in the work place, this) Changes in formal essay intro vegetation (cover and variety) moving inland Changes in in the work place beach profile and sand dune profile Speed of longshore drift Changes in land use Changes in defences (compare to land use) Changes in binder beach or dune material (size or shape)

Changes in land use Changes in health in the work place essays traffic (maybe CBD to thesis spring rural-urban fringe) Changes in pedestrians Number and type of tourists Changes in the quality of the environment or pollution levels (may look at the impact of industry) Changes in globalisation Changes in cost of products Comparison to Burgess or Hoyt Model Changes in wealth or population density (will have to use some secondary data) Sphere of health in the work influences of creative writing ma courses settlements or services. Changes in temperature throughout the health and safety place day or between seasons Changes in rainfall Changes in uk humidity Changes in hours of sunshine or cloud cover Changes in wind speed and wind direction. Before you choose your coursework you have to decide if you live in a suitable study location. For example it is no use trying to and safety in the essays do a piece of coursework on rivers, if you live in the middle of a desert. Before starting your coursework, you should also think about how you can carry out the coursework safely and definitely carry out a risk assessment. You can make your coursework safer by doing the following: Protection from the weather (waterproof jacket, umbrella, hat, suncream) Sensible dress (remember you will be representing your school, but you should also wear clothes that don't draw attention to yourself Always carry out coursework in groups Always tell an adult or teacher where you area carrying out formal essay coursework Always carry a mobile phone with you Never do coursework near a river or the health place essays sea without an adult or teacher and without them checking that it is and slavery, safe Carry out coursework in day light and wear reflective clothes Check that your study area is safe. For example it wouldn't be safe walking around downtown San Salvador Don't display valuables making you more vulnerable to crime e.g. In The Essays. if you have a camera or a phone keep it out of dr essay lincoln nebraska sight. Specification: Formulating aims and hypotheses: Candidates should be familiar with hypotheses as statements that form the basis of Coursework assignments. The hypotheses may investigate a geographical concept e.g. ‘A CBD has the highest concentration of comparison shops’.

Collecting relevant data, analysis and drawing conclusions using the data as evidence can test these. The width of a river will increase as you move from the source to the mouth The amount of traffic will increase as you move from the health rural-urban fringe to the CBD The amount of vegetation will increase as you move inland from the sea (distance = 200metres) The hottest part of the day will be between 1200 and 1400. Whenever you are doing data collection, the aim is to be as objective as possible. Objective means that no bias or personal opinion affects the outcome of your results. The opposite to be objective is being subjective. Being subjective simple means that your own personal views and in writing discuss means, bias has influenced results. It is work essays, up to date (current) You know how the formal data has been collected i.e. what technique It only includes data that is relevant to your coursework It only covers your study area It is collected in the format that you want. You can study temporal changes e.g. how population has changed over a number of years It can be quicker, especially if the data is on the internet You can study a larger area It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. salaries. The data may include some personal bias Data collection can be time consuming It can be expensive to travel to places to collect data It is hard to study temporal changes Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to collect Only possible to cover a small area. It is work essays, out of date, especially if it has been printed in a book. There might more information than you need The information may include a larger area than your study area You may not know how the data was collected and who collected the data The data might be in the wrong format e.g. in a graph and not raw figures.

Quantitative data: This is any data that involves figures. Quantitative data is very easy to present and list, analyse. Health Work Essays. Even though it is essays douglass and slavery, easy to present it can be very general and exclude some data. Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an health work area or sample group. Thesis Binder. Even though you pick the technique, once it is picked, there is no bias in who gets selected. It is very simple to understand and carry out. Because you are selecting the systematic technique, there is some bias (subjectivity). In The Essays. You decide how often to take a sample. Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an essay intro unrepresentative sample e.g. you ask every 10th person to fill in a questionnaire, but every 10th person turns out to be female.

Every person or every location/place has a completely equal chance of being selected It is quick and simple. Because it is totally random, results maybe completely random and not representative e.g. Work. when randomly selecting names out of hat to ask questionnaires too, you only pick females. Stratified sampling: Because both systematic and random sampling can give you a unrepresentative sample, if you have some secondary data that allows you to rank your sample group you can then carry out stratified sampling. For example if you are carrying out douglass environmental indexes in a city that has 12 districts, if you randomly or systematically select four, you may pick th efour best or the four worst. However, if you know the average income of those 12 areas (census data) you can them rank them 1 to in the place 12 and spring, then randomly or systematically pick a district from each quartile giving you a more representative sample.

Decide on your questions (what do you need to find out and health and safety place, what type of question are you going to ask) Whether to do the questions orally or give them in essay means written form (you may have to health work place think about translations) How you are going to douglass pilot (test) your questions How you are going to record the answers (record them, write them down, trying to remember is unreliable) How you are going to work sample (random, systematic, stratified) Remember that you are representing yourself and the school - be polite Remember people don't have to answer questions and they may be sensitive about some e.g. List. age groups and income groups. When actually designing your questions you have two real choice; open or closed: You are getting the respondents personal opinion. Work. They are not limited in their response. Some responses might not be relevant to your research Respondents may not understand the question and give you an irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables. All answers will be relevant to your research The results are easy to analyse using graphs and tables.

The results lack personal opinion. They can be very generalised You are nearly always forced to have an in writing discuss other box meaning you don't know what the health and safety work place respondent thinks Your personal opinion has been placed on the questions (subjective). Specification: Observation – Examples of using observations as an enquiry skill to collect data include the recording of land-use in an urban area or observations of spring river or coastal features. Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and annotated photographs may all be used to record candidate observations. It is health and safety essays, important to always have an other category, because you always find a land use that you have not thought about. They are more accurate than field sketches They can be good for showing data collection techniques e.g. measuring a river's load They can support data collection findings e.g. they can show an spring binder example of a poor environment They can show temporal changes, especially if you can find historical photos. You can annotate and health and safety in the work place essays, label them. People often include photos that are not relevant e.g. a photo of list celta resume their friends People forget to label, annotate or refer to photos, which then makes them irrelevant. And Safety Work Place. People often only photograph the nice things e.g. pretty view and forget the more ugly areas that are just as important e.g. area of pollution They can often contains too much information e.g. people and vehicles Because they are two dimensional, depth can be deceptive. Specification: Counts – Pedestrian and traffic counts are two significant examples of this enquiry skill. Appropriate methods for essay, recording the counts should be discussed including the layout of recording sheets, instructions and the necessary information required to in the work place essays identify the sheet following the count (i.e. time, date, location and name of on frederick douglass recorder).

Geography fieldwork equipment can be used to measure virtually anything, but is most commonly used to take measurements along a river or at a beach. Below are photos and descriptions of some of the most common types of geography equipment. Transect: A transect is basically a line a long which you take measurements. You may have a transect that runs from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD or a transect that runs from the sea in land through sand dunes. In a real piece of coursework, you would explain how all your data was collected. And Safety Work Essays. In your description you would probably contain the following information: Date, time and location of data collection Group size Description and copy of data collection forms used e.g. Spring Binder. questionnaires or counts Explanation of how the in the place essays forms were used e.g. Douglass. sample size, count period, count technique, etc. Description of equipment and an explanation of its use.

Instead of health work place writing a methodology in discuss your exam, you may be asked to write a set of instructions, explaining how data collection should be carried out. For example you might be asked to health in the work give a set of instructions for lincoln nebraska, doing a traffic count. You might say: Find a safe location near the health and safety work road your are counting traffic Count the traffic in both directions for a 10 minute period A tally should be used for counting because this is easy and quick At the end of 10 minutes count up the totals for each type of vehicle. You may also be asked about how your data collection could be improved.

Improvements may be made in some of the following ways: Do counts more regularly e.g. every one or two hours Do counts, surveys or indexes in more locations Do counts, surveys and indexes on different days of the list celta resume week (including weekends) Get two groups doing the and safety place essays same survey, index or count so that an creative writing average may be taken. Specification: Data presentation techniques: A knowledge of the illustrative techniques to present data across the health and safety in the work topics for Paper 4 is required. This should include, various types of graphs, maps and diagrams for formal essay, example line graphs, bar graphs, divided bar graphs, histograms, flow diagrams, wind rose graphs, isoline maps, scatter graphs, pie graphs, triangular graphs and radial graphs. If you are asked to health and safety in the work place complete a graph or table, all the resume data will be there for health work essays, you so read the data carefully and complete the graph/table/diagram carefully. Shows spatial distribution e.g. Writing Ma Courses Uk. dot map Shows variations between regions and countries e.g. choropleth map Visually interesting (interesting colours, symbols) Very bold and health and safety work place, clear Easy to understand Clearly shows trends and anomallies. Can disguise intra-region or intra-country variations e.g. choropleth map Hard to see trends and anomalies Very complicated to read Symbols take up to much room. Specification: Analysis: Candidates should be able to describe the patterns in creative data presented in graphs and tables of results. Reference to health and safety in the work essays relevant geographical knowledge and understanding is often required in the interpretation of the data. Essays Douglass And Slavery. Practice of this skill will improve success in Paper 4 questions.

Look for trends and correlations (if there is not a overall trend, look for smaller trends) Look for anomalies (things that don't fit the general trend) When ever you refer to trend and anomalies you must support with evidence e.g. Health And Safety Work. facts and figures from graph or table. Creative Writing. Try and and safety in the work place, explain trends (refer back to theory or other information that you have discovered in your investigation) Try and explain anomalies. Specification: Formation of conclusions: Using the essays douglass and slavery evidence from the data, candidates should be able to make judgements on the validity of the health and safety in the work place original hypothesis or aims of the assignment. Reference is also required of the reliability of the collected data and ma courses, a critical evaluation of the chosen data collection methods. Refer back to and safety work essays original hypothesis Use some data to support your findings Refer to theory (if mentioned in introduction) - do your findings agree or disagree with theory State what you have learnt from your investigation. Evaluation : In an evaluation you state what went well in your research, but also how it can be improved or extended in the future. If you are asked to write an evaluation, think about the following: What went well (keep this brief) Any problems with data collection e.g. bad weather, missing data, sampling technique, questions, data collection form Data that could be useful in the future e.g. secondary data from government, more questionnaires (bigger sample) Additional hypothesis that you could have used Problems with time or money that could be changed in the future.

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