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Types research papers writing

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The DBQ, or document-based-question, is a somewhat unusually-formatted timed essay on the AP History Exams: AP US History, AP European History, and AP World History. Because of its unfamiliarity, many students are at research papers a loss as to papers how to even prepare, let alone how to write a successful essay on test day. Never fear! I, the DBQ wizard and master, have a wealth of preparation strategies for you, as well as advice on how to cram everything you need to cover into your limited DBQ writing time on exam day. When you're done reading this guide, you'll know exactly how to types write a DBQ. For a general overview of the essay questions fall 2013 DBQ—what it is, its purpose, its format, etc.—see my article “What is a DBQ?” Establish a Baseline.

Take Another Practice DBQ. Types Writing? How Can I Succeed on Test Day? Reading the Question and Documents. Planning Your Essay. Writing Your Essay. Your AP exam study timeline depends on a few things. First, how much time you have to study per week, and how many hours you want to common essay 2013 study in total? If you don’t have much time per week, start a little earlier; if you will be able to types research devote a substantial amount of time per how to be happy without, week (10-15 hours) to types research papers prep, you can wait until later in the year. One thing to keep in mind, though, is that the earlier you start studying for your AP test, the less material you will have covered in class. Make sure you continually review older material as the school year goes on to keep things fresh in pt grad essays your mind, but in terms of DBQ prep it probably doesn’t make sense to start before February or January at the absolute earliest.

Another factor is how much you need to work on. I recommend you complete a baseline DBQ around early February to see where you need to focus your efforts. Types? If, for example, you got a six out of seven and missed one point for doing further document analysis, you won’t need to spend too much time studying how to write a DBQ. Maybe just do a document analysis exercise every few weeks and check in a couple months later with another timed practice DBQ to make sure you’ve got it. However, if you got a two or three out of seven, you’ll know you have more work to do, and you’ll probably want to devote at least an hour or two every week to honing your skills. The general flow of on scholarship, your preparation should be: take a practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, and so on. How often you take the practice DBQs and how many times you repeat the cycle really depends on how much preparation you need, and how often you want to papers check your progress. Take practice DBQs often enough that the format stays familiar, but not so much that you’ve done barely any skills practice in papers between.

He's ready to start studying! The general preparation process is to diagnose, practice, test, and repeat. First, you’ll figure out what you need to papers writing work on by establishing a baseline level for your DBQ skills. Rules For Writing An Opinion Essay? Then, you’ll practice building skills. Types Papers Writing? Finally, you’ll take another DBQ to see how you've improved and what you still need to work on. Papers On Scholarship? In this next section, I’ll go over types papers writing the whole process. First, I’ll give guidance on be happy how to establish a baseline. Types Research Papers Writing? Then I’ll go over some basic, foundational essay-writing skills and lear child relationship essay, how to build them. After that I’ll break down the DBQ rubric.

You’ll be acing practice DBQs before you know it! The first thing you need to do is to establish a baseline— figure out where you are at research writing with respect to your DBQ skills. This will let you know where you need to focus your preparation efforts. To do this, you will take a timed, practice DBQ and have a trusted teacher or advisor grade it according to the appropriate rubric. Papers? For the AP US History DBQ, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of writing time. A selection of practice questions from the exam can be found online at the College Board, including a DBQ. (Go to types research page 136 in the linked document for the practice prompt.) If you’ve already seen this practice question, perhaps in an opinion class, you might use the 2015 DBQ question. Other available College Board DBQs are going to be in the old format (find them in the “Free-Response Questions” documents). This is papers, fine if you need to use them, but be sure to use the new rubric (which is out of seven points, rather than nine) to grade. I advise you to save all these links , or even download all the rules for writing Free Response Questions and research papers, the Scoring Guides, for reference because you will be using them again and again for practice. The College Board has provided practice questions for the exam, including a DBQ (see page 200 in king parent child the linked document).

If you’ve already seen this question, the research writing only other questions available through the College Board are in the old format, because the 2016 DBQ is in pt grad essays a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History exam. Just be sure to use the new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the old prompts provided by the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for practice. Who knows—maybe this will be one of your documents! For this exam, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and types writing, 40 minutes of writing time . As for the other two history exams, the College Board has provided practice questions. See page 166 for the DBQ. How To Be Happy Romantic Essay? If you’ve already seen this question, the papers only other questions available through the College Board are in the old format, because the 2017 World History DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History and rules essay, AP European History exams. So be sure to use the new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the old prompts provided by research papers writing, the College Board. Orwell Essay? (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to types research papers writing save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for practice. Finding a Trusted Advisor to Look at Your Papers. A history teacher would be a great resource, but if they are not available to you in this capacity, here are some other ideas: An English teacher.

Ask a librarian at your school or public library! If they can’t help you, they may be able to direct you to resources who can. Rules For Writing Essay? You could also ask a school guidance counselor to papers writing direct you to in-school resources you could use. A tutor. This is especially helpful if they are familiar with the test, although even if they aren’t, they can still advise—the DBQ is mostly testing academic writing skills under pressure. Your parent(s)! Again, ideally your trusted advisor will be familiar with the AP, but if you have used your parents for writing help in the past they can also assist here. You might try an older friend who has already taken the exam and did well. although bear in mind that some people are better at doing than scoring and/or explaining!

If you know nothing about the DBQ and you’d like to do a little basic familiarization before you establish your baseline, that’s completely fine. There’s no point in taking a practice exam if you are going to common application essay questions fall panic and muddle your way through it; it won’t give a useful picture of types papers writing, your skills. For a basic orientation, check out pt grad essays my article for a basic introduction to the DBQ including DBQ format. If you want to look at one or two sample essays, see my article for research papers writing, a list of DBQ example essay resources. Common Essay? Keep in papers mind that you should use a fresh prompt you haven’t seen to pt grad essays establish your baseline, though, so if you do look at samples don’t use those prompts to set your baseline.

I would also check out this page about the writing various “task” words associated with AP essay questions . This page was created primarily for the AP European History Long Essay question, but the definitions are still useful for the DBQ on all the papers on scholarship history exams, particularly since these are the definitions provided by the College Board. Once you feel oriented, take your practice exam! Don’t worry if you don’t do well on types papers your first practice! That’s what studying is for. The point of establishing a baseline is how to be happy romantic essay, not to make you feel bad, but to empower you to focus your efforts on the areas you need to research papers work on. Orwell 1984 Questions? Even if you need to work on all the areas, that is completely fine and doable! Every skill you need for the DBQ can be built . In the following section, we’ll go over research writing these skills and how to build them for each exam. You need a stronger foundation than this sand castle. In this section, I’ll discuss the foundational writing skills you need to write a DBQ. I’ll start with some general information on crafting an effective thesis , since this is papers on scholarship, a skill you will need for any DBQ exam (and for your entire academic life).

Then, I’ll go over research outlining essays, with some sample outline ideas for the DBQ. After I’ll touch on time management. Finally, I’ll briefly discuss how to non-awkwardly integrate information from your documents into your writing. It sounds like a lot, but not only are these skills vital to your academic career in pt grad essays general, you probably already have the types writing basic building blocks to without romantic love master them in your arsenal! Writing a good thesis is a skill you will need to develop for all your DBQs, and for any essay you write, on the AP or otherwise. Here are some general rules as to what makes a good thesis: A good thesis does more than just restate the prompt.

Let’s say our class prompt is: “Analyze the papers writing primary factors that led to the French Revolution.” Gregory writes, “There were many factors that caused the essay fall 2013 French Revolution” as his thesis. Types Writing? This is not an effective thesis . All it does is 1984 essay questions, vaguely restate the types writing prompt. Rules For Writing An Opinion Essay? A good thesis makes a plausible claim that you can defend in an essay-length piece of types writing, writing. Maybe Karen writes, “Marie Antoinette caused the French Revolution when she said ‘Let them eat cake’ because it made people mad.” This is not an effective thesis, either. For one thing, Marie Antoinette never said that. More importantly, how are you going to write an entire essay on how one offhand comment by Marie Antoinette caused the entire Revolution? This is essay, both implausible and overly simplistic. A good thesis answers the question . Types Papers? If LaToya writes, “The Reign of Terror led to the ultimate demise of the French Revolution and ultimately paved the way for Napoleon Bonaparte to seize control of France,” she may be making a reasonable, defensible claim, but it doesn’t answer the question, which is child, not about what happened after the Revolution, but what caused it! A good thesis makes it clear where you are going in your essay. Let’s say Juan writes, “The French Revolution, while caused by a variety of political, social, and economic factors, was primarily incited by the emergence of the highly educated Bourgeois class.” This thesis provides a mini-roadmap for the entire essay, laying out that Juan is going to discuss the political, social, and economic factors that led to the Revolution, in that order, and types research, that he will argue that the members of the Bourgeois class were the ultimate inciters of the rules Revolution. Types Research? This is a great thesis!

It answers the question, makes an overarching point, and provides a clear idea of what the writer is going to discuss in the essay. To review: a good thesis makes a claim, responds to the prompt, and lays out what you will discuss in your essay. If you feel like you have trouble telling the difference between a good thesis and a not-so-good one, here are a few resources you can consult: This site from SUNY Empire has an exercise in choosing the best thesis from several options. It’s meant for research papers, but the general rules as to what makes a good thesis apply. has another exercise in relationship essay choosing thesis statements specifically for types research papers writing, short essays. Note, however, that most of the correct answers here would be “good” thesis statements as opposed to “super” thesis statements.

While you should definitely practice looking at DBQ questions and documents and writing a thesis in response to those, you may also find it useful to write some practice thesis statements in how to be happy love response to the Free-Response Questions. While you won’t be taking any documents into account in research papers writing your argument for the Free-Response Questions, it’s good practice on how to construct an effective thesis in how to be happy without love general. You could even try writing multiple thesis statements in response to the same prompt! It is a great exercise to see how you could approach the prompt from different angles. Time yourself for 5-10 minutes to mimic the time pressure of the AP exam. If possible, have a trusted advisor or friend look over types your practice statements and give you feedback. Barring that, looking over orwell questions the scoring guidelines for old prompts (accessible from the same page on the College Board where past free-response questions can be found) will provide you with useful tips on what might make a good thesis in response to types papers a given prompt. Once you can write a thesis, you need to be able to support it—that's where outlining comes in! This is not a good outline.

Outlining and Formatting Your Essay. You may be the greatest document analyst and thesis-writer in the world, but if you don’t know how to put it all together in a DBQ essay outline, you won’t be able to write a cohesive, high-scoring essay on without test day. Research Papers? A good outline will clearly lay out your thesis and how you are going to support that thesis in your body paragraphs. It will keep your writing organized and prevent you from forgetting anything you want to mention! For some general tips on writing outlines, this page from 1984, Roane State has some useful information.

While the general principles of types research, outlining an essay hold, the DBQ format is going to questions have its own unique outlining considerations.To that end, I’ve provided some brief sample outlines that will help you hit all the important points. Introduction Thesis. The most important part of research papers, your intro! Body 1 - contextual information Any outside historical/contextual information Body 2 - First point Documents analysis that support the pt grad essays first point If three body paragraphs: use about three documents, do deeper analysis on two Body 3 - Second point Documents analysis that support the second point Use about research, three documents, do deeper analysis on two Be sure to mention your outside example if you have not done so yet! Body 4 (optional) - Third point Documents and analysis that support third point Conclusion Re-state thesis Draw a comparison to another time period or situation (synthesis) Depending on fall your number of body paragraphs and your main points, you may include different numbers of types research, documents in orwell essay each paragraph, or switch around where you place your contextual information, your outside example, or your synthesis.

There’s no one right way to outline, just so long as each of your body paragraphs has a clear point that you support with documents, and you remember to types papers do a deeper analysis on four documents, bring in outside historical information, and make a comparison to another historical situation or time (you will see these last points further explained in the rubric breakdown). Of course, all the organizational skills in the world won't help you if you can't write your entire essay in the time allotted. The next section will cover time management skills. You can be as organized as this library! Time Management Skills for Essay Writing. King Lear Parent Child Relationship? Do you know all of your essay-writing skills, but just can’t get a DBQ essay together in a 15-minute planning period and 40 minutes of writing? There could be a few things at play here: Do you find yourself spending a lot of types research papers writing, time staring at a blank paper? If you feel like you don’t know where to start, spend one-two minutes brainstorming as soon as you read the question and the documents. Write anything here—don’t censor yourself.

No one will look at those notes but you! After you’ve brainstormed for a bit, try to organize those thoughts into a thesis, and then into body paragraphs. An Opinion? It’s better to types papers start working and change things around than to waste time agonizing that you don’t know the perfect thing to say. Are you too anxious to rules for writing essay start writing, or does anxiety distract you in types research writing the middle of your writing time? Do you just feel overwhelmed? Sounds like test anxiety. Lots of people have this. (Including me! I failed my driver’s license test the first time I took it because I was so nervous.) You might talk to a guidance counselor about papers, your anxiety. Types Research Papers Writing? They will be able to provide advice and direct you to resources you can use.

There are also some valuable test anxiety resources online: try our guide to pt grad essays mindfulness (it's focused on the SAT, but the same concepts apply on any high-pressure test) and check out tips from Minnesota State University , these strategies from TeensHealth , or this plan for reducing anxiety from types research papers, West Virginia University . Are you only papers two thirds of the way through your essay when 40 minutes have passed? You are probably spending too long on types writing your outline, biting off more than you can chew, or both. If you find yourself spending 20+ minutes outlining, you need to practice bringing down your outline time. An Opinion Essay? Remember, an outline is types papers writing, just a guide for your essay—it is fine to switch things around as you are writing. It doesn’t need to be perfect. To cut down on your outline time, practice just outlining for shorter and shorter time intervals. When you can write one in 20 minutes, bring it down to 18, then down to 16. You may also be trying to cover too much in your paper. If you have five body paragraphs, you need to scale things back to three.

If you are spending twenty minutes writing two paragraphs of contextual information, you need to trim it down to a few relevant sentences. Be mindful of pt grad essays, where you are spending a lot of time, and target those areas. You don’t know the types research problem —you just can’t get it done! If you can’t exactly pinpoint what’s taking you so long, I advise you to simply practice writing DBQs in less and less time. Start with 20 minutes for your outline and king parent relationship essay, 50 for your essay, (or longer, if you need). Then when you can do it in 20 and papers writing, 50, move back to 18 minutes and 45 for writing, then to for writing 15 and 40. You absolutely can learn to manage your time effectively so that you can write a great DBQ in the time allotted. On to the next skill!

The final skill that isn’t explicitly covered in the rubric, but will make a big difference in your essay quality, is integrating document citations into your essay. In other words, how do you reference the information in the documents in a clear, non-awkward way? It is usually better to types use the author or title of the document to lear parent identify a document instead of writing “Document A.” So instead of writing “Document A describes the riot as. ” you might say, “In Sven Svenson’s description of the riot…” When you quote a document directly without otherwise identifying it, you may want to include a parenthetical citation. For example, you might write, “The strikers were described as ‘valiant and true’ by the working class citizens of the city (Document E).” Now that we’ve reviewed the essential, foundational skills of the writing DBQ, I’ll move into the rubric breakdowns. We’ll discuss each skill the AP graders will be looking for when they score your exam. All of the history exams share a DBQ rubric, so the guidelines are identical. Don't worry, you won't need a magnifying glass to examine the rubric. The DBQ rubric has four sections for a total of seven points. One point is for having a thesis that works and orwell 1984 essay, is historically defensible. This just means that your thesis can be reasonably supported by the documents and research, historical fact.

So please don’t make the papers on scholarship main point of your essay that JFK was a member of the Illuminati or that Pope Urban II was an alien. Per the College Board, your thesis needs to be located in your introduction or your conclusion. You’ve probably been taught to place your thesis in writing your intro, so stick with what you’re used to. Plus, it’s just good writing—it helps signal where you are going in the essay and what your point is. You can receive another point for having a super thesis. The College Board describes this as having a thesis that takes into account “historical complexity.” Historical complexity is really just the idea that historical evidence does not always agree about common application essay questions fall, everything, and that there are reasons for agreement, disagreement, etc.

How will you know whether the historical evidence agrees or disagrees? The documents! Suppose you are responding to a prompt about types papers writing, women’s suffrage (suffrage is the right to vote, for for writing essay, those of you who haven’t gotten to that unit in class yet): “Analyze the types research writing responses to the women’s suffrage movement in the United States.” Included among your documents, you have a letter from essay, a suffragette passionately explaining why she feels women should have the vote, a copy of a suffragette’s speech at a women’s meeting, a letter from one congressman to types research writing another debating the pros and cons of suffrage, and a political cartoon displaying the death of society and the end of the ‘natural’ order at the hands of orwell 1984 essay questions, female voters. A simple but effective thesis might be something like, “Though ultimately successful, the women’s suffrage movement sharply divided the country between those who believed women’s suffrage was unnatural and those who believed it was an inherent right of papers writing, women.” This is good: it answers the question and clearly states the two responses to suffrage that are going to be analyzed in orwell the essay. A super thesis , however, would take the relationships between the types documents (and the people behind the documents!) into account. It might be something like, “The dramatic contrast between those who responded in favor of on scholarship, women’s suffrage and those who fought against it revealed a fundamental rift in types research American society centered on the role of women—whether women were ‘naturally’ meant to be socially and civilly subordinate to men, or whether they were in fact equals.” This is a “super” thesis because it gets into the specifics of the for writing an opinion relationship between historical factors and research papers, shows the broader picture —that is, what responses to women’s suffrage revealed about the role of papers, women in the United States overall. It goes beyond just analyzing the types papers specific issues to a “so what”? It doesn’t just take a position about history, it tells the reader why they should care . In this case, our super thesis tells us that the on scholarship reader should care about women’s suffrage because the issue reveals a fundamental conflict in types America over the position of women in society.

Part B: Document Analysis - 2 Points. Orwell Questions? One point for using six or seven of the documents in your essay to types writing support your argument. Common Application Essay Questions Fall? Easy-peasy! However, make sure you aren’t just summarizing documents in a list, but are tying them back to the main points of your paragraphs. It's best to avoid writing things like, “Document A says X, and Document B says Y, and Document C says Z.” Instead, you might write something like, “The anonymous author of Document C expresses his support and admiration for the suffragettes but also expresses fear that giving women the right to vote will lead to conflict in the home, highlighting the types research writing common fear that women’s suffrage would lead to be happy upheaval in women’s traditional role in society.” Any summarizing should be connected a point. Essentially, any explanation of research writing, what a document says needs to be tied to a “so what?” If it’s not clear to you why what you are writing about a document is related to your main point, it’s not going to be clear to the AP grader. You can get an additional point here for doing further analysis on 4 of the documents. Essay Questions Fall? This further analysis could be in research any of these 4 areas: Author’s point of view - Why does the author think the way that they do?

What is their position in society and how does this influence what they are saying? Author’s purpose - Why is the child relationship essay author writing what they are writing? What are they trying to papers convince their audience of? Historical context - What broader historical facts are relevant to this document? Audience - Who is the papers intended audience for research papers writing, this document? Who is the author addressing or trying to common application fall 2013 convince? Be sure to tie any further analysis back to your main argument! And remember, you only have to do this for four documents for full credit, but it’s fine to types research papers do it for more if you can.

So how do you practice document analysis? By analyzing documents! Luckily for AP test takers everywhere, New York State has an exam called the rules essay Regents Exam that has its own DBQ section. Before they write the essay, however, New York students have to answer short answer questions about the documents. Answering Regents exam DBQ short-answer questions is research papers, good practice for basic document analysis. While most of the questions are pretty basic, it’s a good warm-up in terms of thinking more deeply about the king lear parent child essay documents and how to use them. This set of Regent-style DBQs from the Teacher’s Project are mostly about US History, but the practice could be good for other tests too.

This prompt from the Morningside center also has some good document comprehensions questions about a US-History based prompt. Note: While the document short-answer questions are useful for thinking about basic document analysis, I wouldn’t advise completing entire Regents exam DBQ essay prompts for practice, because the types papers writing format and rubric are both somewhat different from the AP. Your AP history textbook may also have documents with questions that you can use to practice. Lear Child Relationship Essay? Flip around in there! This otter is ready to types papers swim in the waters of the DBQ. When you want to do a deeper dive on the documents, you can also pull out those old College Board DBQ prompts. Read the papers documents carefully. Write down everything that comes to types your attention. Do further analysis—author’s point of view, purpose, audience, and historical context—on all the documents for practice, even though you will only need to pt grad essays do additional analysis on four on test day. Writing? Of course, you might not be able to do all kinds of further analysis on things like maps and orwell essay questions, graphs, which is fine. You might also try thinking about how you would arrange those observations in an argument, or even try writing a practice outline!

This exercise would combine your thesis and types papers writing, document-analysis skills practice. When you’ve analyzed everything you can possibly think of for all the documents, pull up the Scoring Guide for that prompt. It helpfully has an entire list of how to be happy without essay, analysis points for each document. Consider what they identified that you missed. Do you seem way off-base in types research your interpretation? If so, how did it happen? Part C: Using Evidence Beyond the Documents - 2 Points. Don’t be freaked out by lear parent child relationship essay, the fact that this is two points! One point is research, just for context - if you can locate the issue within its broader historical situation. You do need to write several sentences to for writing essay a paragraph about it, but don’t stress; all you really need to know to be able to papers writing get this point is information about common application essay fall, major historical trends over types research papers time, and how to be happy essay, you will need to know this anyways for the multiple choice section.

If the question is about the papers Dust Bowl during the Great Depression, for essay, example, be sure to include some of the general information you know about the Great Depression! Boom. Contextualized. The other point is for naming a specific, relevant example in research writing your essay that does not appear in the documents. To practice your outside information skills, pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the prompt and documents and then write down all of the contextualizing facts and lear parent relationship essay, as many specific examples as you can think of. Types Research Writing? I advise timing yourself—maybe 5-10 minutes to read the documents and prompt and list your outside knowledge—to imitate the time pressure of the DBQ. When you’ve exhausted your knowledge, make sure to fact-check your examples and your contextual information! You don’t want to use incorrect information on test day. If you can’t remember any examples or contextual information about that topic, look some up!

This will help fill in holes in your knowledge. How To Without? All you need to do for research papers, synthesis is relate your argument about essay questions, this specific time period to a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. It is types research papers writing, probably easiest to do this in the conclusion of the essay. If your essay is about the Great Depression, you might relate it to the Great Recession of 2007-2009. You do need to do more than just mention your synthesis connection. You need to parent child relationship make it meaningful.

How are the research writing two things you are comparing similar? What does one reveal about the other? Is there a key difference that highlights something important? To practice your synthesis skills—you guessed it—pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the prompt and documents and then identify what historical connections you could make for your synthesis point. Be sure to write a few words on why the connection is child essay, significant! A great way to make sure that your synthesis connection makes sense is to explain it to papers writing someone else. An Opinion Essay? If you explain what you think the connection is and they get it, you’re probably on the right track. Types Research? You can also look at sample responses and the scoring guide for the old prompts to see what other connections students and AP graders made.

That's a wrap on pt grad essays the rubric! Let's move on to skill-building strategy. Don't let the DBQ turn you into a dissolving ghost-person, though. You’ve probably noticed that my advice on how to research papers writing practice individual rubric skills is pretty similar: pull out a prompt and do a timed exercise focusing on just that skill. However, there are only so many old College Board prompts in how to be happy the universe (sadly). If you are working on several skills, I advise you to combine your practice exercises. What do I mean? Let’s say, for example, you are studying for US History and types writing, want to be happy romantic love work on writing a thesis, bringing in types research writing outside information, and document analysis. Set your timer for king parent essay, 15-20 minutes, pull up a prompt, and: Write 2-3 potential thesis statements in response to types research the prompt Write all the orwell essay contextual historical information you can think of, and a few specific examples Write down analysis notes on all the types research documents.

Then, when you pull up the for writing an opinion Scoring Guide, you can check how you are doing on research all those skills at papers once! This will also help prime you for test day, when you will be having to combine all of the types research rubric skills in a timed environment. That said, if you find it overwhelming to combine too many exercises at once when you are first starting out in fall your study process, that’s completely fine. You’ll need to put all the skills together eventually, but if you want to spend time working on them individually at first, that’s fine too. Research Writing? So once you've established your baseline and prepped for days, what should you do? It's time to take another practice DBQ to see how you've improved! I know you're tired, but you can do it! So, you established a baseline, identified the skills you need to romantic love essay work on, and practiced writing a thesis statement and analyzing documents for hours. Research Papers? What now? Take another timed, practice DBQ from common application questions fall, a prompt you haven’t seen before to check how you’ve improved. Recruit your same trusted advisor to grade your exam and give feedback.

After, work on any skills that still need to be honed. Repeat this process as necessary, until you are consistently scoring your goal score. Then you just need to make sure you maintain your skills until test day by doing an occasional practice DBQ. Eventually, test day will come—read on for my DBQ-test-taking tips. How Can I Succeed On DBQ Test Day? Once you’ve prepped your brains out, you still have to take the test!

I know, I know. But I’ve got some advice on how to make sure all of your hard work pays off on test day—both some general tips and some specific advice on types research papers writing how to write a DBQ. Application Questions 2013? Most of these are probably tips you’ve heard before, but they bear repeating: Get a good night’s sleep for the two nights preceding the types writing exam. This will keep your memory sharp! Eat a good breakfast (and lunch, if the exam is in the afternoon) before the exam with protein and whole grains. This will keep your blood sugar from crashing and making you tired during the for writing essay exam. Don’t study the night before the papers exam if you can help it. Instead, do something relaxing. For Writing An Opinion? You’ve been preparing, and you will have an research papers writing, easier time on exam day if you aren’t stressed from 1984, trying to cram the night before.

This dude knows he needs to get a good night's rest! Below I’ve laid out how to use your time during the DBQ exam. I’ll provide tips on reading the types papers writing question and docs, planning your essay, and writing! Be sure to parent child keep an eye on the clock throughout so you can track your general progress. Reading the Question and the Documents: 5-6 min.

First thing’s first: r ead the question carefully , two or even three times. You may want to types papers writing circle the king child relationship essay task words (“analyze,” “describe,” “evaluate,” “compare”) to make sure they stand out. You could also quickly jot down some contextual information you already know before moving on to the documents, but if you can’t remember any right then, move on types research papers writing to the docs and let them jog your memory. It’s fine to have a general idea of a thesis after you read the pt grad essays question, but if you don’t, move on to the docs and let them guide you in the right direction. Next, move on to the documents. Mark them as you read—circle things that seem important, jot thoughts and types papers writing, notes in the margins. After you’ve passed over the documents once, you should choose the four documents you are going to how to without love analyze more deeply and research papers writing, read them again. You probably won’t be analyzing the author’s purpose for sources like maps and charts. Good choices are documents in which the papers author’s social or political position and stake in writing the issue at hand are clear. Pt Grad Essays? Get ready to go down the document rabbit hole. Once you’ve read the question and types writing, you have preliminary notes on the documents, it’s time to pt grad essays start working on a thesis.

If you still aren’t sure what to talk about, spend a minute or so brainstorming. Research Papers? Write down themes and concepts that seem important and king lear parent essay, create a thesis from those. Remember, your thesis needs to answer the question and make a claim! When you’ve got a thesis, it’s time to research writing work on an outline . For Writing? Once you’ve got some appropriate topics for your body paragraphs, use your notes on the documents to research writing populate your outline. Which documents support which ideas? You don’t need to use every little thought you had about the document when you read it, but you should be sure to use every document. Here's three things to pt grad essays make sure of: Make sure your outline notes where you are going to include your contextual information (often placed in the first body paragraph, but this is up to you), your specific example (likely in one of the types research writing body paragraphs), and your synthesis (the conclusion is a good place for pt grad essays, this). Make sure you’ve also integrated the four documents you are going to further analyze and research papers, how to be happy without essay analyze them. Make sure you use all the documents!

I can’t stress this enough. Take a quick pass over your outline and the docs and make sure all of the docs appear in types papers your outline. King Lear Child Essay? If you go over the planning time a couple of minutes, it’s not the end of the world. Research? This probably just means you have a really thorough outline! But be ready to write pretty fast. Writing the Essay - 40 min. If you have a good outline, the hard part is out of the pt grad essays way! You just need to make sure you get all of your great ideas down in the test booklet. Don’t get too bogged down in types research papers writing writing a super-exciting introduction. You won’t get points for it, so trying to king parent relationship be fancy will just waste time.

Spend maybe one or two sentences introducing the issue, then get right to your thesis. For your body paragraphs, make sure your topic sentences clearly state the point of the paragraph . Then you can get right into your evidence and papers, your document analysis. As you write, make sure to keep an eye on the time. You want to orwell 1984 be a little more than halfway through at the 20-minute mark of the writing period, so you have a couple minutes to go back and edit your essay at the end. Types Papers Writing? Keep in mind that it’s more important to clearly lay out your argument than to use flowery language.

Sentences that are shorter and to the point are completely fine. If you are short on time, the conclusion is the common 2013 least important part of your essay . Even just one sentence to wrap things up is fine just so long as you’ve hit all the points you need to (i.e. don’t skip your conclusion if you still need to put in your synthesis example). When you are done, make one last past through your essay. Make sure you included everything that was in your outline and hit all the rubric skills! Then take a deep breath and pat yourself on the back. Types Papers Writing? You did it!! Have a cupcake to celebrate. I realize I've bombarded you with information, so here are the key points to take away: Remember the drill for prep: establish a baseline, build skills, take another practice DBQ, repeat skill-building as necessary. Make sure that you know the rubric inside and how to be happy without essay, out so you will remember to hit all the necessary points on test day! It’s easy to types research papers writing lose points just for forgetting something like your synthesis point.

On test day, keep yourself on papers on scholarship track time-wise ! This may seem like a lot, but you can learn how to ace your DBQ! With a combination of preparation and good test-taking strategy, you will get the papers score you’re aiming for. 1984 Questions? The more you practice, the more natural it will seem, until every DBQ is a breeze. If you want more information about the DBQ, see my introductory guide to the DBQ. Haven't registered for research papers, the test yet? See our article for help registering for AP exams. For more on studying for the AP US History exam, check out the best AP US History notes to study with. Studying for World History? See these AP World History study tips from orwell 1984 questions, one of our experts. Research Papers? Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for orwell questions, each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.

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Motivation Essay For Mba Essays and Research Papers. The MBA admission committee are very particular in knowing your career goals. Therefore, this is an important element in the application . process. They map your career goals and the school’s curriculum. Types Research Papers Writing? They look for strong reasons for how the school can support your goals. Never write doing MBA is your short-term goal. Remember that MBA is a mean to an opinion essay, achieve your goals. The description of your career goal is a cardinal factor of research writing you getting selected or rejected, by the panel. Be Happy Without Romantic? The best way to frame. Goal , Management , Management consulting 870 Words | 3 Pages. compelling introduction to the essay . Paragraph 2 Here the types writer develops on the thread of diversity.

Note that there is an king lear emphasis . on papers aspects that are important to an MBA course (strong analytical skills, math skills, work experience). The writer shows effectively that she has not been 'wasting her time' - besides earning a degree, she has earned valuable work experience and done something for the environment. How To Be Happy Romantic Essay? Volunteer work is a strong advantage while applying to an MBA course - universities love. Balance sheet , Essay , Essays 842 Words | 3 Pages. 10/18/2014 Motivation Eric Thomas was homeless, but today he is the research papers writing most successful man, we hardly know about king lear child relationship essay, his failures.

Wilma Rudolf was . downhearted when doctor told her that she will not able to walk. Her dream of becoming the fastest women in the world faded away and then whole thing turn upside down. Every successful person has failures in writing his/her life. But what makes Eric Thomas so great, what was that magic that changed the orwell 1984 life of Wilma Rudolf; was nothing but motivation . In this essay , I would. Emotion , Feeling , Human behavior 658 Words | 4 Pages. INTRODUCTION Motivation is the process of initiating and directing behaviour based on types papers the persistence of effort to pt grad essays, satisfy an individual goal . or need (Petri, 1991; Robbins et al, 2000 and papers writing, Robbins et al, 2001). There are two approaches to how to be happy romantic, understanding motivation , each of which has theories expanding to support the nature of motivation . Content theories focuses on types papers writing what motivates an individual. In contrast to process theories of pt grad essays motivation which focus on how individual behaviour is motivated. This essay will. Educational psychology , Goal , Human behavior 2116 Words | 6 Pages.

With the papers use of motivation theory discuss how Caribbean managers can enhance the motivation of their employees. Provide relevant . examples to illustrate your answer. Motivation refers to the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed and sustained toward attaining a goal. Managers must be aware, that motivation is not a personal trait and when motivating people that individuals differ in motivational drive and their overall motivation varies from situation to situation. Love? In. Cognition , Employment , Expectancy theory 1568 Words | 5 Pages.

Tittle: Motivation Essay The motivation is very important in our lives. A few theories are attempted to explain . why motivation is important .It is a stronger need and stronger impulsion. For example , a man has not eaten, he feel hungry and as a response he eat .And this behaviour are explain for motivation , the motive are prompted him to types writing, eat food. In management circle, the motivation can help people to overcome all possible obstacles and achieve our personal and professional goal. Dickson (1973). Abraham Maslow , Hawthorne effect , Human behavior 1723 Words | 6 Pages. Assignment 2: 1500 Word Essay TOPIC 7: MOTIVATION AND ENGAGEMENT EDL1250 Learning and for writing essay, Learners . Bachelor of Education Y41 (Yr 1 to Yr 7) Mount Lawley Tutorial: 11:30 - 1:30 (Fridays) By Vera Andony Student No.: 10198342 Due: 29 May 2012 Tutor: Michelle Ellis Define the types research papers writing terms motivation and engagement and explain the connection.

How can motivational theory inform classroom practice that supports the engagement of how to without love essay children in deep learning. Behavior , Education , Educational psychology 2145 Words | 7 Pages. the most unaffordable housing in the survey with a median multiple of 12.6. Median multiple means median house price divided by gross annual median household . income. To figure out the reasons which drive Hong Kong housing price rise rapidly, this essay is going to analysis this question into four parts. The first part will briefly introduce some basic information about Hong Kong housing market.

The second part is going to take through upon the supply and demand theory which is the main theory to. Demand curve , Economic equilibrium , Inverse demand function 1185 Words | 7 Pages. receiving an MBA at this point in my life are dual. First, I would like to further my business education, and to pursue other areas of . finance. Types Research Papers Writing? I have come to this conclusion after many years of introspection and realizations about essay, where my career is, and papers writing, where I would like to be. With getting my MBA , my hope is to join a prominent finance organization with the ultimate goal of owning my own business someday.

So, to satisfy my desire for success, I must continue my education. I started my MBA with Grand. Business , Business school , Doctor of Business Administration 1043 Words | 3 Pages. Sources of Motivation Kenneth F. Green PSY/355 May 9, 2012 Barbara Ann Fuselier Sources of Motivation Meeting up with a . Common Application Essay Questions? lifelong friend after years apart the conversation explores the happenings in types research papers writing each other’s lives. The lifelong friend reveals he has just received his Master’s degree. He indicates several reasons for pursuing his college education and suggested it is orwell essay, worth it. Types Papers Writing? As a million reasons flood the brain about why it is not worth it, the decision to have an open mind prevails. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor's degree 828 Words | 3 Pages. Example MBA admission essay The world of finance and pt grad essays, business is research, a complicated and ubiquitous arena, and the axis around which . most of our society’s most important issues move. Having worked for a number of years in a multitude of administrative positions, I feel in many ways as though I have merely skimmed the how to be happy romantic essay surface of a field that is research papers writing, brimming with professional opportunities. The pursuit of a Master’s in Business Administration will enable me access tap previously unused resources in my own.

Administration , Business , Business school 873 Words | 3 Pages. Admissions Essay Questions (Graduate): Please thoroughly answer the questions below in an essay with a minimum of how to be happy romantic 500 words. Research? The . admissions committee is looking for the following things: 2-3 paragraphs per lear relationship question; examples to illustrate your points; correct grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure. The admissions committee looks at types writing these essay questions carefully when considering your application to our programs. If you have any questions about these questions or the on scholarship application process, please.

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If you are a value for money seeker, you can always put their talent to research papers, test. 1984 Essay Questions? You have the option to choose. Business school , Copy editing , Editing 743 Words | 4 Pages. Essays 1) What are your career goals? How will an MBA help you achieve these goals? Why are you applying to Columbia Business . School? My Career Goal My plans for types the next ten years are to establish and manage a public relations and advertising company. Without Essay? I want to types papers, especially concentrate on sports marketing and common application 2013, entertainment management. Korea has rapidly grown in types papers writing the past few decades in the manufacturing industry, but is still in its infancy in fields of services. I decided to.

Advertising , Business school , Chaebol 2128 Words | 6 Pages. Motivation is one of the most important concepts in organizational behaviour. Pt Grad Essays? It determines individuals’ performance which again leads to . achieving goals and targets by research papers writing an organization. ‘It is a cognitive process, through which goals-directed behaviour is king lear parent relationship, initiated, energized, directed and papers, maintained’ (Buchanan amp; Huczynski, 2010, p.267). Common Essay Questions 2013? There are various aspects determining motivation in types research papers the work environment. One of the most effective is financial rewards. Why? Answer to this question will. Abraham Maslow , Behavior , Frederick Winslow Taylor 1349 Words | 4 Pages.

Activity 5 Topic 6: Motivation and rewards In this topic you have covered an important theory of motivation called . Expectancy Theory. Let's apply this theory to your university study, specifically the upcoming essay assessment. Without Romantic Love Essay? There are three expectancy factors that will affect your motivation to succeed: * Expectancy is your belief that working hard on your essay will result in types research papers writing the production of pt grad essays a good quality piece of work (i.e. Types Research Papers Writing? a least a high pass or credit although more able students. Essay , Ethics , Human behavior 948 Words | 4 Pages. Motivation Every Individual has specific goal to essay, achieve. These goals are only achievable if the individual is enthusiastic about the goal. . Types Research? One of the 1984 essay questions most key factors that lead one to their goals is the drive. This drive is also known as Motivation , a process that starts with a physiological or psychological need to do an aimed task or it can be said as the reason for doing something. Though motivation is types research papers, essential in our life it cannot be purchased like we purchase other necessities. Parent Relationship Essay? But luckily. Abraham Maslow , Expectancy theory , Human behavior 1561 Words | 5 Pages.

Sample of research papers Motivation Scholarship Essay for Mba. Sample of motivation scholarship essay for MBA Having twelve parents in a town of pt grad essays 600 was erratic and eye-opening. . Types Research Papers? My six parents in childhood were products of divorce and remarriage, the six foster parents in orwell 1984 questions adolescence the types papers writing consequence of papers on scholarship unsuccessful remarriages. While dialogues of dysfunction usually accompany this kind of types tale, mine was one of fluid counterbalance. The various homes that welcomed me, often last-minute with my sleeping bag in hand, revealed to me a supple sense of diversity. Arabic language , Baghdad , Iran 502 Words | 2 Pages. and the MBA program from Concordia University will be the right step for me to pt grad essays, build that missing link. Pursuing the MBA degree . would be milestone for me and my family. My parents are retired teachers and have started many unsuccessful business ventures during their careers. My sisters, a Chemical Engineer and types research papers writing, an Architect, have both quit their jobs to pursue private businesses and were able to achieve some levels of success.

However, none have taken the next step of obtaining the MBA degree. Business , Business school , Business schools 1128 Words | 5 Pages. Topic 1: Work Motivation A highly motivated employee can be said to have good direction and high levels of effort and persistence (Arnold et . al., 2005). It is therefore safe to assume that high levels of motivation lead to essay questions, higher performance levels. This essay will explore the phenomenon of ‘what motivates people’ in 2 ways. One focuses on the employee and types writing, will be examined by orwell essay questions using the ‘Goal Setting Theory’ (GST) by types papers writing Locke et al. (2002). The other focuses on the job itself and will be examined using.

Educational psychology , Expectancy theory , Job satisfaction 1016 Words | 3 Pages. responsibility and decision-making ability in your company. What role do you play in your organization's strategy? What are your career goals for the next . five years? What steps do you see yourself taking to king lear essay, achieve these goals? How will a UNC Kenan-Flagler MBA help you reach your goals? Although the levels of my responsibilities are not those typical of a non-degreed manager, I have worked twice as hard and derived much pride in an extremely successful management career despite not having a bachelors degree. Business , Business school , Logistics 964 Words | 3 Pages. Motivation Introduction This essay is about defining Motivation and how it affects employees. Also an . explanation of the main the types are to be given. A research on popular Theorist was done to support the definition and writing, types.

The researcher recognized what impact motivation has on the workplace and an opinion, seek to discuss the importance. Types? Theory Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an 1984 essay individual to act towards a desired goal and elicits controls and sustains certain goal directed. Abraham Maslow , Human behavior , Maslow's hierarchy of needs 1276 Words | 4 Pages. ? Managed Essay To what extent do you agree that financial remuneration is the key motivating factor for employees? . Z 04/09/2014 One of the reasons why most people work is that they want to live, thus they need money, which. Economics , Employment , Frederick Herzberg 1126 Words | 6 Pages. MBA -101: Business Environment Answer any three questions. Each question carries 10 marks each: 1. Research Papers Writing? Explain the internal and external . elements of environment effecting business. OR What is technology?

Explain the impact of technology on on scholarship business 2. Explain the papers writing impact of Globalization, Privatization Liberalization on an opinion essay Indian economy. OR What is Multi National Enterprises? Explain their role in India. 3. Explain the importance Small Scale Industries. Explain the problems.

Change management , Economics , Human resource management 1112 Words | 6 Pages. Statement of Purpose Samples for MBA Admission. Strategy More: Features Harvard Business School MBA Applications 5 Essays That Got People Into Harvard Business School — And . Research Papers Writing? Why They Worked Max Nisen and Aimee Groth Nov. 20, 2012, 3:30 PM 226,050 3 inShare Kreuzinger/Dimon- Do not use Jason Krezuinger Jason Kreuziger poses with JPMorgan CEO Jamie Dimon With an acceptance rate of only 11 percent, even people with the most impeccable credentials and test scores routinely get turned down from Harvard Business School. What. Business , Business school , Finance 736 Words | 3 Pages. want to show people that you can never give up on what you believe in. I work hard to get the good grades I have.

I want to get married have three kids. . Showing my kids of the success of hard work. Showing them the success I had should give them motivation to work hard in school. Dr.Crumpler motivated me even more to become a biomedical technologist so that I can create new medicines to cure HIV. I want to go to Wingate University and New England Female Medical College to study biomedical technology. African American , Black people , Rebecca Lee Crumpler 1244 Words | 6 Pages. Submission Date: 21.11.2011 Word count: 2,081. The subjective nature of motivation makes arguing for a particular side difficult, . especially since there has been such massive work done in the area and almost every researcher has some different theory or explanation for behavior.

The essay will introduce the different schools of child relationship thought and how they affect perception, after which the origins of the financial reward system will be explored with regard to the work of FW. Taylor. Many are of the. Abraham Maslow , Expectancy theory , Human behavior 2364 Words | 6 Pages. Why Mba – How to research, Write the how to romantic love essay Career Goals Essay. In this post, we will seek to understand the question which arises in most school applications in some form or the types writing other – Why MBA ? How . Pt Grad Essays? different schools ask the ‘Why MBA ’ question? Look at research the following questions from 3 of the how to be happy love essay top business schools: Wharton: What are your professional objectives? (300 words) HBS: Why do you want an MBA ? (400 words) Stanford: What do you want to do – REALLY – and why Stanford? (450 words) Do you sense a trace of similarity here? Even though they. Business school , Goal , Management 1026 Words | 4 Pages.

Introduction Motivation could be defined as a process which account for a person's passion, direction, and perseverance of effort toward . attaining a goal, and motivation is types, a psychological feature that arouses an organism to pt grad essays, action toward a desired goal, George et al (2010). In today’s competitive and challenging world of business getting good and efficient people for any organisation it could be considered as creating the writing best skill base which is the foundation for any business. The best managers. Abraham Maslow , Employment , Fundamental human needs 2311 Words | 7 Pages. Topic 1 India is the second most populated country of pt grad essays this world. It has its own pros and cons. Types Papers Writing? You need to express your own views over ‘Family Planning in . India’.

Essay 1 Planning is a prerequisite for solving any problem. How To Be Happy Without Love Essay? Our country, India, is facing an acute problem of increasing population. This problem has its root in the family -level and types research papers writing, the solution of this problem lies in family-planning. So, family planning should be mandatory in lear parent child essay India. Types Research Writing? According to the ‘Malthusian Theory’, population. Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Economy of the United States 2521 Words | 6 Pages. Compare two theories of for writing motivation and analyze how relevant each one is in the modern workplace. Research Papers Writing? McGregor’s two theory factors . This essay will focus on McGregor’s theory X and theory Y. Firstly; I will compare these two theories and discuss how they can be applied in real companies and organisations. Theory Y is largely relevant to modern companies, as mangers expect that employees should already be motivated in what they do before they apply for the job.

Motivation can be described “as. Douglas McGregor , Employment , Management 1491 Words | 4 Pages. EIILM UNIVERSITY, SIKKIM TERM END EXAMINATION, SEPETEMBER-2012 EXECUTIVE MBA (1 SEM/ 1YEAR) MARKETING MANAGEMENT Time: 3 hours . M.Marks:60 Note: - All questions are compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 1- The market in large town catering to the needs of villages and towns is known as----- a) Local marketb. 1984 Essay? c) Regional marketc. b) National marketd d) Global market 2- Objective of -------concept is profit through customer satisfactiona. Brand , Brand management , Costs 767 Words | 3 Pages. Theories of Motivation Introduction.

This essay will look at motivation to research writing, discuss the content theorist Abraham . Maslow ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ relevance and his critics. On Scholarship? The research of motivation is interested basically with why people act in certain ways. ’Why do people do what they do?’ In typical terms, motivation can be defined as the types direction and essay, perseverance of types action. It is interested with why humans take a specific course of action in to others, and why they continue with a chosen endeavour. Abraham Maslow , Fundamental human needs , Human behavior 1245 Words | 4 Pages. What is motivation ? Motivation is generally defined as the essay force that compels us to action. It drives us to work hard and pushes . us to succeed. Motivation influences our behavior and our ability to accomplish goals.

There are many different forms of research papers writing motivation . Papers? Each one influences behavior in its own unique way. No single type of research papers writing motivation works for everyone. People’s personalities vary and so accordingly does the type of motivation , that is common application essay 2013, most effective at inspiring their conduct. Types. By the Way , Desire to research, Improve , Human behavior 714 Words | 3 Pages. these goals? Motivation ! Motivation is defined as “the act or an instance of motivating, or providing with a reason to essay questions fall, act in a . Types Research? certain way” ( Motivation , 2013) When an papers individual sets a goal, the types research individual needs to have the initiative to motivate their selves to tackle their own goal to its fullest. Pt Grad Essays? This is known as self-determination theory. Self- determination is defined as by research papers “determination by oneself or itself, without outside influence.” (Self-determination, 2013) Motivation is a universal. Albert Bandura , E-learning , Educational psychology 1818 Words | 5 Pages. ?Name: - Viral K Kamdar Course: - MGT 5314 Student ID: -9059-10242 Subject: - Integrative paper on Motivation . . Motivation : - Motivation is defined as a set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward a certain goal, Motivation is the energy that makes us do things: this is a result of pt grad essays our individual Needs being satisfied so that we have inspiration to complete the research writing mission but these needs vary from Person to person as everybody has their individual.

Abraham Maslow , Human behavior , I-Change Model 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Motivation is basically about the desire of one to king parent child relationship, achieve something as motivation act as a force that pushes us towards . performing an research papers actionand finally bringing us the achievement.For example, when we are thirsty, we will go get a glass of water to quench our thirst. Here, quenching our thirst is orwell 1984 questions, set as our motivation and the act of getting a glass of water to drink is the performing action. This shows us that motivation is what causes us to act. Hence, motivation can also be said as a process that. Education , Goal , Meaning of life 1725 Words | 5 Pages.

Table of Contents Introduction 3 Types of Motivation in the Workplace 3 Theories on . Motivation 4-7 Factors Affecting Employee Motivation 7-8 Conclusion 8 References 9-11 Motivation in the Workplace Introduction Motivation within the workforce has always been a central problem for leaders and managers. Employees who feel motivated in the workplace are more likely to be persistent. Employment , Human behavior , Job satisfaction 1829 Words | 5 Pages. the concepts of Motivation . Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to types research, act towards a desired goal and . Application Essay Fall 2013? elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological drive that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal.

For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and types, social areas. Motivation may be rooted in. Abraham Maslow , Behavior , Fundamental human needs 1381 Words | 5 Pages. Motivation A motive is orwell essay questions, a reason for doing something. Motivation is concerned with the strength and direction of behavior and research writing, . the factors that influence people to behave in certain ways. The term ‘ motivation ’ can refer variously to the goals individuals have, the ways in which individuals chose their goals and pt grad essays, the ways in which others try to change their behavior. Research Writing? Motivating other people is orwell essay, about getting them to move in the direction you want them to go in order to types writing, achieve a result. Motivating. Employment , Human behavior , Incentive program 837 Words | 3 Pages. ? Motivation Christine Walters PSY/355 Jeremy Christensen Motivation Motivation is the process in . which behavior is initiated, guided, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. “We may define motive (or motivation ) as a need, want, interest, or desire that propels someone (or an organism) in pt grad essays a certain direction” (Psychology, 2014).

Motivation cannot be directly observed but through behaviors we see it manifested. It is research papers writing, thought of as the driving force that compels a person to on scholarship, do something. Behavior , Cognition , Human behavior 810 Words | 4 Pages. Motivation Motivation is the driving force that is applied in an organisation to assist in research writing the achievement of the laid goals . On Scholarship? (accel-team: 2010). Types Papers Writing? Motivation in the workplace aims at triggering human behavior and their need to work. Relatively, it is a process by which people seek to satisfy their basic drives and how to without, it is what drives production in the work place. Basic model of types research motivation In his book ‘management theory and practice’, Cole has outlined the basic model of motivation (Cole. Employment , Goal , Human behavior 1235 Words | 7 Pages. Definition of motivation Internal and how to be happy without romantic love essay, external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed . to a job, role or subject, or to types research, make an effort to attain a goal. Application Essay Questions? Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the (1) intensity of desire or need, (2) incentive or reward value of the research papers writing goal, and (3) expectations of the individual and papers on scholarship, of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain.

Behavior , Human behavior , Maslow's hierarchy of papers needs 757 Words | 3 Pages. Motivation letter written by rules essay : Date of Birth: Relocation to Germany after my wedding to a German National in December 2012 was the time . when I decided to top up my five years of types research papers writing Defense management experience with a formal training in Business methods and etiquettes that only an MBA would impart. Prior experience in the technical arm of Defense services included work in diverse management issues, manpower management, training of be happy without romantic love essay subordinates, planning of research papers writing resources and on scholarship, projecting requirements. Business , Business school , Entrepreneur 596 Words | 2 Pages. Motivation is writing, any internal or external process, which is involved in papers on scholarship prompting and terminating behaviour.

All our instinctive responses are . reflexes, whereas all our intended activities involve motivation . But one's motivation cannot be observed directly. It is inferred from the behaviour of the being.Motivation is a driving state; it is also a behaviour encouragement state within the types research writing individual. For Writing An Opinion? Motivation directs the behaviour towards a goal. It is thus an inner everlasting condition of the types being. A Great Way to Care , Behavior , Human behavior 1497 Words | 5 Pages. for which motivation is how to romantic love essay, a key factor. A motivated workforce results in a job being done excellently which can therefore yield higher profits . for the company. This illustrates why motivation is considered to be highly important and most companies are trying to focus on how to get their employees motivated.

In addition, motivation is research writing, also important because it has a strong positive effect on job performance which increases self efficacy and how to be happy romantic love, therefore leads to a job well done. Motivation can be achieved. Abraham Maslow , Expectancy theory , Maslow's hierarchy of needs 2041 Words | 6 Pages. Motivation and the Brain – The Desire to Exercise and Be Physically Fit Motivation and the Brain – The Desire to Exercise and . Be Physically Fit The motivation that drives people to engage in physical activities like exercise can be analyzed as a result of many contributing factors. Theories exist regarding whether desire can be attributed to extrinsic or intrinsic factors. Types Research Papers Writing? The brain structures and functions responsible for this type of motivation are complex and unique.

Each individual will. Educational psychology , Health , Health Action Process Approach 779 Words | 3 Pages. Literature Review Topic. Motivation Title. Motivation in the workplace Introduction Motivation is king essay, a . Types Research? key important influence element in an organization growth and development, it is important that manager and leader in pt grad essays organization understand and recognise the writing important and effect motivation can impact on their organization. Common Application Questions Fall? ‘’ Motivation is the driving force within individuals that compels them physiologically and psychologically to pursue one or more goals to fulfil their needs or expectations. Abraham Maslow , Fundamental human needs , Maslow's hierarchy of needs 1938 Words | 6 Pages. ?An understanding of the psychological theories of motivation allows one to types research papers writing, critically analyse a total rewards approach. . Motivation is seen as an important notion in psychology. Be Happy Without? Psychologically people have their own interior motivations , such as love, happiness and self-worth and they are also motivated by things outside themselves that for some reasons may cause them to take action. It is the process by which we behave the way we do and direct and types writing, make us persevere in our efforts to accomplish. Motivation , Reward system 1513 Words | 7 Pages. Articles About Motivation Articles on motivation and on rules how to research papers, get motivated.

Motivation is the power that . activates the engine of success, and moves you to act and do things. Common Essay Fall 2013? Articles on types writing Motivation Motivation and How to Get Motivated How many times have you started enthusiastically a weight loss program, began a bodybuilding or aerobics training program, or started learning a foreign language, only to stop after a short while. Spurts of Enthusiasm and common application essay fall, Lack of Interest Do you sometimes. Energy , Enthusiasm , Fan 1332 Words | 6 Pages. question we decided that our subject area would be on the topic of types research papers motivation as this was the most popular choice from the members of our . group. We also wanted to be happy romantic, make sure that we could easily gather the data for our research question so it was decided that we would focus on the motivation and types research, goals of university students at rules for writing an opinion essay London Metropolitan University. Our Research question is therefore – “Does gender affect the papers motivation and achievement goals of 1st year university students?” Once we had. Douglas McGregor , Human behavior , I-Change Model 895 Words | 3 Pages. Motivation : General definition A question anyone can ask themselves is: what keeps us going? What makes us wake up in the morning and rules essay, live our . daily life?

What makes us who we are and what we are? Well the easy answer here is simply motivation ; the desire to do things. Everyone has different motivations , different things that keep them going. What can motivate some people, can de-motivate others and vice versa. Moreover, what can motivate you today can de-motivate you tomorrow. Motivation can. Hygiene factors , Maslow's hierarchy of needs , Motivation 2218 Words | 6 Pages.

|01/11/13 | |Simon Youth Foundation Scholarship – |01/11/13 | |Dell Scholars Program – . |01/15/13 | |Mensa Scholarship Essay Contest – |01/15/13 | |Washington Crossing Foundation – |01/15/13 | |Gates Millennium Scholars – . College , High school , Higher education 511 Words | 3 Pages. ? Assignment 6 Motivation is known as the powerful force that causes the change from desire to willpower in research papers writing life. Essay? Hunger is one example . of research writing motivation which creates the on scholarship desire to eat. Types Research Papers? Motivation can also be defined as the procedure that starts guides and continues goal oriented actions. Motivation is generally used to explain the reason for a person’s actions. Another example of motivation is pt grad essays, when a student is really motivated to get into medical school, so he/she studies every night for it. Abraham Maslow , Colombo , Construction 1311 Words | 7 Pages. the text book, motivation refers to a psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction.

Managers attempt to motivate individuals . to pursue organizational objectives willingly and persistently and be loyal to the organization. According motivation is Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and types research writing, energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation results from the. Abraham Maslow , Douglas McGregor , Employment 1935 Words | 6 Pages. retention and motivation go hand in hand for any organization. Among global industries where even after high rate of unemployment; . organizations are struggling to retain their employees. Question is king lear parent child essay, whether employee motivation theories provide a feasible solution for employee retention and better strategies for performance improvement? Different articles have provided better understanding of how motivation theories may help employers identify, analyze relation between employee motivation and employee. Airline , I-Change Model , Management 1784 Words | 6 Pages. ? MBA handbook an MBA would constitute a good investment of your time and your(or your employer’s) money, to the point at which . you have your qualification and are wondering how to build on it. among those who know that the letters stand for a prestigious, internationally recognized postgraduate management qualification, aimed at preparing managers for senior positions, there is still often uncertainty as to what MBA actually covers. The American model: the first year of the programme concentrates.

Case study , Education , Leadership 486 Words | 2 Pages. responses”. (McShane, 2013, pg. 4). Motivation is types, what drives people to succeed and reach their goals and plays an pt grad essays important role in . enhancing an organisation’s development. An employee’s motivation can play a big part in organisational behaviour, as it is types writing, a fundamental part of how the employee performs in their role and how they assist the organisation in attaining their goals. This essay will look at what motivation is, some of the theories regarding motivation , the factors that play a role in motivating. Employment , Expectancy theory , Human behavior 1628 Words | 5 Pages. 1. Pt Grad Essays? Motivation – provide 3 perspectives Motivation is a force within us that arouses, directs and sustains our behaviour. . According to Rabideau (2005) motivation can be defined as the driving force behind all the actions of an types research individual. The influence of an pt grad essays individual's needs and desires both have a strong impact on the direction of research writing their behaviour.

Arousal is common essay 2013, about the energy that drives your behaviour, the arousal theory of motivation suggests that people are motivated to engage in behaviours. Abraham Maslow , Fundamental human needs , Maslow's hierarchy of needs 1535 Words | 5 Pages. Buchanan defines motivation . ‘ Motivation is a decision-making process, through which the individual chooses the types papers writing desired . outcomes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate to be happy romantic love essay, them’ Buchanan, D. Huczynski, A. Types Research Papers? (2004) Organizational Behaviour An Introductory Text, 5th Ed Motivation is a desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy to work towards that goal. Employees who are motivated have a desire to complete the without romantic requirements of the task at research papers writing hand. Motivation is pt grad essays, a key element.

Behavior , Employment , Human behavior 1527 Words | 4 Pages.

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The absolutely perfect investment banking CV… If you’re applying for research, a front office banking job, your CV will need to king lear child relationship, be impeccable. Here’s what perfection looks like. Putting together a CV for a front office job in sales and trading or investment banking can seem a futile and thankless task. Research Papers Writing. – You spend hours crafting a document, only to find that recruiters spend a minute (or less) scanning it, and distill it down into bullet points if they decide to take your application any further. Nonetheless, a carefully crafted resume is a necessary evil. If you want to get a front office banking job, your resume will need to be better than good: it will need to be close to perfect. The absolutely perfect resume for any front office job in an investment bank, WILL…. “Most banks get tens of 1984 thousands of types research writing applications and for the sake of simplicity they have to eliminate a lot of them on the basis of academics,” says Malcolm Horton, global head of recruitment at Nomura International. If you’re in the UK, you’re going to need at least a 2.1 degree and a stack of for writing an opinion A grades at types research papers writing A Level (the average front office recruit at J.P. For Writing An Opinion. Morgan has 700 UCAS points).

In the types writing, U.S., it means you’ll need a GPA of 3.5+. Papers. Banks want to know that you have what it takes to work hard. If you look at J.P. Morgan and Goldman Sachs’ 2016 analyst classes, you’ll get an types papers writing, idea of the standard today’s junior bankers need to be happy without romantic, achieve. Types Research Papers. One of Goldman Sachs’ (London) hires has a GPA of papers on scholarship 3.72. Another has a first class degree in physics from London’s Imperial College. If you don’t have top academics, your investment banking resume – no matter how good in other ways – will be dinged. “We cut out around half of the resumes of the people who apply to us on research writing the basis of for writing poor academic performance,” says one senior banking recruiter. “We just don’t have the papers, resources to orwell questions, go through each one and read the justifications about why they didn’t do well academically.”

Andy Pringle, director of recruitment firm Circle Square, agrees that so-called ‘mitigating circumstances’ hold no sway with banking recruiters: “If you’re in types papers writing London and you don’t have a 2.1 degree or better, you’re not going to get any further. Banks have no interest in application fall the reasons why you didn’t do well at university.” 2. Make a big deal out of those impeccable academics. Given that everyone with any chance of getting a front office job in an investment bank is types, going to be academically brilliant, excellent grades alone are not enough. It helps to win prizes too. Victoria McLean, an ex-Goldman Sachs recruiter and founder of City CV, says extra academic achievements can be a big differentiator. “Mention any scholarships, times that you came top of the class, high percentages and grades you scored in particular exams,” she advises. McLean suggests that you continue doing this for five years after you graduate. 3. Make use of bullet points and king parent child relationship essay be concise and cleanly formatted. Financial services recruiters scan hundreds of CVs every day. They want to read something succinct and to the point.

Bullet points will suggest that your CV is both. Research Papers Writing. “Bullet points are standard,” says Horton. One page is standard for banking resumes in the U.S., although you may just about papers on scholarship, be able to get away with two pages in types research writing London. McLean says that you should have no more than six bullet points per subheading: “Any more than that and it just becomes a list.” If you don’t present your CV in the form of bullet points from the papers, outset, recruiters will usually distill it down into bullet points for you. For this reason, you need to have some hard facts in your resume (see point 4). – Without these, there will be nothing for writing, them to create bullet points with. The exception to the bullet point rule is how to be happy romantic essay, Germany. There, banking recruiters say it’s fairly standard to papers writing, submit CVs that are 17 pages long. This is partly because German candidates attach all their school certificates. Matan Feldman, a former J.P.

Morgan associate who founded the firm Wall Street Prep, says you also need to take care that your resume is easy to read. Be Happy Without Romantic Essay. “We see a lot of strange fonts, extra-long CVs and non-standard formatting. -Especially among international applicants.” 3. Contain the right key words and phrases. Having the right key words in your CV will make a big difference. If your banking resume contains the right words, it will get you past the research papers, computers that scan CVs, says McLean. Also known as applicant tracking systems (ATS), these are the orwell, programs banks and recruiters use to sift through applications. Which are the right key words for you? It varies by job. Look at the descriptions of the research papers writing, jobs you’re applying to. “Look online at job boards – look at orwell ads for the jobs you’re applying for and try to pick out the words that are relevant to papers writing, your role and orwell 1984 essay sector,” McLean advises. These days, applicant tracking systems are becoming more advanced. – Instead of simply looking for particular words, they often use so-called ‘semantic matching’ technology to look for whole phrases and papers related words.

For example, if a job requires Java programming skills and you mention SQL, you could still get picked by king child, the machine on the grounds that people with SQL often have an aptitude for Java. For this reason, it makes sense to mention as many skills as possible (assuming that you have them) and to include skills that occur in clusters for the jobs you’re interested in. 4. Speak in terms of concrete achievements and detail exactly what you did. Your resume is there to advertise what you personally achieved – not what you achieved as part of a team. “Put yourself in the mind of your future employer,” says McLean. “Why are they hiring you? What impact have you had in previous jobs and how did you do it?” Speak in terms of personal achievements rather than generalities. Your resume needs to research writing, contain statements such as, “I was the top ranked salesperson three quarters running and increased the value of key client accounts by 75% during that period.” “For example, if you’re a trader, then explain which strategies you use,” says McLean. “Which ones have been most successful for for writing an opinion essay, you ? How did you build client flow? How much money do you make for the bank – and where does it come from?”

When you’re applying for a job in IBD, Pringle says your resume will need to reference the deals you worked on and exactly what you personally did during those deals. Most MA CVs will be supplemented with a deal list, but you’ll be expected to have summary detail in your CV too. The best CVs show consistent ambition and a career path which progresses in harmony with that ambition. Types Research. You will, for example, be viewed with deep suspicion if you have a history of working in corporate finance and suddenly express an urge to switch to algorithmic trading. “If you are making a change then you need to say why in your intro profile – even if just one line to explain. Be Happy Without Love Essay. Recruiters are so busy that if there is any ambiguity they probably won’t read on,” says McLean. Banks don’t just want to research writing, hire automatons with good grades. As one Goldman Sachs partner remarked recently, finance types can be boring. Common Application Essay. Banks want to hire people who are “interesting and have a background of intellectual curiosity,” he added. For this reason, one former Goldman Sachs recruiter said they try to avoid “plug and play” hires and to look for types papers writing, creativity and interesting personalities. “We want people who are balanced and not singularly focused [on getting a job in common essay fall 2013 banking],” agrees Horton.

One senior banker said he puts candidates through the so-called ‘airport test’: how much fun would they be if you were stuck in writing an airport with them for 100 hours. Banks also like to hire people whose CVs evidence particular elite forms of extra-curricular activity: it’s not enough to deliver food to needy people locally, you need to go to lear parent essay, Costa Rica and build some houses for Habitat for Humanity. Similarly, expensive hobbies take precedence: skiing, skuba diving and tennis count for more than running in the local park. What about being a member of research writing a finance society whilst at university? That’s good, but your resume will be viewed with more enthusiasm if you’ve held a position of responsibility in one of these societies, 7. Be free of spelling mistakes and grammatically correct.

In investment banking divisions (MA and corporate finance) attention to essay questions 2013, detail is imperative: banks need to types, know that you can assemble presentations that will help them win clients, and those presentations must be 100% error free. “97% of hiring managers reject on the basis of 2 typos,” says McLean. 1984 Essay. “You can’t afford to let this slip – proof, proof and proof it again.” Whatever banks say, they hire from elite institutions more than others. We’ve listed the top schools banking like to hire from on Wall Street and in the City of London here. If you haven’t been to types, one of essay questions these schools, don’t assume you can’t get in. – It just means you’ll need to achieve excellent grades and to types papers writing, make sure you’ve proven your interest in finance in rules for writing other ways (see 11). Similarly, if you’re studying a Masters in Finance, it needs to be a top Masters in Finance.

If you’re studying an MBA, it needs to be a top MBA. Research Papers Writing. Anything else, and you’re wasting your money. This is a new point. In this age of increased banking regulation and ethical banking, it’s become important to show that you’re passionate about more than just making a lot of papers money for types papers writing, your own personal benefit. “We want to see your values as an individual,” says Horton. “What matters to you? What are you passionate about?” Extracurricular activities and pt grad essays hobbies are the place to show this (see 6.)

It’s no coincidence that banks like Goldman Sachs have a thing for hiring students who’ve spent time at universities outside their home countries. This applies as much in London as in New York and China. There’s a reason for types research, banks’ enthusiasm for for writing an opinion essay, these students: their business is global and they want to hire people with a global mindset. Types Research Papers. By the orwell 1984 essay, same token, if you’re applying for an IBD or sales job in London, Pringle says it will help if you speak at least two languages fairly fluently. “Languages carry a premium,” says Pringle. In London, British candidates, who are often monolingual, can be excluded on research this basis: “Britons make up less than 20% of common essay fall 2013 some MA teams,” says Pringle. 11. Include a CFA Level 1 pass or long list of internships. If you’re applying for an entry-level job in a bank, you’ll need to prove that you really, really want it. Types Research Writing. During your first year at how to be happy love essay university, this means you need to apply for every banking-related event going: think insight days and spring internships in Europe, or sophomore internships on Wall Street. Students who successfully apply for banking jobs typically have multiple internships (think six, or maybe seven) under their belts.

Students applying to banks are also increasingly equipped with a CFA Level I pass. Types Papers. If you haven’t studied finance (and even if you have), this helps display a level of proficiency and interest. 12. How To Be Happy Love. Show that you understand data manipulation and programming. Lastly, as J.P. Morgan’s 2016 Wall Street analyst class reflects, it helps to be quantitative. Banks are on the cusp of a digital revolution, says consultancy firm McKinsey Co. As processes are automated and data is used to inform decisions, banks will need an increasingly large army of programmers and data scientists.

If you can program in types Python and present data in Hadoop, you’re going to application 2013, be popular. And the absolutely perfect investment banking resume WONT… 1. Be more than two pages long (unless you’re in Germany) 2. Be printed on pink/purple/baby blue paper. Types Research Papers Writing. White is orwell, acceptable. 3. Include a photograph of papers applicant, surfing. 4. Have boxes around key sections. [ATS systems cannot read boxes, advises McLean] 5. Speak in cliches. Do not say: “Analytical thinker, demonstrated leadership ability, team-playing skills, an ability to learn fast on the job.” 6. Papers On Scholarship. List previous jobs and papers responsibilities without saying what your contribution was.

7. Be printed in a strange font. Recruiters are simple beasts, keep it easy. 9. Include every single educational qualification you’ve since you were 16 even though you are now aged 43. You only need to add A Level results if you graduated within the past five years, say recruiters. Looking for a cover letter template that will always (or almost always) get you a banking job? This is it. If you want to get into investment banking straight out of university – if you want to get an analyst job, in other words – you’ll need to be good.

Should you study finance or liberal arts if you want to get into Goldman Sachs? There is on scholarship, absolutely nothing new here whatsoever. Types. Sarah, do you never tire of regurgitating the same articles time and time again? If a candidate has fallen at any of the common application fall, hurdles you have listed above then he/she is papers, simply an idiot. If you continue to how to be happy romantic essay, offer articles that are neither insightful nor productive then please quit your job and research papers start an alternative website that advises on careers outside of IB. Orwell 1984 Essay Questions. I suggest Management Consulting, as this is where you will find the intellectual standard you seek with articles of this nature.

(Or, you could simply refrain from types research papers talking to Recruitment Consultants?) what if you are like me a graduate of king parent child a second tier poly and having worked all your career in types papers writing a small provincial town ? Do I stand a chance ? Regarding Excel, depends on papers on scholarship the role. If you’re applying for something quanty its par for the course and types research writing is akin to sayin “skilled breather” but for papers on scholarship, other roles, especially entry level or back office it doesn’t hurt to mention you have mastered the secret knowledge of Pivot Tables. Research Papers Writing. You would be shocked at how far people get with only Autosum. @Brasenose – Thank you for your contribution.

As a jobs website we have a need to reiterate the qualities required for a good CV from 2013 time to time. Research Papers Writing. Unfortunately, they tend to be fairly unvarying. Management consultants only application, communicate in papers writing the form of matrices, but I will bear your advice in mind. Apropos of first number 9), in your point number 8), the pt grad essays, word is spelled “whets” – not wets. @Thank you Janno. Types Writing. This has been amended. steiner … you are right it s incredible some proficiency in excel and orwell Powerpoint can wow people away… however by types, saying good excel skills you simply add nothing…. if you know how to make pivot table, find a meanigful way to add this to your cv (i.e. data analysis and MI design through excel etc.) @Steiner and Marco: Should it be ‘PivotTable’ or ‘Pivot Table’? I have worked at 8 places, all permanent roles, over king parent essay 20 years. If I decide to be honest and list all these on my CV will it count against me. (I can dress up my role at each of these, that’s not difficult for me to do). @ Brasenose: What a tool you are.

On her Linkedin profille, Sarah lists her interests as “Eating” and “Reading”. I was expecting something more along the lines of “Swimming across the English Channel on weekends.” Slagging Sarah (or indeed anyone) off from types papers writing behind the cloak of anonymity is king parent, a touch unchivalrous. Perhaps she is keeping her genuine interests a secret to protect against stalkers… Harrison Careers aren’t good. I contacted them twice to order a service I was willing to types research papers, pay for and they never replied. Having read this article I don’t regret this. Sarah, Um…I’m a management consultant…at times in IB…and I have no idea what it is to “only communicate in the form of pt grad essays matrices”. I practice ESBS and I’m thinkin’ there ain’t no matrices in research writing any of what I do! Whatever “matrix communications” is, it doesn’t sound very appealing, at least in your eyes!

BTW, it IS important to review essentials from common essay questions 2013 time to time lest we forget our roots, so to types research papers, speak… mdh. Don’t forget the mandatory “Member of sailing club”… virtually every IB CV I see has this. Brasenose, Sarah, on what basis do you think it’s acceptable to slate Management Consulting in relation to this article? Do either of you have any relevant experience beyond looking at the job pages? I suspect Brasenose is common application questions fall, just out of Uni and is about to learn the types research papers writing, hard way that people in real businesses and papers real work situations don’t talk or act like that. It’s an attitude that will hold you back Brasenose. Sarah you sound like you’re joining in research the consultant bashing just to deflect the negative attention from your own sub-standard journalism. To have a reader point out a spelling mistake must be hugely embarassing. Also, I’m no expert but I think you need to lear parent child essay, add “or not” to the end of the research papers, final sentence in your second point 6, either that or change “whether” to “if”. @Chris and Mark and essay fall 2013 all other management consultants – apologies for types research papers, any offence.

My response was written in essay self defence and yes, I did, join the management-consultant-bashing in types research a moment of weakness. For this, I stand corrected. @Chris – Regarding your other points. I see absolutely no need to add ‘or not,’ and point six already states, ‘whether.’ Fortunately I am not ‘hugely embarrassed’ by minor spelling mistakes, just mildly bemused. I think it is papers, acceptable to slate (generalist) Management Consultancy because it is neither a legitimate nor economically viable activity. The only types research writing, people that like Consultants are Consultants. The majority of people that appoint Consultants do so because they were once Consultants themselves. What does ‘absolutely perfect’ mean?

Either something is perfect or imperfect – there are no varying degrees of application questions perfection in research the context that you place your headline in. @Brasenose – I feel you are being pedantic. Had I said ‘The really good investment banking CV’ it wouldn’t have sounded quite the same. Brasenose, you clearly know nothing about Management Consulting, and probably nothing about Investment Banking either. Good luck in your career, because with insight like yours you’re going to need it. Sarah, apology accepted. Thank you very much. Since when participating in triathlon is mundane? @Yuri – it’s not mundane, it’s just not abnormal.

Very interesting and constructive article. Far more interesting than any of the accompanying comments. Mostly common sense for the more experienced, but for the young graduate probably incredibly helpful. should i put my name in the cv. I don’t understand why you are bickering amongst yourselves, it sounds quite unprofessional. It is also so pedantic as to bore anybody trying to sift through to find valid comments about the actual content within Sarah’s advice. As I see it, the advice is there as a guide. You do not need to follow it religiously; I certainly will not, but I can take something from it. You do not even have to read it, especially if you find it does not vary each time it is printed (as one would expect, no?). And if you must comment, please keep your points relevant; and not as a showcase for pt grad essays, how superior you consider your English to be.

Feel free to pick holes in papers my own if you want to be completely ironic. I dont understand why doing something like skateboarding across america would appeal to employers. I would much rather work with someone normal, who was good at their job. For Writing An Opinion. Skateboarding across america and types research papers writing such acitivies just says to me that the he or she cant find anything more useful to do with their time. Triathletes on for writing essay the otherhand are fit by types papers writing, nature and 1984 essay take pride in their health and papers therefore are more likely to take pride in their work. This doing something crazy malarky must be another strange HR requirement that us mere mortals workers cannot grasp. I don’t normally comment on pt grad essays these articles but thought that given the rather hostile reception it has received thus far, it needed to be made clear that this is papers writing, correct and king relationship useful advice. There is little new information here not because of any lack of effort on the part of the author, but rather due to the fact that the framework of a decent CV does not significantly change with time. Anyone – and there are tens of thousands – who has recently graduated and papers writing needs a few pointers on improving their CV, could stand to benefit from this article. This is it’s purpose.

If you are ten years into without romantic love essay a glittering banking career, I would ask why on earth you are scouring Google for CV pointers. Thank you for types research papers writing, the article Sarah. @D – And thank you for saying thank you. I’m applying for an internship and I too would like to thank Sarah for this article . Thanks! I reckon there is no harm to have a bit of guidance to be honest. If you dont like it, the headline says it all – so dont read it. I have 10 years financial services experience – and in line with one of the how to without romantic essay, points (commitment) I am 8 years with my current employer, it is good to have a handy reminder on important points to research writing, include in my cv. Thank you for this article. Just a quick question with regard to skills and layout. According to the second section of what not to say in your CV, you refer to word and Excel not being listed as skills.

How should a person communicate on for writing an opinion essay their CV their all Excel and papers writing word skills if only some where used in previous employment tasks? Are Personal Profiles, Key Skills and IT skills sections still relevant in investment banking CV’s? .Er, languages? Surely the pefect CV will be some form of Eurotrash. I am a Chartered Accountant with 3 years’ post-articles experience in Corporate Finance Advisory at a Big 4 firm and a Level II CFA Candidate. I want to submit my CV to an Investment Bank.

Should I include my University degree transcript together with my CV or is common application essay questions fall 2013, this not necessary ? A response would be much appreciated…. “Reading” is not a hobby? Well, usually by types, “reading” people mean literature and rules for writing literature is actually a hobby. Sorry. Thank you so much for updating this.

The arrogant and pompous comments of types research papers writing some people on this website are astonishing! A common characteristic of king child many seems to papers writing, be, like the without, cowardly cybernats, hiding behind anonymity. Types Papers Writing. Pillocks like Snottynose, sorry – Brasenose, would be put in charge of cleaning the orwell 1984 questions, bogs at my firm until they are suitably chastened. An apology from this likely frustrated (probably in writing many ways!) to the author would be in order. This guidance is not ground breaking nor perfect (nor could it be), but may well be useful to young people trying to start out who realise that they don’t know everything already. A sound and application questions fall 2013 very relevant article by Sarah but the competition to get into a decent IB as a graduate is types research, fierce and requires a world class CV to stand a chance of getting noticed.

As an common application fall, ex Director with Morgan Stanley I saw countless CVs pass over my desk and I know what makes the grade. She is a journalist not banker. Many years ago I aspired to work in IBD and would check this website daily (which I loved to do and found it exceptionally helpful). Thank you Sarah its great to see your name still on here when I first started to explore my career (way back in 2007). I had a check list of “must do’s” that I collected reading this website. I ended up in Asset Management Sales and papers the experience was excellent as I found my people skills were far better than my number skills. Sales, mind you, ended up being a much more profitable career path too. Five years down the lear relationship, track, a change of management and much reflection on what was important I decided to move on and establish my own independent wealth management firm. It has been a hoot and research papers writing find that my yearly sales salary can now be achieved in a number of months. I encourage everyone here to reflect about the requirements for applying for an IBD role. Being young and 1984 questions chasing all of the “elite” activities is fun but there really is types papers, much more to for writing, life.

Now, I look at these requirements and my stomach turns. Would I hire the candidate that has a collection of elite activities? Probably not. I want the hungry guy that hasn’t had a chance and wants to prove ones worth. It is great to types papers writing, dream – but there is a whole world out there which is better than selling your soul to a Wall Street firm.

Most of the people I know started off in papers on scholarship the top tier IBs and Legal Firms and ended up hating it. They also ended up hating themselves. The comment is under moderation. It will appear shortly. eFinancialCareers is a DHI service. DHI is a publicly-traded company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. (Ticker: DHX) © Copyright 2000-2017 eFinancialCareers Ltd.

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7 Ways to Impress Recruiters with Your Resume. Recruiters are a justifiably jaded bunch. Research Papers! (Having been one, I know this for a fact!) They spend large amounts of rules an opinion their time reading resumes and types papers they have seen every trick in the book. This makes them extremely hard to impress. Trust me, if you think you#8217;ve come up with a creative way to hide your career flaws from how to be happy without romantic love, a recruiter, you#8217;re wrong. Types Research Papers! They#8217;ve seen it before and they can spot it a mile off.

So how do you impress them? Here are 7 strategies that work: Don#8217;t use 10 words when 3 will do and don#8217;t pepper your resume with big words because they sound impressive. Recruiters want to common application questions fall 2013, know the types writing, facts about you and they don#8217;t want to wade through oceans of common essay questions fall 2013 #8216;resume speak#8217; to get to those facts. Use simple, clear and direct language throughout your resume and writing you will have a head start on all the #8220;accomplished team leaders leveraging resources across global infrastructures, locations and satellites while delivering exceptional cost savings in cross-functional and highly matrixed organizations.#8221; Resume writing is one of the only endeavors where people seem to think copying is the thing to do. If they#8217;ve seen words frequently on other resumes, they assume those same words belong on 1984 essay questions, theirs. So recruiters have had more than their fill of #8216;dynamic, results-oriented team players#8217; who #8216;think outside the types, box.#8217; Trust me if the orwell 1984 essay, best you can come up with is #8216;think outside the box,#8217; you#8217;re not thinking outside the box. Recruiters are paid by their clients to find candidates who meet certain factual criteria for example, they may need someone with 10 years of industry experience, or someone with a history of types papers working in companies over for writing essay a certain size, or leading teams of 100+. Whatever the criteria, it is fact-based.

Sure, the employer may also have specified some important personality traits, but they can#8217;t be judged based on your resume those will be evaluated during an interview. This means that your resume should cover all the key facts a recruiter needs to know. Research! How many people a manager supervised. How many users an IT person supported. What budgets an executive controlled. Be Happy Without! All these facts must be on your resume and easy to see.

At first glance this might seem contradictory. I just told you to be factual and now I#8217;m saying to show some personality. Types Papers! But by showing some personality, I don#8217;t mean straying from the facts. I just mean that you should present those facts in king fresh and interesting language that reflects who you are. That#8217;s the best way to stand out from all those other dynamic, results-oriented team players#8217;

5. Write a profile that summarizes the important facts. I like to start resumes with a summary that describes my client in just a few lines. Some recruiters skip these altogether, but the ones who read them are not interested in research papers generic claims or descriptions of how fabulous you are. Once again, they want the pt grad essays, facts. Tell them how many years experience you have. Summarize 3 of your best accomplishments.

List the high-profile companies you#8217;ve worked for. In other words, select whatever facts are most impressive about types papers you and use the on scholarship, resume profile to highlight those. Oh and drop the objective statement no recruiter cares what you want. He figures you#8217;ll worry about your own needs. He has a client to types research writing, worry about. Spend almost no time on job responsibilities and instead use the space to tell a story of how you made an rules for writing an opinion impact in each of your jobs. If each section of your resume doesn#8217;t clearly show how you can make a difference, you are losing out on interviews. Don#8217;t tell me that your job required you to handle filing for the whole department instead, tell me that you cleared a backlog of 8 months filing in just 2 weeks and then developed a system to keep things running smoothly.

That#8217;s the kind of information that makes a recruiter want to meet you. It#8217;s one thing to describe how fabulous you are, but it#8217;s quite another to validate those claims by types writing providing evidence. Papers! Have you won awards for your work? If so, highlight them right up front. Have you earned several promotions?

Say so in the introduction. Are all your performance reviews glowing? Tell them! Have all your former managers enthusiastically agreed to be references? Boast about research papers writing that fact!

Any time your worth is validated by someone else, use it on on scholarship, your resume. Impressing recruiters isn#8217;t easy but it#8217;s not impossible if you follow these 7 pointers. If you#8217;d like more help with your resume, check out research writing my free resume writing course.(And if I missed anything, please feel free to add a comment). Love this article? Share it! About the lear relationship, Author. Louise co-founded Blue Sky in types research writing 2002 after a career as an HR executive. Her industry experience includes music, video games, fashion and advertising. She lived and 1984 questions worked in the US for many years, but moved back to her native UK in 2012, where she now lives in the Yorkshire countryside. In addition to her full-time role with Blue Sky, she's a professional artist, so you can imagine why she couldn't answer the 'what do you do with your free time' question! Contact Louise by email.

6 comments on “7 Ways to Impress Recruiters with Your Resume” Be very clear in papers defining the name of the job or job title you are so qualified for. Be specific. Papers! Avoid general terms such as: I am seeking a Management position. Well, OK, but what kind of Management position are you seeking? Marketers signal in on papers, one product at a time and application fall so will you! You will hit the bull’s eye when you define your precise career direction and put that down on research, paper. When your prospective employer reads it, they should have no doubt that you are seeking the pt grad essays, exact job that they need filled. After starting your resume with your contact information, your next section will clearly start with your job objective. Once your prospective employer can see that what you bring to the table is what they want, they will continue to scan for more. Employers separate the wheat from the writing, chaff very quickly.

They look for objectives that meet with their own expectations. Pt Grad Essays! They know there are many prospects out there that really don’t know what they want. Employers are not looking for these types. Your objective will convey that your objective proves you will make the types, kind of contributions to the company that they need and want. King Lear Child Essay! Keep in mind, too, that an employer is looking for a candidate who will meet their own needs, and not for one who is types papers writing looking to meet his or her own goals and 1984 essay agenda. Your goal can be to types research papers writing, offer this company your unique skill set and experience, but, the key is in common application fall 2013 putting that across in a way that proves you are their to service them and not the other way around. Your resume must grab them within the first few seconds, so, your objective must be dynamite! Clearly state the job title you are going for and then add a few key phrases to show you will meet their exact needs#8230;more on this later. Great advice, Louise. I#8217;ve recently recorded an online Career Coaching QA video with clients, because get asked about resumes a lot #8216;How Important Is A Good C.V?#8217; ( Types Research Writing! As you can see, I advise that whilst a resume isn#8217;t appropriate in every case when it *is*, they need to seek out how to be happy without love some good advice on research papers, how to pull theirs together.

I shall be directing them to this site in the future! Three Popular Articles you will kick yourself for 1984 questions not reading. Like what you see? Sign up to get our very best stuff sent by papers email. King Relationship Essay! We hate spam so we#039;ll never do it and we#039;ll never share your email address with anyone. is papers a small team of professional writers and on scholarship job search experts based in the US and types research papers writing the UK. We offer one-of-a-kind resumes, smart career advice and fantastic customer service. We love what we do.

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Essay on types writing, Monopoly Market | Micro Economics. In this essay we will discuss about monopoly market. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Monopoly 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly 3. Monopoly Price Determination 4. Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination 6. Types of Price Discrimination 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination 8. Orwell 1984! Benefits of Price Discrimination and Other Details. Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Essay on the Sources and Types of Monopoly Essay on Monopoly Price Determination Essay on the Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination Essay on the Types of Price Discrimination Essay on the Conditions for Price Discrimination Essay on types research writing, the Benefits of Price Discrimination Essay on the Harms of Price Discrimination Essay on Control and Regulation of Monopoly. Monopoly is a market situation in which there is only one seller of a product with barriers to be happy without romantic essay, entry of others. The product has no close substitutes. In the types research papers writing, words of Salvatore, “Monopoly is the form of market organisation in which there is a single fir m selling a commodity for which there are no close substitutes.” The cross elasticity of demand with every other product is very low.

This means that no other firms produce a similar product. Be Happy Without Essay! Thus, the monopoly firm is itself an industry and writing the monopolist faces the industry demand curve. The demand curve for his product is, therefore, relatively stable and slopes downward to king lear essay, the right, given the tastes and incomes of his customers. It means that more of the product can be sold at a lower price than at a higher price. He is a price-maker who can set the types papers, price to his maximum advantage. However, it does not mean that he can set both price and output. He can do either of the two things. His price is determined by his demand curve, once he selects his output level.

Or, once he sets the price for his product, his output is determined by pt grad essays, what consumers will take at that price. Papers! In any situation, the ultimate aim of the monopolist is to have maximum profits. Essay # 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly : Monopoly may arise from a number of king parent child essay sources and is of various types: First, grant of a patent right to a firm by the government to make, use or sell its own invention. Second, control of a strategic raw material for an exclusive production process. Third, a natural monopoly enjoyed by a firm when it supplies the entire market at a lower unit cost due to increasing economies of types scale, just as in the supply of electricity, gas, etc. Fourth, government may grant exclusive right to a private firm to be happy romantic, operate under its regulation. Such privately owned and government regulated monopolies are mostly in public utilities and are called legal monopolies such as in transport, communications, etc. Fifth, there may be government owned and regulated monopolies such as postal services, water and sewer systems of municipal corporations, etc. Sixth, government may grant licence to a sole firm and protect it to exclude foreign rivals. Seventh, the sole manufacturer of a product may adopt a limit pricing policy in order to prevent the entry of new firms.

Essay # 3. Monopoly Price Determination : We study the determination of monopoly price in the short-run and the long-run. The analysis of the determination of the price, output and profits under monopoly is based on the following assumptions: (1) There is one seller or producer of a homogeneous product. (2) There are no close substitutes for the product. (3) There is pure competition in the factor market so that the price of each input he buys is given to him. (4) The monopolist is types research a rational being who aims at maximum profit with the minimum of costs. (5) There are many buyers on the demand side but none is in a position to influence the how to romantic essay, price of the writing, product by his individual actions. Pt Grad Essays! Thus the papers writing, price of the product is lear parent child relationship given for the consumer. (6) The monopolist does not charge discriminating price. He treats all consumers alike and charges a uniform price for his product.

(7) The monopoly price is uncontrolled. There are no restrictions on the power of the types research papers writing, monopolist. (8) There is no threat of entry of other firms. Price and Output Determination : Given these assumptions, the price, output and profits under monopoly are determined by the forces of demand and supply. The monopolist has complete control over the supply of the product. He is also a price- maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. But he cannot fix the price and output simultaneously.

Either he can fix the price and pt grad essays leave the output to be determined by the customer demand at research papers, that price. King Lear Parent Relationship Essay! Or, he can fix the output to be produced and leave the price to be determined by the consumer demand for his product. Thus, whatever price he fixes and whatever output he decides to produce is determined by the conditions of demand. The demand curve faced by a monopolist is definite and is downward sloping to the right. It is his average revenue curve (AR). Its corresponding marginal revenue curve (MR) is also downward sloping and lies below it. But the manner and extent to types papers, which the monopolist will be able to influence price or output will depend upon the elasticity of demand for his product.

If the demand for lear parent relationship essay his product is highly elastic, he can sell more by a small reduction in price. Types Research Papers! If, on the other hand, the demand is less elastic, the tendency will be to raise the price and profit more by selling less. Given the how to be happy love essay, demand for his product, the monopolist can select the types papers writing, most profitable output against this demand. His cost of production may be rising, falling or constant. On Scholarship! Whatever the nature of the cost curves- straight line, convex or concave—the monopoly equilibrium will take place at a point where the marginal revenue equals marginal cost i.e. ?R /?Q = ?C /?Q. The monopolist maximises his profits at the price where the difference between total revenue and total costs is the maximum i.e. Max ? = TR-TC. In other words, the monopolist gains the types research papers, maximum when he equates marginal revenue ( MR) to how to without, marginal cost (MC).

He may do this either by estimating the demand price and the cost of producing various outputs or by a process of trial and error. Geometrically speaking, the point of monopoly equilibrium is one where the MC curve cuts the MR curve from below or from the left, and a perpendicular from it to the AR curve determines price. It implies that. Price MC = MR. In fact, monopoly price = MC –E/E-1. AR (Price) = MR MC –E/E-1 and MC = MR. Monopoly Price = MC E/E-1. Thus monopoly price is a function of the research writing, MC and the elasticity of demand. We discuss below the how to be happy without romantic, determination of monopoly price in the short period and the long period.

(A) Short-Run Monopoly Equilibrium : In the short-run, the monopoly firm attains equilibrium when its profits are maximised or losses are minimised. Like the competitive equilibrium, this analysis can also he discussed in terms of the total revenue-total cost approach and the marginal revenue-cost approach. Total Revenue-Cost Approach: In Figure 1. Writing! TC is the total cost curve showing a constant rise in the total costs as output increases. TR is the total revenue curve which goes on rising to common application essay fall, begin with, then flattens and types papers later on slopes downward, showing fall in total receipts after a given point. The monopolist will maximise his profits at that output where the difference between TR and TC is the an opinion, greatest.

This will be the level at which the slopes of TR and TC curves equal. Accordingly, P is the equilibrium point as determined by the tangents at points P and types T on the TR and TC curves respectively. A and are the break-even points where TR = TC. To the left of A and right of B, the monopolist is incurring losses because TC TR. Thus his maximum profits will be PT and lear parent child relationship he will sell OM output at MP Price.

Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach: In the short-run, the monopolist can change the price as well as the quantity of the product. If he intends producing more, he can do so by increasing the use of types writing variable inputs. He may start two shifts of production; hire more labour, raw materials, etc. But he cannot change his fixed plant and equipment. On the other hand, if he wants to restrict his output, he may dispense with certain workers, work for less hours and use less of the variable factors. In any case, his price cannot be below the questions 2013, average variable costs. It implies that he can continue to incur losses during the short period so long as he covers his average variable cost (AVC) of production. Price is determined when (1) P SMC = MR, and (2) The SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. It is at this equilibrium point that profits are maximised or losses are minimised. In Figure 2, SAC and SMC are the short-run average and marginal revenue curves respectively.

AVC is the average variable cost curve. D/AR is the demand curve (the average revenue curve) whose corresponding mar­ginal revenue curve is MR. The short-run monopoly equilibrium is at types, point E where the how to be happy love, SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. The monopolist sells OM output at MP (=OB) price. The price MP, being above the short-run average cost MA, the monopolist earns AP profits per unit of output.

Thus total monopoly profits are AP ? CA= CAPB. In Figure 3, the short-run equilibrium of the research writing, monopolist is shown when he earns only normal profits. The equality of SMC curve and MR curve at point E determines OM output which is sold at MP Price. Since the SAC curve is tangent to the AR curve at this level of output, the monopolist earns normal profits. The monopolist knows that any level of output other than OM would bring losses because the SAC curve would be higher than the AR curve. Figure 4 shows a short-run situation in which the monopolist incurs losses. As usual, the equilibrium point E is determined by the equality of SMC and MR. King Child Relationship Essay! But the monopoly price MP, as fixed by demand conditions, does not cover the short-run average costs of production PA. It just covers the average variable costs MP, represented by the tangency of the demand curve D and the AVC curve at point P. PA is thus per unit loss which the research, monopolist incurs. Total losses are equal to BP x PA = BPAC.

In this figure, P is the shut­down point for this firm. If the market demand conditions lower the price from MP downward, the monopolist will temporarily stop production. His firm will close down. (B) Long-Run Monopoly Equilibrium: In the long-run, the monopolist can remain in rules for writing an opinion essay business only research papers writing if he is able to papers on scholarship, earn super-normal profits.

If he was incurring losses in the short-run, he has enough time to make changes in his existing plant in types research writing the long- run so as to maximise his profits. With entry of new firms ruled out, he can install a plant which gives him maximum profits. The scale of his plant depends upon the position of the common application, demand (AR) curve and research papers its corresponding MR curve. The most profitable level of output is at common 2013, the point where the LMC curve intersects the MR curve from below and the SMC curve passes through this point. Further, the SAC curve must be tangent to the LAC curve at this level of output.

Suppose in the long-run, the monopolist installs an types research papers writing, efficient plant represented by be happy without romantic love essay, the curve SAC 1 and SMC 1 in Figure 5. On this plant, the long-run profits are the maximum at the output OM where LMC = MR at point E. Since at this level the short-run average cost curve SAC 1 is tangent to the LAC curve at writing, Point A, the SMC 1 curve is king parent child relationship also equal to types papers, the LMC curve and to the MR curve (SMC 1 = LMC =MR) at the equilibrium point E. Thus when the application essay questions 2013, monopoly firm is in long-run equilibrium, it is also in short- run equilibrium. By changing its scale of plant in the long-run, the monopolist charges the price OB (=MP), sells the output OM and earns BPAC monopoly profits. However this plant is less than the optimum size because the monopoly firm is not producing at the lowest point L of the LAC curve. It has some excess capacity. Types Writing! It is not in a position to 1984 essay, take full advantage of the economies of scale due to the small size of the types papers writing, market for his product.

Essay # 4. Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure: In monopoly, the monopolist is able to earn monopoly profit by his superior bargaining power. Pt Grad Essays! He is in types a better position to exploit the market to his advantage. He gains more by putting restraints on his actual and potential competitors. Thus monopoly power refers to parent child essay, the restraints imposed over his competitors by the monopolist through his price-output policies.

There are two important methods of monopoly power: First, the difference between marginal cost and price. Since in Monopoly, the marginal cost is always less than the types papers writing, price, the greater the difference between the two, the larger is the monopoly power. Second, the difference between monopoly super-normal profits and competitive super-normal profits is pt grad essays also considered as the measure of monopoly power. The greater the difference between the two, the larger is the degree of monopoly. However, economists have given other measures of monopoly power.

We discuss a few. But no method is regarded as perfect. One of the earliest methods to measure monopoly power is expressed by research, Prof. Abba P. Lerner in terms of the bargaining strength. Pt Grad Essays! The difference between price and marginal cost is the measure of the degree of monopoly power. If P is price and MC the marginal cost, the formula for measuring the degree of monopoly power is P-MC/P. A seller’s monopoly power depends upon types research papers his ability to sell his product at a price much above his marginal cost. The larger the gap between price and marginal cost, the greater is the king lear parent relationship essay, monopoly power.

A competitive seller has no monopoly power at all, because under perfect competition P = MC. Types Papers! In all cases, the above formula will give zero. But in the case of overproduction, MC may exceed price and the index will have a negative value. Moreover, if the seller is a monopolist, the difference between price and marginal cost is always there. The index of monopoly power will, therefore, vary between zero and unity. For instance, if P is Rs.4 and MC Rs.2 the index of monopoly power will be 1/2 i.e. (4-2)/4. It is, however, not easy for 1984 essay a seller to raise the price of his product in order to increase his bargaining price. Types! The attempt to raise profits by a price rise may be neutralized by the reduction in his sales resulting from raising the essay questions, price. Types Research! Therefore, the degree of monopoly power is measured in terms of the elasticity of demand and king lear relationship essay the formula is:

Degree of monopoly power (DMP) = (P – MC)/ P. For profit maximisation, MC = MR, and the formula becomes. DMP= or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, By substituting MR = P E-1/E in the above equation, DMP= (P-P E-1/E)/P = P- PE +P/E/P = PE- PE+P/EP = 1/E. Or the inverse of the research writing, elasticity of demand, P/P-MR. Lerner’s measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where AC and MC curves are the firm’s average and marginal cost curves, while D and MR are its demand and marginal revenue curves.

The monopolist firm maximizes its profit at point E where MC = MR. It produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The ratio PEIPM is termed as the degree of monopoly power. The degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the P-MR elasticity of essay fall demand i.e., P-MR/P. In Figure 6, P is equal to PM while MR is equal to EM. Rewrite the formula, The formula indicates that the degree of papers writing monopoly power is the reciprocal of the price elasticity of demand E. The lower is the price elasticity of demand the greater is the orwell 1984, degree of monopoly power. The higher the elasticity, lower the monopoly power. If, for instance, price elasticity of demand is 2, the degree of monopoly power will be one-half. On the other hand, the types, elasticity coefficient of 1/2 will indicate a monopoly power of 2. Though interesting, this measure of monopoly power has many limitations.

First, monopoly power does not depend exclusively on the difference between price and cost. Be Happy Essay! It also depends on the restriction of output by the monopolist seller. The index showing the degree of monopoly may be equal in the case of two firms. But one may have under utilisation on its existing plant and types papers writing equipment while the other may show underinvestment. The above formula fails to explain these important aspects of monopoly power. Secondly, the Lerner formula is incapable of king lear child relationship measuring non-price competition. Again the index of monopoly power may be the same in case of two firms. Papers Writing! But one firm may be engaged in intensive non-price competition than the other firm. It may thus be selling a large quantity of its product. Lerner’s formula does not throw any light on this aspect of the problem.

Thirdly, even the case of absolute monopoly power is difficult to explain in terms of this formula. The price elasticity of demand measures income and substitution effects of papers on scholarship a change in price on consumer’s demand. But under absolute monopoly where competition is absent, the substitution effect is zero and the income effect is the only effect. Thus the writing, price elasticity of demand under monopoly measures only the income effect which may be negative or positive. The main flaw in Lerner’s measure is that it does not attach any definite coefficient of elasticity to the degree of monopoly power. Fourthly, Lerner’s measure is essentially static. It does not reveal whether the level of marginal cost is due to superior technology or the result of obsolete methods of production. Lastly, the Lerner measure is affected by changes over time in the ratio of capital to labour in an industry. Despite these limitations, economists like Dunlop and Kalecki used this index to measure the degree of monopoly power.

The former used this in the case of selected industries and orwell the latter for the whole economy. Prof. Robert Triffin has improved upon Lerner’s measure by suggesting price cross-elasticity instead of papers price elasticity of demand. Price cross-elasticity of papers on scholarship demand measures the degree of substitution between the products of two firms when a change in the price of one firm’s product affects the demand for the other’s product. When the cross-elasticity of demand between the product of one firm and of all other firms is zero, the reciprocal of cross-elasticity would be infinity and the firm would have absolute monopoly power. According to Triffin, under pure monopoly, the cross-elasticity of types research papers demand is zero and the monopolist takes advantage of absolute monopoly power.

On the other hand, cross-elasticity is infinite under perfect competition and the firm’s monopoly power is zero. First, like Lerner’s measure, the Triffin measure is unsuitable for practical purposes. Pure monopoly like pure competition is unreal. Secondly, it is not possible to find out a definite coefficient of cross-elasticity of demand in pt grad essays the case of any firm. Thirdly, the method of measuring monopoly power in terms of cross-elasticity of demand is not correct because its coefficient is zero both under pure monopoly and pure competition.

But monopoly power is found under pure monopoly rather than under pure competition. Prof. J.S. Papers Writing! Bain suggests the child relationship, size of types research super-normal profit as the degree of monopoly power. He uses the divergence between price and average cost as the measure of monopoly power. Under perfect competition, super-normal profits are competed away with the entry of new firms in the industry. So the degree of monopoly power is pt grad essays zero when competition is pure. Types Papers Writing! It is, therefore, under monopoly with no threat of entry of new firms that monopoly profits are the 1984 questions, largest and the degree of monopoly power the types papers, absolute.

The degree of monopoly power will, however, be small where the threat of new entrants exists. Thus the degree of monopoly power is king lear child relationship measured by the size of super-normal profits. The greater the strength of the seller, the papers writing, larger profits he will earn without any threat of new entrants. The Bain measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where the monopoly firm produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The difference between price and average cost (AC) is PC at OM per unit of output. Thus A PC are the super-normal profits which measure monopoly power. But this measure is also not free from how to essay shortcomings. First, it is difficult to types writing, estimate the net income accruing to a firm. It depends upon the extent of its amortization of the rules for writing essay, cost of fixed factors. Secondly, there are other difficulties, like the deduction of interest and wages of management from the firm’s net income in order to calculate its profits. Thirdly, all profits accruing to a firm are not monopoly profits.

Firms, whether competitive or monopolistic, often earn windfall profits when demand and cost conditions change. They, therefore, need to be deducted from total net profits to arrive at pure monopoly profits. Lastly, excess profits may be due to types, monopolistic selling practices, monopolistic buying practices, or the result of increase in papers on scholarship efficiency, newer manufacturing techniques and expert man­agement. Prof. Rothschild measures the degree of monopoly power as the ratio of the research writing, slope of a firm’s demand curve to the slope of the industry demand curve. In Figure 7, dd represents the de­mand curve of a firm which is elastic than the industry demand curve DD. Thus. DMP=Slope of dd/Slope of questions fall DD= (KL/KR)/(KN/KR) = KL/KN. Since under pure competition the demand curve of research a firm is horizontal, the Rothschild index equals zero. Under pure monopoly there being no difference between firm and industry, this index equals unity.

Therefore, the degree of monopoly power exists between zero and unity. The Rothschild measure of the degree of monopoly power is vaguer than the other measures. First, it is not possible to estimate the exact shape of the demand curve for the relevant output range. Second, this index requires that all competitors keep their prices constant or they readjust their prices so as to keep them identical with the price being charged by the monopolist. Lastly, this measure is based exclusively on demand factors and neglects supply and cost conditions. Essay # 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination: Price discrimination means, charging different prices from papers different customers or for different units of the same product. Research! In the words of on scholarship Joan Robinson: “The act of selling the same article, produced under single control at different prices to different buyers is known as price discrimination.” Price discrimination is possible when the monopolist sells in different markets in such a way that it is types research writing not possible to transfer any unit of the commodity from the cheap market to the dearer market. Price discrimination is, however, not possible under perfect competition, even if the two markets could be kept separate. Since the market demand in each market is perfectly elastic, every seller would try to lear parent relationship essay, sell in writing that market in which he could get the highest price.

Competition would make the price equal in both the markets. Thus price discrimination is an opinion essay possible only when markets are imperfect. Essay # 6. Types Research Writing! Types of Price Discrimination: Price discrimination is of many types: Firstly, it may be personal based on how to without love, the income of the customer. For example, doctors and lawyers charge different fees from different customers on the basis of their incomes. Higher fees are charged to rich persons and writing lower to the poor. Secondly, price discrimination may be based on the nature of the on scholarship, product. Paperback is cheaper than the types research, deluxe edition of the papers on scholarship, same book, for the former is bought by the majority of readers, and research papers the latter by libraries. Unbranded products, like open tea, are sold at without love essay, lower prices than branded products like Brooke Bond or Tata tea. Economy size tooth pastes are relatively cheaper than ordinary-sized tooth pastes.

In the case of services too, price discrimination is writing practiced when off-season rates of be happy romantic love essay hotels at hill stations are very low as compared to the peak season. Dry-cleaning firms charge for two while they clean three clothes during off-season; whereas they charge more for quick service in peak season. Thirdly, price discrimination is also related to types papers, the age, sex and status of the customers. Barbers charge less for children’s haircuts. Certain cinema halls in small towns in India admit ladies only at lower rates. Military personnel in uniform are admitted at concessional rates in certain cinema houses. Fourthly, discrimination is also based on pt grad essays, the time of research papers writing service. Cinema houses at certain places, like New Delhi, charge half the rates in the morning show than in the afternoon shows. Fifthly, there is geographical or local discrimination when a monopolist sells in one market at a higher price than in the other market. Lastly, discrimination may he based on the use of the orwell questions, product.

Railways charge different rates for different compartments or for different services. Less is charged for papers the transportation of coal than for bales of cloth on the same route. State power boards charge low rates for industrial use than for domestic consumption of electricity. Essay # 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination: For price discrimination to exist the following conditions must be satisfied: Price discrimination is possible when there is lear child some degree of types market imperfection. The individual seller is able to divide and keep his market into separate parts only if it is an opinion essay imperfect. Customers do not move readily from one market to the other because of ignorance or inertia. (2) Agreement between Rival Sellers: Price discrimination also takes place when the seller of a commodity is a monopolist or when rivals enter into an agreement for the sale of the product at different prices to different customers.

This is research usually possible in the sale of direct services. A single surgeon may charge a high fee for an operation from a rich patient and a relatively low fee from a poor patient. Lawyers charge from their clients in common essay fall proportion to the degree of types research writing risk or amount of money involved in a law suit. Price discrimination is possible in the case of services because there is no possibility of resale. (3) Geographical or Tariff Barriers: Discrimination may occur on geographical grounds. An Opinion Essay! The monopolist may discriminate between home and foreign buyers by selling at a lower price in the foreign market than in the domestic market. This type of discrimination is known as “dumping”. It can only be successful if the types papers, commodities sold abroad can be prevented from being returned to the home country by tariff restrictions. Sometimes transport costs are so high that they act as a safeguard against the return of dumped goods. Discrimination is possible when buyers need the same service in connec­tion with differentiated products.

Railways charge different rates for papers on scholarship the transport of coal and copper. For they know that it is physically impossible for a copper merchant to writing, convert copper into coal for the purpose of transporting it cheaper. It also applies to discrimination based on age, sex, status and income of buyers of services. 1984 Questions! For instance, a rich man cannot become poor for the sake of getting cheap medical facilities. Discrimination also occurs when small manufacturers sell goods made to order. Research Papers Writing! They charge different rates to different buyers depending upon the intensity of their demand for pt grad essays the product. Shoe makers and tailors charge a high price for the same variety from those customers who want them earlier than others. For the same variety of research papers writing shoes and clothes, different buyers are also charged different prices because individual buyers are not in a position to know the price being charged to others.

(6) Artificial Difference between Goods: A monopolist may create artificial difference by be happy romantic love essay, presenting the same commodity in different quantities. He may present it under different names and research labels, one for the rich and snobbish buyers and common application essay the other for the ordinary. Thus he may charge different prices for substantially the same product. A washing soap manufacturer may wrap a small quantity of the soap, give it a separate name and charge a higher price. He may sell it at Rs.20 per kg. as against writing Rs.18 for essay the unwrapped soap. (7) Differences in Demand Elasticity: For price discrimination, the demand in the separate markets must be considerably different. Different prices can be charged in separate markets based on differences of elasticity of demand.

Low price is charged where demand is more elastic and papers writing high price in the market with a less elastic demand. (4) Price Determination under Monopoly Discrimination: Price discrimination occurs when the monopolist divides the buyers of his commodity or service into two or more groups and charges a different price to each group. We take the case of a monopolist who sells his commodity in how to be happy two separate markets. This analysis is based on the following conditions: (i) The aim of the monopolist is to maximise his profits. He, therefore, produces that output at which his marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Types Research Papers! Since he sells in pt grad essays two separate markets, he adjusts the quantity such wise in each market that marginal revenues in both markets are equal. Given the marginal cost of producing the commodity, the most profitable monopoly output will be determined at a point where the combined marginal revenue of both the markets equals the marginal cost.

Or, monopoly profit = MR 1 = MR 2 = MC. If the marginal revenue is greater in market (one) than in market 2 (two), the types research, monopolist will sell less to market 2 and pt grad essays shift this quantity to market 1. This will tend to papers, raise the for writing an opinion essay, price in writing market 2 and lower it in market 1 up to a point where marginal revenues in the two markets are equal. (ii) The number of buyers in each market is very large and for writing an opinion there is perfect competition among them. (iii) There is no possibility of resale from one market to the other. (iv) The monopolist’s demand curve in each market is downward sloping which implies that his monopoly in selling the commodity is well established in the two markets. (v) Lastly, the most important condition for price discrimination is that the elasticities of demand in the two markets must be different. It means that the research, price charged in pt grad essays each market must be different from the other. The price will be high in the market with the less elastic demand and low in the market with the high elastic demand. In the words of Joan Robinson: “The sub-markets will be arranged in ascending order of papers their elasticities, the highest price being charged in the least elastic market and the lowest price in the most elastic market.”

Figure 8 illustrates price and 1984 questions output determination under price discrimination. The monopolist sells his product in two markets, 1 and 2. Market 1 has high elastic demand for the product and market 2 has low elastic demand. Accordingly, the demand curve in market 1 is D 1 and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is types research writing MR 1 and in market 2 the corresponding curves are D 2 and MR 2 . Panel of the figure shows MR T , the total marginal revenue curve, drawn by the lateral summation of MR 1 , and MR 2 , curves, and MC is the marginal cost curve. The point of intersection between the MR T and MC curves at E determines the equilibrium level of output OQ T . The monopolist divides this output between the two markets by king lear parent essay, equating the marginal cost Q T E with the marginal revenue of each market. To equal the marginal costs Q T E with MR, and MR, draw a line EA parallel to the horizontal axis. It cuts MR, at research papers, E, and MR, at E 2 which become equilibrium points for the sale of output in each market. Thus, the quantity sold in market 1 is papers on scholarship OQ, and in market 2 it is OQ 2 , so that OQ 1 + OQ 2 equal the total output OQ T . The price in the highly elastic (foreign) market is Q, P, and in the less elastic (domestic) market Q 2 P 2 and types papers writing Q 2 P 2 Q 1 P 1 Total profits earned by the discriminating monopolist are MEC. We may conclude that under price discrimination the monopolist sells his product in two separate markets with different elasticities of demand so that he maximises his profits when he sells more at a lower price in the foreign market with elastic demand and sells less at a higher price in domestic market with less elastic demand. It follows that when marginal revenues equal and prices differ in pt grad essays the two markets, price discrimination is possible and profitable. (5) Dumping: International Price Discrimination:

Dumping is international price discrimination in which an papers, exporter firm sells a portion of its output in a foreign market at a very low price and the remaining output at a high price in pt grad essays the home market. The home market is controlled or protected and papers the foreign market is rules for writing an opinion essay free or open. Heberler defines dumping as: “The sale of types research papers goods abroad at a price which is lower than the selling price of the same goods at the same time and in the same circumstances at papers, home, taming account of differences in transport costs.” The analysis of price-output determination under dumping assumes that: (a) Total output is not fixed, it can be varied; (b) Marginal revenues must be equal in the two markets, and. (c) The foreign market is perfectly competitive and the home market is monopolistic, so that the demand curve facing the monopolistic in the foreign market is types research papers perfectly elastic and in the home market less elastic. Given, the above assumptions, price, output will be determined by the equality of the total marginal revenue curve and the marginal cost curve of producing the commodity. King Parent Child! Figure 9 illustrates price-output determination under dumping. The foreign market demand curve faced by the monopolist is the horizontal line PD F which is also the MR curve because the foreign market is assumed to be perfectly elastic. The demand curve in the home market with a less elastic demand for the product is the downward sloping curve D H and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR^ The lateral summation of the MR H and PD curves leads to the formation of TRED F as the combined marginal revenue curve.

In order to determine the quantity of the product to be produced by the monopolist, we take the marginal cost curve MC which cuts the combined marginal revenue curve TRED F from types research writing below at point E. Thus OF output will be produced for sale in the two markets. Since EF is the marginal cost, equilibrium in pt grad essays the domestic market will be established at point R where the types research, marginal cost EF equals the MR H curve. Now OH quantity will be sold at HM price in the home market and the remaining quantity HF will be sold in the foreign market at OP price. Thus the common application essay questions 2013, monopolist sells more in the foreign market with the more elastic demand at papers, a low price and less in the home market with the less elastic demand at a high price. His total profits are TREC. Essay # 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination: Pigou and John Robinson have analysed the circumstances under which price discrimination is harmful or beneficial to society. In many cases where there is essay perfect competition or simple monopoly, production of a certain commodity is writing not possible because its average cost curve lies above its demand (AR) curve. But under price discrimination the average cost curve is likely to be below the average revenue curve at orwell, some point.

Thus, if there were no discrimination, society would be deprived of the use of certain commodities and services. As emphasised by Mrs. Robinson: “It may happen, for instance, that a railway would not be built, or a country doctor would not set up in practice, if discrimination were forbidden. From the point of view of society, it is only necessary that the concern should make sufficient profits to papers, maintain the for writing an opinion essay, efficiency of the plant, and types research writing not a profit which would have been sufficient to justify the original investment.” If a doctor charges a uniform fee to all his patients, his income may be so low as to induce him to leave his private practice and be happy join some hospital. The community is thus deprived of his services in the particular area where he is types writing practising. If, however, he charges more fee to his rich patients than to the ordinarily, his income is likely to be so high as to rules for writing an opinion essay, induce him to stay in research papers writing that area.

Similarly, the existence of railways depends upon their charging higher rates to some customers than to others in the same train. If discrimination occurs under conditions of falling average costs, it is actually beneficial to consumers because it results in larger output for the market. This is illustrated in Figure 10 where D is the average revenue curve of the discriminating monopolist and d/MR is the ordinary demand curve which becomes the MR curve to the discriminator. The average cost curve AC lies above the market demand curve d throughout its length. So no production is possible at any price on the ordinary d curve.

But production is possible under price discrimination because the demand curve D of the orwell 1984 essay, discriminating monopolist lies above the downward sloping portion of the AC curve. Equilibrium is established at E where MC = MR and the output OQ is produced and sold at QP price and the discriminator g earns RP profits per unit of research output. Price discrimination is justified if it helps in rules for writing an opinion promoting economic welfare. Governments usually permit or even encourage price discrimination if it leads to the production of some public utility service, such as telephone, telegraph, or rail transportation. In public utility services, the higher income groups are charged higher prices and the funds so collected may be used to types research papers writing, subsidies the goods meant for papers on scholarship the poor. Price discrimination is research writing also beneficial to society for it helps in reducing inequalities of personal incomes when higher prices or fees are charged to the rich than to the poor. In public utility services, the higher price charged to the higher income groups serves as a tool for income redistribution because the government may use these funds to subsidies the lower income groups. Thus price discrimination helps in promoting social warfare. Price discrimination is not only beneficial but is also justified when a country sells a commodity cheaper abroad than at common fall, home. Types Writing! If a foreign market is elastic, more will be sold at a lower price. It means expansion in output, the essay questions, use of larger resources of the economy, more employment and income to the community.

Price discrimination of this type proves particularly useful if the industry obeys the law of decreasing costs. It implies the realisation of larger economies of scale, lowering of costs and prices to the home market also. It is possible that without price discrimination the commodity would not have been produced at all. Types Research Papers! In that case, had it been imported from abroad, it would have cost the economy more both in rules for writing an opinion essay pecuniary and real terms. Some of the country’s resources being used for the production of this commodity would have remained idle and instead of receiving income from abroad, its wealth would have floated to the other country. May be, economies of scales could be realised only when the monopolist started producing for the foreign market.

Hence price discrimination is justified. Essay # 9. Harms of Price Discrimination : Price discrimination is, however, harmful to society when it leads to mal-distribution of resources as between different uses with the result that output, employment and papers writing income are not maximised. It may lead to the diversion of resources from their socially optimal uses. It leads to exploitation when people are made to pay higher prices for smaller quantities. Even on international plane when price discrimination takes to form of dumping, it. Deliberately shatters the economy of the other country by orwell questions, undercutting the types writing, foreign producers and papers on scholarship forcing them to close their business.

Such discrimination is highly undesirable. Essay # 10. Control and Regulation of types writing Monopoly: There are three methods of papers controlling and regulating monopoly : First, government may adopt anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. Second, government may either run natural monopolies directly or regulate monopolies by imposing price ceilings. Research! Third, government may regulate monopolies through taxation. Besides, there are certain fears that prevent the monopolist from charging a very high price in order to papers on scholarship, earn large super-normal profits. They are discussed as under. (1) Fear of Potential Rivals. The fear of potential competitors may prevent a monopolist to charge a very high price to research papers, his customers.

If he sets a vary high price, he will earn large super-normal profits. Attracted by child relationship, these monopoly profits, new entrants may force themselves into the monopolised industry. The monopolist, being averse to the entry of new firms, would prefer to charge a reasonable price and papers thus earn only a modest profit. (2) Fear of Government Regulation. Common Application Fall! The same consideration applies to potential government regula­tion.

The monopolist is well aware that charging unusually high prices or earning abnormal profits would attract the attention of the government. Rather than risk government regulation, he may voluntarily fix a low price, and earn less monopoly profit. (3) Fear of Nationalisation. The fear of nationalisation also prevents the types research papers writing, monopolist to wield an common questions 2013, absolute monopoly power. If the product or service which the monopolist provides is a public utility service, there is every likelihood of the state taking over the monopoly organisation in public interest.

This consideration may prevent the monopolist from charging too high a price. (4) Fear of Public Reaction. The monopolist is also aware of public reaction if he charges a very high price and types research writing earns huge profits. Voices may be raised against how to be happy love the monopoly firm in parliament to press for papers writing anti- monopoly legislation. (5) Fear of Boycott. People may even boycott the use of monopolised service and common application questions start their own service instead. For instance, if in a big city taxi operators combine to charge high rates, people may boycott taxi service and even start operating their own services by forming a cooperative society. Naturally, such a fear compels monopoly firms to charge reasonable prices and earn only types writing nominal profits.

(6) Fear of Substitutes. Then there is the fear of substitutes. In fact, the 1984, fear of substitutes is the most potent factor which prevents monopoly firms from charging very high prices and thereby earn super-normal profits. The monopoly product has some substitute though it is not a close substitute. Therefore, the fear of the research papers, emergence of very close substitutes is always uppermost in the mind of the monopolist which acts as a restraint on child essay, his absolute power. (7) Differences in Elasticities of Demand.

The differences in the short-and long-run elasticities of demand for the monopoly product also limit monopoly power. In the short-run, the monopolist can charge a very high price because customers take time to adjust their habits, tastes and incomes to some other substitutes. The demand for the monopoly product is, therefore, less elastic in the short-run. But in research writing the long-run, the fear of relationship public opinion, emergence of substitutes, government regulations, etc. Papers Writing! will force the monopolist to set a low price. Rules For Writing Essay! He will view his demand curve as elastic, and sell more at a low price.” (i) Control of Monopoly through Legislation: Government tries to control monopoly by anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. These measures tend to: (i) Remove restrictive trade practices and fixation of high prices; (ii) Reduce the incidence of market-sharing agreements; (Hi) Remove unfair competition; (iv) Restrict the control of types papers very large share of the market; (v) Prevent unfair price discrimination; (vi) Restrict mergers in order to avoid market domination; and. (vii) Prohibit exclusive agreements between the producer and papers retailer to the detriment of other traders. (ii) Control of Monopoly through Price Regulation:

We now take the case where the types, government feels that monopoly price is very high and tries to bring it down by price regulation. To regulate monopoly, the government imposes price ceiling so that monopoly price should be near or equal to competitive price. This is done when the government appoints a regulating authority or commission which fixes a price for the monopoly product below the orwell essay, monopoly price, thereby increasing output and lowering the types research papers, price for the consumer. This is illustrated in Figure 11. Before the regulation of application essay monopoly price, the monopolist is making PF x OM profits by selling OM output at MP (=OA) price. Suppose the state regulatory authority sets the maximum price QK (=OB) at the competitive level.

The new demand curve facing the writing, monopolist becomes BKD. Its corresponding MR curve becomes BKHMR. Now the monopolist behaves as a perfectly competitive producer. He produces and sells OQ output at point where the MC curve cuts the BKHMR curve from below. As a result of price regulation, the monopolist increases his output to OQ from OM. He still makes super- normal profits equal to KG x OQ that are smaller than the pt grad essays, monopoly profits (PF x OM) at research writing, the unregulated price MP.

If the price regulatory authority fixes the monopoly price WS equal to the average cost where the AC curve cuts the an opinion essay, D/AR curve at point S, the monopolist would be able to place a greater quan­tity of papers output OW in common essay questions 2013 the market. At this level, the monopolist would earn only types research normal profits. Orwell 1984 Questions! In such a situation, the monopolist would continue to produce so long as he is getting a fair return on his capital investment. But the regulatory authority cannot force him to increase output beyond OW because the monopolist would not be operating at types research writing, a loss. (iii) Control of rules for writing essay Monopoly through Taxation: Taxation is another way of controlling monopoly power. The tax may be levied lump-sum without any regard to the output of the monopolist. Or, it may be proportional to the output, the amount of tax rising with the increase in research writing output. By levying a lump-sum tax, the government can reduce or even eliminate monopoly profits without affecting either the lear parent child relationship essay, price or output of the product. A lump-sum tax imposed on the monopoly firm is shown in research writing Figure 12 where AC and papers on scholarship MC are the average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax is levied. The monopolist earns APRT super-normal profits by types research, selling OM product at MP Price.

The imposition of the lump-sum tax is, in fact, a fixed cost to the monopoly firm because it is independent of output. It, therefore, raises the pt grad essays, average cost by the amount of the tax TC so that the AC curve shifts upward as AC ] but the marginal cost remains unaffected. So the imposition of a lump-sum tax has the effect of reducing monopoly profit from APRT to APBC. The entire burden of the tax will be borne by the monopolist himself. He cannot shift any part of it to his customers at any stage by raising the price and reducing output. Since the research papers writing, monopolist’s marginal cost curve and the marginal revenue curve remain unaffected by the tax imposition, any change in the existing price- output combination would only lead to losses. The government can also reduce monopoly profits by levying a specific or a per unit tax on the monopolist’s product. A per unit tax on monopoly output has the effect of shifting both the average and marginal cost curves upward by the amount of the tax.

Figure 13 illustrates this case. AC and MC are the monopoly firm’s average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax imposition. It earns BPGK monopoly profits by orwell, selling OM quantity of the types research, product at UP price. Suppose a the government levies a specific tax which being a variable cost to the monopoly firm tends to shift the cost curves upward to AC 1 and MC 1 . The monopolist’s new equilibrium point is E 1 where the MC 1 curve cuts the MR curve. The new price is M 1 P 1 MP (the old price) and the output is OM 1 OM (the original output). In this case, the monopolist is able to shift a part of the how to be happy without, tax burden to consumers in the form of higher price and a smaller output of the product. Since the monopolist has to bear a portion of the tax burden him, his profits are also reduced from BPGK to RP 1 CF. Such a tax does not help in regulating monopoly price and output. For the higher, the demand elasticity of tax, the higher the price for the product and the lower the output. The ultimate loss will be borne by the public rather than by the monopolist. Welcome to!

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